In search of gold. Francisco de Montejo


Perhaps the vast majority of Spanish conquistadors can be described as greedy, cruel and cunning people. Simply put, Native American cultures opposed professional thugs who were ready to do anything to satisfy their own greed and desire for power. Similarly, was a native of the small Spanish city of Salamanca Francisco de Montejo. The New World attracted him with unprecedented wealth and comprehensive power.

Greed above all else

The conquest of the New World was not so easy and fast for the Spaniards as they would like. Of course, they confidently expanded their possessions, but it was still very, very far from complete conquest. The Indians, who at first seemed to be "whipping boys," showed the Europeans that they also know how to learn military craft and adapt to the enemy. But still they were much weaker. The conquest of the New World was only a matter of time. And measured in liters of spilled blood.

And here the Spaniard Francisco de Montejo also decided to take part in the “Indian Pie” section. What he did before 1514, reliable information is almost not preserved. It is known that, most likely, he was born in 1479 year in Salamanca. And in the year 1514 mentioned, in search of a better life, de Montejo went to Cuba. And in 1518, he joined the expedition of a more experienced and illustrious conquistador Juan de Grihalva. They went to the Yucatan, opened by Francisco de Cordova. Several hundred Spaniards took part in that expedition. From Yucatan, they headed west along the coast until they reached the shores of modern Mexico. De Grihalva called these lands "New Spain". The expedition managed to reach the mouth of the river Tabasco and moved on. And at the mouth of the Rio Blanco, the Spaniards met the Aztecs. They already knew about the strangers who appeared in their lands. De Grihalva behaved friendly and managed to trade well with the Indians. Then the expedition continued on its way. And only six months later they returned to Cuba.

In search of gold. Francisco de Montejo

Here, de Montejo, who, in general, didn’t show anything special on the expedition, managed to get acquainted with a much more significant figure - Hernan Cortes. And since it was Cortes who was commissioned to engage in the "mastering" of the newly discovered Mexico, de Montejo was asked to join his expedition. And he did not refuse him. And in 1519, Cortes ordered his associate responsible task - to report on the conquest of Mexico to King Carl the Fifth. And it was required to do this as beautifully and as possible. The venerable conqueror knew perfectly well about the oratorical abilities of his subordinate, therefore he chose him. And no mistake. De Montejo brilliantly coped with the task, and Cortes was greeted as a real victor. Francisco himself married Beatrice de Herrera. For some time he led a normal and boring way of life. But then financial difficulties began. De Montejo could solve them in only one way - to make a new journey to the New World. Since most of the land was already “cultivated” by other conquistadors, Francisco decided to try his luck in Yucatan. In principle, he reasoned. Since Mexico is filled with gold, why should it not be on an undeveloped peninsula? And the locals didn’t seem to differ much from the Aztecs. In general, using the location of the royal court, de Montejo managed to get permission to conquer the Yucatan. At the same time, the conquistador also received the position of Adelantado (governor) of the land not yet captured.

For Francisco, this was a fantastic career growth. In fact, he stood on the same level with the famous Cortez! True, Hernan had already conquered the Aztecs, and de Montejo only had to cope with the Maya. But this fact did not confuse him. Francisco was confidently moving towards wealth and greatness.

Hike to Yucatan

In 1527, de Montejo led a squad of four hundred soldiers and went to turn the dream into reality. In Espanyol, Francisco purchased several dozen horses and continued on his way. Soon the ships reached their destination - the eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula.

Coat of arms of Francisco de Montejo Sr.

The Spaniards knew that the Mayans inhabited those lands. They also knew that the once great civilization at the time of their arrival was in a strong decline. By the way, the leader of the military expedition was counting on this. He hoped that the Maya would not offer him serious resistance (like the Aztecs of Cortes) and would be able to seize their wealth with a little blood. But the Maya, contrary to expectations, although they were in decline, did not intend to obey the Europeans without question. True, de Montejo was surprised to learn that the Indians sympathized with Christianity. But the sense of it was still not enough.

In the new land of Francisco, the first thing he founded was the city of Salamanca de Shelha. I must say that the conquistador was the founder of several cities and they all received the name "Salamanca". Love for the little homeland de Montejo did not hide. As for the Maya, the relationship with them evolved uneasy. And the further the detachment moved deeper into the peninsula, the higher the tension. The Indians responded with a categorical refusal to peaceful persuasion to go under Spanish rule. The idea did not work with the change of religion. Maya sympathized with Christianity, but overnight they too did not burn with desire to forget their ancient gods. In general, to solve the problem "brotherly" did not work. And de Montejo got angry. Very angry. Leaving about a hundred soldiers to protect Salamanca de Schelx, he and the others went weapons to prove to the Indians the fallacy of their beliefs.

The first battle with the Maya de Montejo won easily. This was due to the lack of experience in waging wars with Europeans among these people. Firearms did their job. Conquistador managed to capture several cities of the enemy. Then followed the battle of Chawaka and Ake. And here the Spaniard was better. Maya handed over one city after another. Soon, de Montejo could boast a dozen localities that he managed to capture. True, there was nothing more to boast. Majestic palaces, impressive temples and other grand buildings - this is all that the Indians were rich with. Gold and precious stones were not. De Monteho went berserk. Cortes and other conquistadors, conquering the Indians, made huge profits, and he ... The conquered Mayans asserted that they were dying out, all that the conqueror sees now are the achievements of their distant ancestors. Accordingly, now they have nothing but stories... But Francisco did not believe. And who would believe? He was sure that the Indians were deceiving him. Gold and precious stones are there, they just hid them. But torture and demonstrative executions of the Indians did not work. Then de Montejo decided to take up the slave trade in order to get at least some profit. Maya began to resist more actively. And the conquistador unleashed a war. For the slightest disobedience, Indians were brutally murdered. And the Spaniards did not spare neither children, nor women, nor old men. Monk Diego de Landa, who accompanied de Montejo on that expedition, recalled that Francisco loved to burn people alive and set dogs on them. Especially strong resistance was given to the Spaniards in Tulum and Chetumal. Residents after the victory of de Montejo dealt with indicative cruelty. Noble men were burned, women were hung in trees, and their children were used as cargo. In general, Francisco and his soldiers behaved as “civilized” as possible. In addition, the conquistador was an adherent of tactics, when dozens and hundreds of innocent Indians were executed for the death of a Spaniard. But despite numerous conquests, de Montejo was forced to turn back. The terrible cruelty of the massacre of the Indians did not bring the desired results. Maya fought and did not intend to surrender. And the Spaniard retreated. He needed to replenish a heavily thinned squad.

Signature of Francisco de Montejo Sr.

Francisco returned to Cuba. Taking a short pause, in 1531, de Montejo once again tried to conquer the Yucatan. This time, he decided to attack the inhabitants of the peninsula from the west side. The campaign began well for the Spaniards. They managed to capture several major Mayan cities. Including their ancient cultural center - Chichen Itza. Here de Montejo decided to organize a stronghold. But a few months later, the Mayans revolted. And although Francisco managed to come with reinforcements on time, he was forced to leave these lands again. Instead, the Spaniard founded the new city and made it a stronghold. But again, de Montejo failed to quench his thirst for greed. Despite the conquered cities, he still did not see the treasure. Not justified his hopes and Chichen Itza. The ancient holy city was empty.

Bishop Diego de Landa, in the “Report on Affairs in Yucatan,” wrote: “The Indians put up with a heavy yoke of slavery. But the Spaniards kept separated their settlements in the country. However, there was no shortage of Indians who rebelled against them, to which they responded with very cruel punishments, which caused a decrease in population. They burned alive several notables in the province of Kupul, others were hanged. Information was obtained about the (agitation) of the inhabitants of Jobin, the village of Cheley. The Spaniards grabbed notables, locked them in chains and set fire to the house. They were burned alive, with the greatest inhumanity in the world. And Diego de Landa says this, that he saw a large tree near the village, on the branches of which the captain hung many Native American women, and on their feet (hung) their own children. In the same village and in the other, which is called Verey, in two leagues from there, they hanged two Indian women, one girl and another who had recently married, not for any fault, but because they were very beautiful, and feared unrest because of them in the Spanish camp, and that the Indians thought that the Spaniards were indifferent women. There is a vivid memory of these two (women) among the Indians and Spaniards, because of their great beauty and cruelty, with which they were killed. The Indians of the provinces Kochvah (Cochua) and Chektemal (Chectemal) rebelled, and the Spaniards pacified them in such a way that the two provinces, which were the most populated and filled with people, remained the most miserable in the whole country. They committed unheard-of cruelty, chopping off the noses, hands, arms and legs, breasts in women, throwing them into the deep lagoons with pumpkins tied to their legs, striking with a sword with children who did not go as fast as their mothers. If those who were led on the neck chain weakened and did not walk like others, they would have their heads cut off among others so as not to linger, unleashing them. They led a large number of captured men and women for service, treating them in the same way. Don Francisco de Montejo is said to have not committed any of these atrocities and was not present at them. On the contrary, he considered them very bad, although he could not do anything else (nothing). ”

Bishop de Landa

In 1535, de Montejo had to leave the peninsula. But two years before that he had been appointed by royal decree by the governor of Honduras. True, this gesture did not appreciate the current governor Pedro de Alvarado. Therefore, when Francisco arrived in his patrimony, a military conflict began. Victory left for de Alvarado. He put the defeated enemy in jail. Without fear for his power, Pedro began to develop the territory. Thanks to his efforts, new plantations and gold mines appeared in Honduras. But a few years later, de Montejo managed to free himself. And his eldest son helped him in this. And in 1540, Francisco managed to capture Honduras.

New attempt

In the same year, 1540, de Montejo made another attempt to capture Yucatan. And this time, luck smiled at the old conquistador. True, the main character was not he, but his son Francisco de Montejo El Moso. De Montejo, Jr. founded seven cities in Yucatan. Including Campeche and Merida.

In 1541, a detachment of five hundred Spaniards under the authority of their son de Montejo set off to destroy the last foci of Mayan resistance. Some surrendered without a fight, but at the city of Tycho the army of Indians was waiting for the conquerors. The decisive battle left for the Spaniards. When news about the victory of the Europeans spread throughout the peninsula, the morale of the Indians was finally broken. And even the leader of the most powerful province of the northern part of Yucatan, Titul Shiu, decided to surrender to the Spaniards without a fight. It was a complete victory.

In 1546, de Montejo Sr. became the full governor of Yucatan. But he did not have to enjoy power for a long time. Due to numerous conflicts with church representatives (especially with Bishop Diego de Landa) in 1550, the king ordered him to return to Spain. The old conquistador could not disobey the order. He died in the 1553 year after a long illness. He never gained fabulous wealth ...
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  1. 0
    28 July 2018 07: 36
    Since ancient times, it has become so common that it is easier for a European to steal something than to do something. So, “civilization” got into our government - they cannot do anything but rob and share ... this is a clinic. Europe glorifies its pirates and robbers - murderers, admires them and which of them stole the most - the more respect ...
    It’s enough for me to know completely about these patients that they are enemies of a truly civilized World, and not hiding behind them in order to please themselves outrages.
    1. 0
      28 July 2018 09: 01
      Quote: Boris55
      Since ancient times, it has become so common that it is easier for a European to steal something than to do something

      Do not be hypocritical, all discoveries were accompanied by the looting of the local population and with resistance to genocide. This is human nature.
      1. +2
        28 July 2018 09: 12
        Quote: Puncher
        This is human nature.

        Not. This is the nature of the beast.
        "... how did the Russian" occupiers "behave when part of North America was Russian? In the entire history of Russian America, there was only one conflict between the Russians and the Indians. The essence of the conflict was over the woman.

        The Indian leader Solano fell in love with the Russian beauty Elena Rotcheva. He kept watch and captured her and a small Russian expedition. Wishing to make Elena his wife by force, Solano kept our compatriots captive for a whole day.

        The liberation came in the form of the Spanish general Valleillo. He, with a detachment of military cavalry, completely surrounded the camp of Solano and put forward an ultimatum. If Solano did not let the Russians go, General Valleylo promised to destroy the entire tribe.

        The threat of the Spanish general had its effect, and Solano released all the prisoners. So ended the only conflict of Russian settlers from Fort Ross with the local Indians. It should be mentioned that the Russians lived with the Indians for over 20 years ... "

        Wherever the Russians come, we always pull the locals to the level of our development. We are trying to share all our knowledge. We mastered America. They conquered. This is our fundamental difference.
        1. +5
          28 July 2018 11: 39
          Quote: Boris55
          Wherever the Russians come, we always pull the locals to the level of our development. We are trying to share all our knowledge. We mastered America. They conquered. This is our fundamental difference.

          Dear Boris, you are probably just not at all aware of the Russian-Indian wars in Russian America.
          1. +1
            29 July 2018 15: 41
            He generally does not know anything. I would have wondered why a peace treaty was not signed with the Chukchi in the same Russia ...
        2. +4
          28 July 2018 15: 05
          Quote: Boris55
          and the whole history of Russian America there was only one conflict between the Russians and the Indians.

          This is in the area of ​​Fort Ross. And how many times did the ruler of Alaska Baranov have to fight with the Tlingit, in the know?
        3. +1
          28 July 2018 15: 45
          Quote: Boris55
          Wherever the Russians come, we always pull the locals to the level of our development.

          If you're talking about soldering, then yes ...
          1. 0
            28 July 2018 16: 32
            Quote: Puncher
            If you're talking about soldering, then yes ...

            At that time, Russia was the most non-drinking country in the world. including your comments are not appropriate. About arrogant Saxons:
    2. +1
      28 July 2018 11: 23
      it is not entirely interesting to read such reading matter because you don’t know how everything was in reality. Pavel Zhukov himself invented everything, wrote off the roofing felts from what source? The narrative itself is set forth primitively, without facts, without similarities, a typical propaganda version of the retelling in order to score free information space.

      On some old maps of that time, the Yucatan Peninsula is called -Lucatan, but the peninsula itself is curved, just like a bow, therefore the name LUKatan is very logical, as well as the famous Lukomorie Pushkin.
      On the map, not only Lukatan Peninsula is remarkable, but also the names of the cities of Tula, Kakatula. It seems that the Indians did not enter the Indo-European language space, therefore it is strange.
      Map 1643g Rossasio

      -Tula-Hidden, Plunged-Sleeve / Casket
      -Talia-tightened, -Italy / Antalya-tightened.
      On other maps you can see a lot of interesting things, in central America, in the place of the future Panama, we see the Darius and the Great Daria River, the Daria Gulf.
      A gift is in Russian, despite all sorts of speculations about the "ancient" Persian king Darius.

      1. +1
        29 July 2018 15: 57
        Do you remember, promised us an interesting article? Or are they waiting for the promised three years?
        1. 0
          29 July 2018 16: 09
          Quote: kalibr
          Do you remember, promised us an interesting article? Or are they waiting for the promised three years?

          as usual, they didn’t miss the article, like there are a lot of mistakes, the usual excuse, although this is certainly an ideology. I will try to post the article on LJ.
          1. 0
            30 July 2018 18: 32
            And what is LJ? And the "usual excuse", and you do not make many mistakes just everything.
    3. +2
      28 July 2018 11: 38
      Quote: Boris55
      Since ancient times, it has become so common that it is easier for a European to steal something than to do something.

      Actually, this is characteristic of all the peoples of the Earth. For Europeans, to a lesser extent.
      1. 0
        28 July 2018 11: 40
        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
        For Europeans, to a lesser extent.

        Tell this to the natives of the Americas, the natives of Africa and Australia.
        1. 0
          29 July 2018 15: 43
          And Central Asia, which the aborigines of the sailors of the future Admiral Makarov shot from mitraliasis ...
  2. 0
    28 July 2018 07: 58
    People die for metal
    Sweeping everything and everything in its path
    And going for any crime
    1. 0
      28 July 2018 08: 42
      Quote: Albatroz
      People die for metal

      False targets give rise to false illusions. Walking through the desert, you will take kurdyuk with water, not a bag of gold.
    2. +1
      28 July 2018 09: 02
      Quote: Albatroz
      People die for metal

      Not only metal, skins of sea otters for example ...
  3. +1
    28 July 2018 11: 37
    Dear Pavel, this is very good material, thank you! Of course, not without flaws, but it really turned out better than your articles about the war in the Pacific Ocean.
  4. +1
    29 July 2018 15: 54
    Quote: Boris55
    Russia was the most non-drinking country in the world

    It is when?
  5. +1
    29 July 2018 15: 56
    Quote: Boris55
    Wherever the Russians come, we always pull the locals to the level of our development. We are trying to share all our knowledge.

    Only then something no one says thank you, but on occasion rather separated.
  6. 0
    29 July 2018 17: 39
    “Francisco Montech did not commit one of these cruelties” and was not present with them “it was the same with Heinrich Himler. He could faint at the sight of blood, but in reality he was worse than Satan.
    Conquistadors are wild dogs: they carry sins and carts, but at that time - it was the usual time. Although some conquistadors were curious people and did a lot for science
    1. +1
      30 July 2018 20: 06
      Quote: Royalist
      Conquistadors are wild dogs: they carry sins and carts,

      That's just funny - what kind of sin then on the same Aztecs and other peoples of Mesoamerica, who practiced mass human sacrifices, and whose activities the conquistadors stopped? freight wagon?
  7. The comment was deleted.

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