The first Russian Antarctic expedition. Part of 1

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16 July 1819 Kronstadt was left by two sloops, Vostok and Mirny, under the command of captain 2 of the rank of Faddey Faddeevich Bellingshausen and Lieutenant Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev. Thus began the Russian expedition, which aims to search for the southern continent, whose presence has so far caused disputes that are not without acuteness and tension in the global geographic environment.

The first Russian Antarctic expedition. Part of 1

The sloop "Vostok"




Mainland question mark

The possible presence of a large continent in southern waters since ancient times occupied the minds of scientists. Ever since ancient times, this alleged territory was generically called Terra Australis Incognita, or Unknown Southern Land. In different historical periods of massive outlines of land located south of the known part of Africa, appeared on the maps and drawings of geographers and sailors. One of the first such images is attributed to Ptolemy.


Map of Orontium Phineus


This hypothesis was not overlooked in the Middle Ages. On the map of the French mathematician and cartographer Oroncius Phineus, compiled in the 1532 year, one can clearly distinguish the outlines of the not yet open Antarctica, devoid of ice cover. The mainland is replete with rivers and mountains. It is also believed that the compiled by the Turkish admiral and pirate Piri-reis in the 20-s. The XVI century maps depict a fragment of the Antarctic continent.


Map of Philip Buache


In 1737, the full member of the French Academy of Sciences, Philippe Buach, published a map of the world, where a vast layer of land was depicted on the southern field. The inland sea divided this land into two sub-continents, lying to the west and east of the line where the Transantarctic Mountains are now located. Questions about the sources and documents used by these and other scholars, depicting "Terra Australis Incognita" on their maps, remain open to this day.

For centuries, European mariners, busy finding ways to rich in spicy countries, had no time for searching for some unknown southern continents, the location and existence of which was under considerable question. Caravels pioneers moved along the African coast to the south, crossed the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, but the distant southern latitudes so far remained unattended.

The testimony of the later Florentine astronomer and geographer Amerigo Vespucci, who participated in the Portuguese expedition of another Florentine Gonçal Coelho in 1501 – 1502, is preserved. In April, 1502, two expedition caravels, moving from the coast of Brazil, reached 52 degrees of southern latitude, where they discovered rocky land.

According to Vespucci, travelers are faced with an incredible cold for them, which they, natives of warm countries, literally could not tolerate. It was foggy weather, and the duration of the night in these latitudes reached 15 hours. Having traveled along the coast about 20 for miles and finding no suitable place for the anchorage, the Portuguese ships, to the general relief of the teams, turned back.

What kind of land the expedition discovered, going so far south, remains a mystery to this day. Some researchers believe that the distance, estimated by Vespucci, the distance of 500 leagues (about 3 thousand kilometers) was calculated incorrectly, and the travelers reached the island of Trindadi. It is an island of volcanic origin, part of the Trindadi e Martin Vas, an archipelago that belongs to Brazil. More daring assumptions allow us to cautiously assume that the Portuguese flotilla could reach the Antarctic island of South Georgia.

His opinion about the existence of the southern continent at the end of the XVI century was expressed by such an authoritative navigator as pirate Francis Drake. Fortune and thirst for accomplishments by no means of a geographical nature brought this honorable gentleman of fortune far to the south. He is honored by the discovery of the strait between Tierra del Fuego and the South Shetland Islands, known as the Drake Strait. Returning to England, Francis Drake argued that no Terra Australian incognita existed, since there was nothing beyond the South Shetland Islands but an endless desert ocean.

The first purposeful attempt to find the southern continent was made by the British only in the last quarter of the XVIII century. Mirages, seen by various navigators from the sides of their ships in sub-Antarctic latitudes, and persistently circulating rumors that "there is something there," prompted the British Admiralty to confirm or refute the theoretical conjectures with practical steps.

Of course, the expedition was not just a way to test various assumptions and bikes. Enlightened mariners were very concerned about maritime activity in the southern waters of the French royal fleet and sought to maintain parity. The unexplored Terra Australis Incognita was required to be discovered and, if successful, to conduct research for possible colonization.

An experienced sailor James Cook, who returned in 1771 from his world tour, was put at the head of the enterprise. Under his command, a new ship, the Resolution, entered. The second expeditionary ship, Adventure, was commanded by a no less experienced officer, Tobias Furno, subordinate to Cook. To carry out the calculations, the chronometer was transferred to the expedition for the first time in the history of navigation - a technical novelty of those years, which cost a lot of money.

In July, 1772 Resolushen and Adventure left Plymouth and headed for South Africa. In late October, they reached the Cape of Good Hope Kapstad located in the region. Having replenished supplies of water and provisions, the expedition moved south at the end of November. At the beginning of December, the ships hit a violent storm, the temperature began to drop, and on December 10, the first floating ice was noticed from the board. Gradually, the amount of ice increased, the temperature reached −3 degrees Celsius.


Cook ships in the ice of the Antarctic


Despite the fact that the ships often went in a strip of fog, Cook continued to move south, maneuvering between ice floes and bypassing the ice fields. The first signs of scurvy appeared among the crews. 17 January 1773, the expedition crossed the Southern Arctic Circle for the first time. Despite all the efforts, no signs of land were found. Hope to meet the unknown southern mainland, and even suitable for colonization, thawed every day.

In the evening of January 17, the lookers at the Resolshen grotto-mast saw nothing ahead of them but a solid ice sheet. The search for the passage among the white hedge did not bring success. It was already the middle of summer in the southern hemisphere, the teams were tired, and Cook decided to retreat. February 8 ships lost each other in the fog, but on this account Tobias Furno had clear instructions. Carefully bypassing the ice, the Resolutions left inhospitable waters and at the end of March 1773 anchored in New Zealand. Later Adventure arrived there.

For three and a half months, having overcome many thousands of miles, the British did not see any land. After completing his second world tour in 1775 and returning to England, James Cook delivered his verdict to the hypothesis of the possible existence of the Terra Australis Incognita: there is no continent in polar polar latitudes.

In the book dedicated to his travels, Cook was categorical. He argued that no one could penetrate south beyond him. There is no continent in these harsh waters, and if there is any land, then only in the form of small islands near the South Pole, which are not only unsuitable for colonization, but also, in the opinion of the British traveler, absolutely inaccessible.

Part of the scientific community finally calmed down, all the more so that James Cook did a lot to research not a hypothetical, but really realistic Australia, actually creating the prerequisites for mastering it by the UK. After all, half a century later, such categorical statements by the English navigator returned to the idea. Often, however, geographical discoveries were made not by the orders of the Admiralty, even if it was British, but by the will of the elements.

At the beginning of 1819, the British Williams commercial brig commanded by Captain William Smith was transported from Montevideo to Valparaiso with cargo. At Cape Horn, the ship was thrown back by a storm far to the south, and on February 19 rocky ground was seen from its side. William Smith in the fall of the same year, making the same flight, he decided to check what he saw. October 14 1819, he again approached the land he discovered. After examining the coast, Captain Smith and his companions disembarked and gave the island they discovered the name of New South Britain. Subsequently, Smith was persuaded to rename the island to New South Scotland.

Smith and his sailors were the first to enter the land of Antarctica. But the continent, now called Antarctica, continued to remain unknown. However, in such a complete mystery of the situation he had only to be for a short time.

“We should not allow the glory of such an enterprise to be taken away from us”

Of course, not only the enlightened seafarers or their long-standing rivals on the other side of the Channel were absorbed by the search for new lands and the study of the vast expanses of the oceans. Over this problem worked in Russia. The ideas that were born in the silence of cabinets and auditoriums hung with maps, often moved in the process of their development and implementation to the shaky decks of ships and into cramped closet cabins.

Russian sailors mastered the northern seas, looking for comfortable ways to the rich countries of the East. True, from time to time they had to be distracted by alternate wars with Turkey or Sweden. The establishment of the Russian-American company at the end of the 18th century, the growing importance of the Far Eastern borders of the Empire naturally led to the intensification of sea voyages with scientific and not only goals.

Already at the beginning of the 19th century, during the reign of Emperor Alexander I, Russian navigators carried out at least seven major sea expeditions and voyages to the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean from 1803 to 1819. Produced many studies of geographical, oceanographic, naturalistic nature. In 1818, the round-the-world voyage of the brig Rurik, commanded by Lieutenant Otto Evstafevich von Kotzebue, started in 1815, was successfully completed. As a result, around the 400 of new, previously unknown islands were discovered in the Pacific Ocean basin, a survey was made of the coast, and archaeological excavations were carried out.

However, despite fairly intensive research, vast areas of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans remained unexplored, especially in areas south of the Arctic Circle. All this unknown area was then called the South Ocean. It is already hard to guess who exactly had the idea to send an expedition in order to investigate this white spot that remained indefinite on the map. Perhaps this concept originated to one degree or another with several Russian navigators.

The first mention of such a project is found in the correspondence of Ivan Fedorovich Krusenstern, the most famous and authoritative captain of 1 rank in naval circles, with the then Maritime Minister Marquis Ivan Ivanovich de Traverse. In a letter dated 7 December 1818 of the year, Kruzenshtern - in response to a message about the intention to send Russian ships to the North and South Poles - asks permission to submit their views on the organization of the expedition.

It should be noted that in 1814, in the process of preparing for the voyage, the Rurik brig under the command of Lieutenant Kotzebue Ivan Fedorovich drew up detailed instructions for this company, based on its wealth of experience. After this exchange of views, de Traversay instructed Kruzenshtern and several other authoritative seamen to set forth their views on this matter.

Among the latter was the outstanding hydrograph Vice-Admiral Gavrila Andreevich Sarychev. He was not only a polar explorer and archaeologist, but also considered the first Russian marine painter. By the time described, Sarychev was an honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and a member of the Admiralty Board. Subsequently, in the reign of Emperor Nicholas I, Gavril Andreevich Sarychev will occupy a unique and unique position in the history of the Russian fleet - the hydrograph general of the Main Naval Staff.

An important memorandum for the planned expedition was also a memorandum of captain-lieutenant Otto Evstafyevich von Kotzebue returning from circumnavigation. His Rurik arrived in Kronstadt at the beginning of August 1818. In this document, called "Brief Review of the Plan of the Prospective Expedition," among other things, Kotzebue recommended sending not one ship, but two.

In March, 1819 came the turn of Ivan Fedorovich Kruzenshtern to express his opinion in detail. From Revel, where he then lived and worked on the compilation of his “Atlas of the South Sea”, a memo was sent, drawn up in fourteen pages, along with a cover letter. Ivan Fyodorovich frankly admitted that he himself would have willingly headed one of the expeditions, but his health did not allow him to take a place on the bridge. However, Krusenstern is ready to help the future leader with all his knowledge and experience.

Like Kotzebue, Ivan Fedorovich insisted on sending two ships to the North Pole and two to the South Pole. The navigator paid particular attention to the latter direction, since, as he believed, there it was necessary to “believe everything wrong in the southern half of the Great Ocean”. In conclusion, the captain of the 1 rank Kruzenshtern emphasized the importance of the state and the prestige factor of the future expedition. “We should not allow the glory of such an enterprise to be taken away from us,” he wrote.

Given the importance of the future enterprise, Ivan Fedorovich proposed to move the organization of the expedition to the next, 1820 year, because he insisted on the thoroughness and regularity of its preparation. Minister de Traversay was not thrilled with the note received. In particular, he was not satisfied with the transfer of its beginning.

Krusenstern proposed the formation of two "divisions" or detachments, each of which would consist of two ships. One "division" was intended for the study of the North Pole, and the other, respectively, of the South. The southern detachment had to penetrate as far as possible to the South Pole and finally clarify the question of the existence or absence of a continent or any other lands there. The northern detachment was ordered to follow the Bering Strait and further along the northern coast of Alaska and Canada and try to go through the so-called. The Northwest Passage, which by that time was widely spoken in international geographic and naval circles.

Marquis de Traverse’s dissatisfaction with Kruzenshtern's captain 1 rank was also caused by the fact that the expedition project was highly approved by Emperor Alexander I in February 1819, and at the top began to be heard high and authoritative opinions about the extreme desirability of ships sailing not next year , and already this. Thus, the preparation of the expedition, thus, there was extremely little time.

preliminaries


Faddey Faddeevich Bellingshausen


The first thing started on the personnel issue. And he, as often happens, was solved with the creak and the crash of polar ice. The captain of the 1 rank, Kruzenshtern, considered the most suitable for the post of commander of the southern division experienced sailor captain of the 2 rank Vasily Mikhailovich Golovnin, but he was currently circumnavigating the globe, commanding the sloop Kamchatka. Due to his absence, Kruzenshtern recommended attracting his former slavlavatele captain 2-th rank Faddey Faddeevich Bellingshausen, who at that time commanded the frigate "Flora", which was part of the Black Sea Fleet. According to Ivan Fyodorovich, Captain-Lieutenant Otto Evstafevich von Kotzebue, who had recently returned from an expedition, could lead the northern division.

Of course, the high authorities listened to an experienced sailor and did everything in their own way. The commander of the Jupiter battleship, Captain-Commander Makar Ivanovich Ratmanov, was appointed commander of the southern detachment, who during his round-the-world Krusenstern expedition on the Nadezhda and Neva sloops was his senior officer. The second division was assigned to Lieutenant-Commander Mikhail Nikolayevich Vasilyev. Captain-Commander Ratmanov, whose health after the shipwreck he experienced at Cape Skagen left much to be desired, asked to replace him and put forward the candidacy of Faddey Faddeevich Bellingshausen.

The material side of the expedition, first of all, what concerns the ships, was also solved not without problems and in a hurry. Since the decision to send both divisions to sail in 1819, was not particularly disputed, in view of the height at which it was taken, the construction of special ships intended for navigation in ice had to be abandoned. The search began from what was available.

For the northern division, the sloops "Discovery" and "Well-intentioned" were selected. A large sloop Vostok (displaced 985 tons, 28 guns) and the newest, built in the same 1818 year at the Olonetsky shipyard, Mirny (displacement) were assigned to the expedition departing to the southern latitudes. 530 tons, 20 guns). These ships were not of the same type and had different ratings from the sailors.


Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev


Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev, in his letters to his colleagues, complained that the "Vostok" was not sufficiently suitable for such a dangerous enterprise, had insufficient capacity and narrowness of premises for both officers and crew. Vostok was part of a series of sloops of the same type, its builder was an Englishman in the Russian service engineer Veniamin Fomich Stokke.

The choice fell on the Vostok only because the Kamchatka ship of the same type, commanded by the captain of the 2 rank Mikhail Golovnin, was on a world tour, although Golovnin subsequently criticized his ship. Bellingshausen did not hide his skepticism about the "East", noting his excessively high spars, poor quality of the hull and the materials from which it was made. The captain of the 2 rank directly accused engineer Stokke of dishonest attitude to his duties. The sloop was built of raw wood and did not have the copper plating of the underwater hull. The hull was quickly installed in the Kronstadt dock in preparation for sailing. For a long time, the crew noted that the Vostok was leaking, its hull had to be constantly strengthened and repaired. By the end of the expedition the state of the sloop was deplorable.


The boat "Peace"


Unlike the "Vostok", the second expeditionary ship of the southern division, Mirny, was distinguished for its excellent seagoing characteristics. The project of this ship was made by the famous Russian ship engineer Ivan Vasilyevich Kurepanov. Its builder was the shipmaster Yakov Anikeevich Kolodkin. Initially, this ship was listed in the fleet lists as a transport "Ladoga", but it was decided to retrofit it. Renamed the "Peace", the former transport has undergone a thorough alteration. The pine steering wheel was replaced with oak; additional hull mounts and more robust rigging were installed. The Mirny had a second trim, was less fast than the Vostok, but its commander, Lieutenant Lazarev, highly appreciated the good seaworthy qualities of his ship.

The leaders of the expedition reacted negatively to the decision of De Traversay to send ships of different types sailing, since this created certain problems, primarily the difference in speed and the danger of losing each other.

The crews of the ships were staffed exclusively by volunteers. It is noteworthy that among the officers and sailors there was not a single foreigner. True, two German scientists were invited to the expedition, who were to come on board in Copenhagen, but at the last moment they refused to participate in the enterprise. On the ships, they regretted that because of the Germans, who were then “frightened”, two Russian students who had specialized in natural history and rushed into a distant voyage were denied a place.

Faddey Faddeevich Bellingshausen took with him from his former duty station his senior officer, Lieutenant Commander Ivan Ivanovich Zavadovsky. The most respected among the teams was Lieutenant Konstantin Petrovich Torson. During World War 1812, Warrant Officer Thorson, then serving on the frigate Amphitrida, was the first sailor to be awarded the Order of St. Anne of the 3rd class. He was a very competent, courageous and at the same time modest officer. Participating in the Decembrist uprising, Thorson was convicted to hard labor in 1826, and died in 1852 in Selenginsk.

Despite the haste of selection and completion of crews, both Bellingshausen and Lazarev noted the high moral and professional qualities of their subordinates, which was repeatedly confirmed in a dangerous voyage. Together with the sailors, the professor of Kazan University astronomer Ivan Mikhailovich Simonov and the artist, later academician of painting, Pavel Nikolaevich Mikhailov, shared the sailors. Hieromonk Dionysius was present on board the Mirny as a clergyman.

Providing everything necessary, despite the tight deadlines for training, was at a quite high level. The ships were adequately equipped with navigation and astronomical equipment. Since the overwhelming majority of it was not produced in Russia, they did not spare the funds and made the appropriate purchases while stationary in Portsmouth. Subsequently, the British noted that, despite the still somewhat dismissive attitude towards chronometers in the royal navy, in the Russian navy these instruments were already included in the standard equipment.

A large amount of provisions was loaded on board the sloops, which included anti-scorching agents in the form of coniferous essences, lemons, sauerkraut, dried and canned vegetables. To counter intestinal diseases in hot climates, there was a large supply of red wine that was added to the water, and to warm the sailors working on the masts while following the Antarctic waters, rum.


Telegraph signals for landlord gentlemen, compiled by A. N. Butakov in the image of the Maritime Telegraph Telegraph for the Fleet


Careful hygiene was strictly prescribed to the staff: regular washing in an improvised bath, washing of linen, cleaning and ventilation of the premises were carried out. For communication between the sloops, there was a special flag telegraph invented by Russian naval engineer captain-lieutenant Alexander Nikolaevich Butakov. For the compilation and recognition of signals, the “Marine Telegraph Dictionary” compiled by him was used. Was not overlooked and leisure team. Before sailing aboard the sloops, a carefully selected extensive library was loaded, including a large amount of scientific literature on geography, geodesy, oceanography, astronomy and other disciplines.

A total of 117 people were aboard the Vostok, the crew of the Mirny consisted of 73 people. 4 (16) July 1819, the ships left their native Kronstadt and headed west. The first Russian Antarctic expedition began.

To be continued ...
25 comments
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  1. Cat
    +6
    23 July 2018 06: 14
    Yummy, obozhams ...!
    1. +2
      23 July 2018 08: 33
      Quote: Kotischa
      Yummy, obozhams ...!
      Greetings, Vlad!
      Glad article! That week I was at the Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic.
  2. +3
    23 July 2018 06: 28
    Russian glory.
    1. +1
      23 July 2018 10: 05
      In St. Petersburg there is Bering Street and the Admiral Lazarev embankment.
      Of course, the following names are known to everyone: the Bellingshausen Sea, the Lazarev Sea, the Bering Sea, the Bering Strait, Bering Island, Chirikov Island, Chichagov Island, Lisyansky Island, Lisyansky Peninsula, Kruzenshtern Strait, Kruzenshtern Island, Cape Dezhnev.
      In 1871, the first Russian battleship Admiral Lazarev was launched at the Baltic Shipyard in St. Petersburg. There were also 3 more large ships of the Navy. In different cities of the Russian Federation there are monuments and busts. There is an Aeroflot plane "---" "M. Lazarev "".
      1. 0
        7 October 2018 23: 33

        The house where Mikhail Lazarev was born in Vladimir. The corner of the Great Moscow and St. George
  3. +3
    23 July 2018 08: 21
    Ivan Fedorovich insisted on sending two ships to the North and two to the South Pole. The seafarer paid special attention to the latter direction, since, as he believed, there was a need “believe everything is wrong в southern half of the great ocean»

    So here, no more, no less than the polo-ocean to check and investigate!
    What country is such and scale! good
  4. +5
    23 July 2018 08: 41
    "At the dawn of foggy youth" was familiar with one of the descendants of Lazarev. He was very proud of kinship. There is something.
  5. +2
    23 July 2018 09: 55
    "James Cook issued his own verdict on the possible existence of the Terra Australis Incognita: no mainland exists in the polar South latitudes. "
    I allow myself to restore historical justice. Cook did not deny the existence of Antarctica, the author is mistaken.
    “I will not deny that there can be a continent or a significant land near the pole. On the contrary, I am convinced that such a land is there and it is possible that we saw part of it ... These are the lands doomed by Nature to eternal cold, deprived of the heat of sunlight. I don’t have words to describe them. Such are the lands that we discovered. But what should be the countries located further south ... If anyone finds determination and perseverance to resolve this issue and penetrates further south, "I will not envy the glory of his discoveries. But I must say that his discoveries will bring little benefit to the world."
    James Cook. Travel to the South Pole and around the world. M. OGIZ. 1948 according to the English edition of Cook's notes of 1784
    1. Cat
      +4
      23 July 2018 15: 19
      Cook is not so simple.
      The references cited by you are being circulated by English-language publications as proof of the primacy of the discovery of Antarctica by British subjects. But let's read carefully!
      "I will not deny that near the pole may be continent or significant land. On the contrary I am convincedthat such land is there and it is possible that we saw part of it... This is the land doomed by Nature to an eternal cold, deprived of the heat of sunlight. I have no words to describe them. These are the lands that we have discovered. But what kind of countries should be located even further south ... If anyone finds determination and perseverance to resolve this issue and penetrates further south to me, I will not envy the glory of his discoveries. But I must say that his discoveries will bring little benefit to the world. "

      Maybe, I am convinced, maybe these are the words of a person who is unsure of himself and his eyes. To be fair, Cook showed himself to be an honest and courageous navigator who did not need someone else's fame. A significant example is the name of the strait between Asia and America named after Bereng. From there, on British maps, all the names of the islands of Bear, Seal, etc.
      Given Cook's report on his polar expedition, he asserted that there was no land in the south. I think he would not lie to the British Parliament.
      The campaign of the sloops of the East and Mirny is nothing more than a scientific justification and proof of the existence of the southern mainland. Not some land, a large island, but the mainland !!!
      Although it is useless to wait for consent and approval from British and other scientists (in the primacy of the justified discovery by the Russians of Antarctica). But before they squeeze their underpants, than they will take a single step !!!
      1. +4
        23 July 2018 15: 35
        You, Vladislav, as in many cases, using limited information, are breaking through the open door.
        In Britain, NO ONE CHALLENGES the discovery of Antarctica at Bellingshausen. From the word "completely."
        In addition, I did not accidentally give a link to the source. 1948 year. The fight against cosmopolitanism. It was then that the joke about Russia, the birthplace of elephants, was born. I have many books of that era where, contrary to everything, everyone opened in Russia. So do not look for a black cat in a dark room. This theory of a global conspiracy with a comprehensive hostile environment is not the best version of the worldview. I was in Britain. You, apparently, were there on TV and on articles on VO.
        1. Cat
          +3
          23 July 2018 17: 54
          Unlike you, I participated in scientific and practical seminars on the subject of the British Academy of Sciences under the auspices of the National Geography from 2008 to 2012. in St. Petersburg and Moscow. So I heard about the preponderance of British lions firsthand. Let it be translated.
          So you are right, the British who first discovered Antarctica have no problems, the answer is obvious D. Cook.
          The fact that Cook himself did not take responsibility and the laurels of the discoverer of the southern mainland. Modern British scientists are not embarrassed. I do not dispute this primacy, but I say that the sailors of the Russian sloops Mirny and Vostok put an end to the debate about the southern mainland.
          By the way, the same leapfrog with the Americas was discovered by Columbus, as it were, and they bear the name Amego Vespucci.
          Now your attack is about whether I have the opportunity to visit the British Geographical Society? Well, somehow it suited me to this day that they were with us, and not we with them!
          However, it was not in vain that I mentioned the Chinese in a post above, they have a completely different point of view! Does the school curriculum spell out that America, Africa, and Antarctica were discovered? Drum roll - the Chinese. So the coast of Antarctica was the first to see perhaps the indigenous Patagonian, who on a boat brought to the South Ocean. And perhaps he was a descendant of those whose ancestors successively discovered North and South America by crossing the Bering Strait 12 years ago.
          1. +2
            23 July 2018 19: 39
            Could you give excerpts from English sources, where Cook is called the discoverer of Antarctica. Because even the British Vicki considers Bellingshausen as such.
            On 27 January 1820 a Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev discovered an ice shelf at Princess Martha Coast that later became known as the Fimbul Ice Shelf. Bellingshausen and Lazarev became the first explorers to see and officially discover the land of Antarctica continent.
            And the South-Pole website is of the same opinion.
            1820: In January, Russian Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen becomes the first person to see the Antarctic continent (January 27).
            I deliberately cite publicly available resources that can be quickly checked. Nevertheless, in special English-language literature, not everyone is quickly oriented.
            1. +1
              23 July 2018 20: 49
              Well, let's both of you quarrel and it will be completely hurt! It will remain for me and Mikkado to become reciprocal and the democruch on the site will triumph!
              1. +2
                23 July 2018 21: 10
                We do not swear, we argue, not turning to the individual.
                1. +1
                  23 July 2018 21: 42
                  That's when Vlad confirms, I agree. In the meantime, I observe: "Vengeance is mine, I will repay it!"
                2. Cat
                  +3
                  23 July 2018 22: 01
                  Dear Anton, everything is fine!
                  I will be on vacation to scan booklets and brochures. It is useless to argue with Viktor Nikolaevich, he strokes with one hand, and kicks with the other. And sometimes I notice that we are talking about the same thing, even the theses are the same, but the conclusions are different. I’ll say in my ear, I even have a suspicion that he manages to rivet “-” instead of pluses. Since first I see his nickname I put "+", and then I read! Victor, on the contrary, first reads, analyzes, writes a comment and figs less often falls under the tail than on a mustache!
                  So I'm used to it and not offended.
                  According to the British Wiki, there were smiles of Russian patriots, native English speakers, and part-time hackers !!! I wonder what is written about D. Cook?
                  1. +2
                    23 July 2018 22: 12
                    I’m getting stubborn in your description, gloomy and ungrateful, with a tiny gingerbread in one hand and a hefty club in the other and huge boots. Yeah, you have to start working on yourself.
                  2. +2
                    23 July 2018 22: 37
                    Ok, let's go. And it’s useful to argue with Viktor Nikolaevich, the educational level is rising. Here he once said for the Norwegian partisans, and I have been collecting evidence for a year and a half that the classical guerrilla struggle in the Far North is impossible. Only in sabotage format. Despite the fact that I was born and raised there, I was familiar with one of the saboteurs.
                  3. +2
                    23 July 2018 23: 36
                    Yeah, about the patriots ruling the British Vicki - it smiled.
                    And about Cook - open the Encyclopedia Britannica - it also says that he did not find Antarctica. Or is it also the tricks of the patriots?
                    1. Cat
                      +2
                      24 July 2018 06: 11
                      With Britannica ate! And rightly so.
                      About Russian patriots - hackers, so they, according to the American Themis Trump, have chosen for the presidency of the USA, and you are talking about some British Encyclopedia. I think soon we will learn from its pages that Russia rules the seas!
                      To be honest, I’m interested in what is written in Britannica about the Russian campaign of the “East” and “Peaceful”?
  6. BAI
    +2
    23 July 2018 15: 15
    The article somehow gives the impression that before this expedition in the fleets of the world in general and in the Russian fleet in particular, there was no system of inter-ship communication and signaling, although this is not so (of course).

    In 1720, Peter I published the Maritime Charter (“The Book of the Charter of the Maritime Regarding Everything Regarding Good Governance when the Fleet was at Sea”), in which a separate chapter was devoted to signals in the fleet, as well as a special table of signal flags for controlling ships and galleys . In this case, the signal flags were divided into two groups. To control the sailing ships, 51 flags and 14 pennants were used, and the rowing galley fleet was controlled by 48 flags and 17 pennants. Then, in Russia, Russian sailors D. Ya. Laptev, A.I. Nagaev, M.K. Makarov and others developed special signal books.
    The favorite of Paul I did a lot - Admiral G.G. Kushelev. (His "Charter .." was canceled by Alexander I.

    Butakov worked based on English experience:
    In 1804, A.N. Butakov, who at that time served as a volunteer in the English navy, found himself on a ship under the command of Admiral Deckers off the coast of the island of Santa Domingo. “One morning,” A. Butakov later recalled, “the admiral tells me that the artillery officer N, on the Hercules ship, was dead, and therefore the proposed hunting with a gun on the shore could not be fulfilled. Such news seemed incomprehensible to me , for we had no communication with that ship. To my question to the admiral how he knew it, without referring to the bastard, he replied that they had learned by telegraph. "By telegraph? How is that? I could not believe it: I thought the admiral "I’ll be joking. However, the admiral showed me the telegraph book and the use of it. From that very moment, you can say, an irresistible hunt settled in me to learn the telegraph in more detail and adapt it to our language." In the end, A. N. Butakov managed to access the telegraph book (its author was H. Popem) and translate it into Russian.


    In 1817, the book "Negotiating Telegraph" was also translated into Russian.

    Therefore, Butakov created his flag telegraph not from scratch.
    1. Cat
      +3
      23 July 2018 18: 03
      Butakov, did not limit himself to copying the Negotiating Telegraph, but brought him to his needs, having seriously unified, standardized and optimized. In addition to the needs of the landowners, not only the ultramodern innovations of the "English fleet" were taken into account, but also the peculiarities of the teams of repetitive ships of the Russian fleet. By the way, where about mass literacy and the struggle with it there was still a century!
      1. -1
        24 July 2018 14: 46
        Too shy to ask. Why did the landlords need a flag telegraph?
    2. +1
      23 July 2018 20: 35
      Thanks for the addition. I didn’t know about it. Once I met information that Peter 1 copied the Dutch communication system with ships, and how did communication develop further?
      1. BAI
        +1
        23 July 2018 21: 03
        Oh, it's a long story. The development of the flag semaphore led to the fact that the description of the decryption of one signal reached seven pages. The value of the flag was determined not only by the color and shape, but also by the place in the sequence of flags (not to be confused with the signal flags of the signalist). All further development sought to simplify, expressed in the code of signals of the Navy of the USSR (it sounds like this from memory).