Vikings at home (part of 1)

Peaceful to me smerdy
In the peaceful field are lovely.
(Sigurd the Crusader. The Poetry of the Skalds. Translation by S. V. Petrov)

Finds in Oseberg and Gokstad shed light on the way of life of the rich and powerful, but tell little about the everyday life of ordinary Vikings. And since they built their houses from wood, there is little left of them, except for the pits and ditches, by which their dimensions can be determined. Nowadays, thanks to the hard work of archaeologists, it was possible to find out how farmers and villagers lived in Scandinavia during the Viking campaigns; and it seems that those who stayed at home at that time differed much less wild disposition than those who went across the sea. In any case, they lived by their work, and not by robbery, and were very skillful and hardworking people.

This rune-stoned stone from Hillersje, Sweden, is one of the most remarkable examples of runic writing from the time of the Vikings (more than 5000 runestones were found). The runes, wriggling intricate serpentine, talk about a woman who inherited the estate of his daughter. This message confirms one of the peculiarities of Viking social life, distinguished by liberalism, exceptional for that time, - the right of women to own property.

Of course, the discoveries of gold things and jewelry are always pleasant, but the carbonized grain and bones of people and animals are much more important for science. Not a single opportunity has been left unused. For example, in Denmark, scientists excavated a site that in the Viking Age covered sand deposits and found footprints of farmers, traces of wheels of carts and furrows left by the plow under it. Underwater research has further expanded our knowledge of the life of the Vikings. In Hedeby (Denmark), even brushes were made from the bottom of the harbor for brushing boats, made of ... pieces of old Viking shipbuilders' clothes. And it gave information about how the Vikings dressed. It is clear that the cut of clothes was not found out, but what they learned from the fabric was ...

The long house of the Viking Age. Modern reconstruction.

That is, it became obvious that while some Scandinavians made sea voyages and fought in a foreign land, others provided themselves with food not with raids, but with livestock and agriculture. They were engaged in hunting and fishing, collecting wild plants, honey and eggs. Own land was enough, moreover, that the farmers themselves worked tirelessly. The surrounding lands covered the forest. And in order to win new plowing areas from him, it was necessary to cut down trees and clear them of stones, which were often put in small pyramids, which for a long time did not give rest to archaeologists - what are they for? Meanwhile, the stones were simply piled up as the farmer plowed his plot. Moreover, in mountainous Norway, people cherished every piece of land suitable for plowing.

Boiler for cooking. National Museum, Copenhagen.

Climatologists and paleobotanists managed to determine that in the Viking Age in Scandinavia it was several degrees warmer than before and after this time. The successful development of agriculture naturally led to population growth and the development of new lands. For a long time, the measure of wealth was sacks of grain and the number of livestock, which, on the one hand, gave rise to competition between landowners, who wanted to have new plots, and, on the other, outbreaks of violence from the poor, who seemed unfair to this situation at all times. There was nowhere to go this way, and they willingly joined the teams of the yarl - the sea kings, and went for riches to a foreign land.

Vikings at home (part of 1)

Trilobite brooch - was a favorite practical adornment of Scandinavian women of the Viking era. National Museum, Copenhagen.

How did the Scandinavian farmers live - farms or settlements? Excavations in Denmark suggest that people preferred to settle together. Although the villages were small - six to eight farms. But each farm was a self-sufficient world with a dwelling house and outbuildings.

Hammer of Thor, amulet and casting mold for it. They are most often found at other excavations during the excavation of “long houses”. National Museum, Copenhagen.

The excavations showed that Scandinavian farms usually consisted of several houses and buildings, and were always surrounded by a wall of raw stones, which were brought to the house from the surrounding fields. The house usually looked like a long, rectangular structure of logs and turf, similar to the Russian peasant hut. The walls were made of braids and covered with clay. At one end of the house there were living quarters, at the other - stalls for livestock, from where it breathed pleasant warmth in winter, but the unpleasant smell was apparently simply ignored. The open hearth was on an earthen floor at a certain elevation in the center of the residential part of the house, and gave not only heat, but also light. Although the house had fat lamps, suspended from the roof beams. Along the walls were benches where the inhabitants of a house near the fire sat, slept and worked. Pipes in such houses were absent. Her role was served by a hole in the roof.

The working day of a typical Scandinavian farm family began even before sunrise. The head of the family, along with his elder sons, went to the field to plow or sow, while the women and children stayed at home and engaged in caring for cattle, feeding poultry, and grazing goats and sheep. A lot of effort was given to animal husbandry. Therefore, in the summer they tried to stock up more hay, which was considered the main feed for livestock in winter. The grass was specially grown, then mowed and stored in barns-haylofs, regardless of the grain harvest. And, for example, in Norway, where, due to climatic conditions, the crop was not too high, it went entirely to the preparation of beer, which in its energetic value was not inferior to milk.

Necklace with Thor's hammers, Uppland. National Museum, Copenhagen.

The house was a long, barn-like room, possibly with several enclosures, in which the inhabitants of the house cooked and ate, and ate and made friends, and weaved, and grind arrows, and slept. The lighting was dim, and the walls and roof were rather smoky. Well, the farm owner was in charge of all this — the head of the family, who worked a lot, but he liked to show his wealth and generosity to his friends and neighbors, arranging feasts where meat, fish, millet cakes, served on skewers, and and all this was served in huge quantities, including beer, honey, and even wine made from berries and sour apples that had matured over the summer.

The second most important person in the house, and in many respects even the first, was the master's spouse, whose primacy and authority were not subject to any doubt. After all, the care of a huge, besides multifunctional economy required not only great work, but also a lot of experience and considerable knowledge. It was necessary to know how to treat small ailments, make sour vegetables, bake bread, make wine and brew beer, cook food, and also spin and weave. The main symbol of her power was a bunch of keys to the house, outbuildings, sheds and cellars for the bed and perishable goods. Could be among them the key to the family bath or steam room, if only, of course, the economy was wealthy enough to afford such luxury. This bundle was a symbol of her power and getting the same was the cherished dream of every then girl! The mistress of the house milked the cows, knocked down butter, made cheeses and stuffed sausages.

Master key. National Museum, Copenhagen.

She was also required to observe how her daughters perform their duties in the household: they bake cakes, cook food, repair clothes and underwear. Men came from the field usually not before noon. And then on the narrow tables in the central hall they covered the first meal of the day: it was usually porridge in wooden pots, flavored with butter, dried lamb and fresh fish - boiled or fried. After a short afternoon rest, family members continued to carry out their duties until the evening. Then at the end of the working day they ate the second time. This meal was usually no more abundant than the first, but now more beer was served.

Another key. National Museum, Copenhagen.

Interestingly, women in Scandinavia of that time enjoyed status, in most countries of the world simply unthinkable. Arab merchants, who visited Viking settlements in the 10th century, were struck by the degree of freedom that northern women had in family life, including the right to divorce. “A wife can divorce when she pleases,” noted one of them. But for some reason this was not enough for the northerners: if the marriage ended in divorce, the husband’s dowry of the wife had to compensate her.

According to the law, Scandinavian women could own land and often worked it alone, while their husbands went to trade, and even swam across the sea - to seek happiness. In any case, the same rune stones tell about their economic brute. So, after the death of a certain Odnis from West Manland (Sweden), her husband put chekmen with the following inscription: “The best housewife who can hold the whole farm in her hands will never come to Hassmuhru.” Speech does not go, as you can see, that Odnis was beautiful or virtuous. And about her piety is also not talking. It is noted that she was a master of all trades, who knew how to manage well with the economy.

Moreover, women were engaged not only in the economy, but also in the craft, in particular, weaving. What they say archaeological finds in the cities of the Vikings.

Like today, women of the Viking Age applied a lot of strength to find a suitable life partner. The sagas contain numerous stories about women who brag about each other to those who have the best man. But it was everywhere. Even the Arabs. It is another matter that the peoples of Scandinavia have shown innovation in empowering women with equal rights with men, that is, from a gender perspective, their society was sufficiently “an equal opportunity society”. A woman of the Viking Age could choose a husband, and then not marry him, if she suddenly wanted to. And no one would have condemned her for it. However, the scope of these equal opportunities was still limited. For example, only men in the Viking Age could appear in court. That is, for a woman, if she filed a complaint to the court, men were to intervene - her father, brothers or sons.

Two paired "hairpins-turtles", connected either by beads or a chain, were one of the obligatory ornaments of a Viking-era woman. At first they were pretentious, silver or gilded, but later they became simplified, perhaps because a scarf was put on over them and all their beauty was no longer visible. National Museum, Copenhagen.

The sagas include many stories about divorced women and widows, who then remarry. At the same time, the Icelandic sagas describe a large number of divorce rules, which indicates a rather developed legal system at that time.

A woman, for example, was entitled to demand a divorce if it became known that her husband settled in another country, but only if he did not go to bed with her for three years. However, the most typical grounds for divorce were sudden poverty in a man’s family or violence from a husband. If a man hit his wife three times, then she could legitimately demand a divorce.

And this is how they were worn on clothes. A still from the movie “Trees grow on stones ...”

Female treason was punished hard, in which men could bring lovers to their homes, for example, brought from overseas as captives. However, the power of his wife over the new women in the family was undeniable.

Of course, falling in love with such a beauty was easier than the easy! A still from the movie “Trees grow on stones ...”

We do not know whether divorces were frequent in the Viking Age, but the right to divorce and inheritance proves that women had an independent judicial status. After divorce, babies and young children usually stayed with their mothers, while older children were divided between the families of their parents, depending on their wealth and status.

To be continued ...
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  1. +1
    28 July 2018 07: 34
    Interesting. One robbery does not live.

    And what does grass specially grown mean?
    1. +3
      28 July 2018 08: 37
      Have you never heard of crops of forage grasses, or, as they used to call it, grass sowing? It was still occupied by the ancient Romans.
      Brockhaus and Efron have an excellent article on forage grasses.
      opedic-dictionary / 054 / 54704.htm
      1. +3
        28 July 2018 08: 48
        I heard. But the fact that the Vikings had such a culture was surprised.

        "Of course, I’ll regret giving my grass.
        But immediately return this to Timothy "(c)
        1. Cat
          28 July 2018 09: 51
          Specially grown

          To be honest - smiled!
          Still, Oleg Vyacheslavovich - you’re talking about “Your camps” - forced labor in a rural school for the benefit of the Country of Soviets - they didn’t knock out a town from you! Any native of the village for whom suffering and mowing is not just a “picture” from the pre-revolutionary journal Neva expressed his thought differently. Although it’s possible I’m slandering you in vain and the translation difficulties are to blame!
          And so, in my life I have already come across, where does potato grow? - in the supermarket!
          Or a three-year-old child showing his mother a cow, the mom shouts, look - a chicken!
          Now to the Vikings, more precisely, this applies to all Germanic, and indeed Slavic tribes in general.
          They didn’t sow grass like rye. They simply assigned places where good grass grew. Mostly in water meadows, spruces. Moreover, part was allocated for corrals and pastures, while other parts were harvesting hay.
          I will not output the algorithm (hay-cow-milk and meat), although it may be worthwhile to conduct an educational program with some madams with the comic books "buns do not grow on trees"!
          1. +2
            28 July 2018 10: 28
            You, Vlad, are too categorical and approach the question exclusively endemic.
            Even if we take into account the entire indigenous territory of the Viking settlement - modern Denmark, Sweden and Norway, then with flood meadows there is a lot of stress. There is generally tension with agricultural land. Norway today does not provide itself with grain.
            As I already wrote, grass sowing was known to the Chinese and ancient Romans.
            In sixteenth-century England, grass sowing was commonplace.
            In Russia, the first studies of I.I. Komov, V.A. Levshin, and A.T. Bolotov on conducting field grass cultivation and improving meadows appeared at the end of the XNUMXth century.
            The topic is interesting, you can write an article.
            1. +1
              28 July 2018 13: 47
              Here I imagine from the Romans. I am familiar with the works of A. T. Bolotov.

              The Vikings - no, rather than yes.
              What to do in Karelia now? It's easier to catch fish.

              However, on this topic it makes sense to think more.
              1. +2
                28 July 2018 14: 57
                It is interesting to read Skazkina, "Essays on the History of the Western European Peasantry in the Middle Ages. M., 1968;".
              2. Cat
                28 July 2018 16: 24
                Victor - specify!
                Grass growing is a good thing, in Scandinavia it appeared even earlier than in Russia, if I am not mistaken in the 16-17 century! But by the time of the Vikings it has no bearing.
                But this does not mean that the livestock feed base was taken by gravity. Moreover, the Scandinavians actually lived with their cows in the same house, which proves their invalidity for the first! Even for ships, they built separate sheds.
                1. Why do I think that the culture of growing herbs for livestock is similar, that of the Slovens, that of the Vikings. Philologists have long drawn attention to the similarity of many words of the Indo-European community, including the concept of “boron” or “borok” - weed grass. This concept is in both cultures as Germanic and Slavic. So we can assume that the science of how to feed the “nurse”, see the cow, we learned a long time before our paths ran away.
                2. The Romans and Chinese were able to sow grass, but the Mongols, for example, were not engaged in such haemorrhoids. Why, why sow what grows by itself. At the dawn of their culture, our ancestors were engaged in slaughter farming. They “burned the floor of the forest” planted “bread”, harvested ten years, harvested, went to “burn” the remaining half. The question is where did the first half go? The answer was used under pasture. Everything is fine, but why didn’t the Mongols roam the Arctic Circle? The answer is that sometimes there is winter! Rarely once a year, but for a long time 10 months.
                3. A similar misfortune in the form of "winter-winter" haunted all the northern peoples. Of course, the Vikings and the ancient Slavs are not a couple of ours, see the foreign from the agricultural holding. The former and pasture could feed up to 30 cm of snow cover and break a wolf with a hoof. Today it’s a massage for cows, classical music even carousels! But at full feed you can survive where it is warm.
                4. And if it's cold. The Scandinavians and the Slavs did not know how to harvest silos. It remained - to suffer, and throw haystacks and germs. Now about choosing a place for mowing. A place with good and good grass was not given for pasture. They even mowed the grass wisely and allowed it to be eliminated. In the flood meadows, even the Ottawa (re-grown grass) was not touched.
                So the grass sowing took place self-seeding.
                5. The retreat. Why didn’t the plow meadows plowed under wheat and rye. Everything is simple, we do not have Africa and instead of fertilizing with silt, in a year or two it will wash away all the fertile soil. And the sediment will not give sedge and the harvest will always be "Lithuanian rejoices"
                6. Pastures were also chosen wisely. In fact, this is not a corral in the understanding of an urban man, but a daily route along which herd animals walked in ancient times. Namely, the system of adjacent clearings, edges, firs. Which includes watering thinned fishing lines and groves, even corrals. The herd goes on stage as a "scheduled train"! Goes and chews, reached the river ...
                7. The second digression. If there is an adult leader in the herd - a bull, he is the first to come to the river and watering hole. He snorts for a long time, sniffs, digs the ground with his hoof. Only making sure that everyone drinks water calmly. Then a purely army line in the washbasin.
                6. continued ... they entered the forest and rested, then again eat-sleep-chew. If our time is an approximate route for the day ranged from 9 to 20 km. Just think what kilometers our ancestors had? In reality, the shepherds have a full-fledged herd of problems, in addition to looking under their feet so as not to get caught, no. The old matrons themselves will give the young man a little dog and the little cow with a calf will be driven. Shepherds watch only the young, or those burenki in which the calves remained at home, but in their youth they were ordered to go to the herd. When the time for milking comes, the herd turns to the side of the house and begins to accelerate. Young hosts are met at the edge of the forest. Experienced go home themselves, because they know the good owner will meet her with a pink head with salt. But they consider it their duty to remind themselves of themselves with a moo by a moo.
                8. The third failure. I was always amazed at how old matrons guessed the wishes of the shepherds. It is hot rolled into a pine forest, rain into a birch or aspen grove.
                9. Strada! And it is tempting to say something with the analogy "a good deed will not be called a marriage" !!!
                If serious. The ability to mow grass in Lithuanian is not the most important thing in the mowing. Everyone knows how to mow. Hmm, this is my grandfather’s saying. It is a pity that he did not live to see the day when a mini-tractor broke at the institute. And the football field was finished by Lithuanian in turn those who can. And they were able to in the summer during the holidays, only 7 people. General, three heads of department, head and deputy head of faculties, and I. Given that in the whole company I was the only major. Guess who finished the football field. Everyone can know how to shake, sin, throw kopeshka, and on horses. Sacrament when the grandfather began to throw a stack. The ability to sweep the stack was equal to the skill of the steelmaker to give good metal. And if the owner knew how to do both. That everyone knew them and treated only with "patronymic".
                Hmm ..,? It took me a little to the side.
                I hope I was able to convey the main ability to contain a cow - this is a big and creative work. All ancient peoples approached Kotorum wisely and savvy. To grow and get offspring in the north is not even labor, it is a vocation that our ancestors possessed in perfection.
                Sincerely, Vlad Kotische!
                1. +3
                  28 July 2018 20: 11
                  Vlad, yes you have a syllable like Turgenev’s! I directly remembered childhood and hayfields at home.
                  You argue convincingly, only remembering the Scandinavian landscapes that I managed to see, it is difficult for me to imagine such a pastoral picture.
                  Yes, and in Iceland, the Vikings, apparently, did not really follow such methods, causing one of the first eco-catastrophes in history.
                  In response, I will not provide such a beautifully presented plot. But I came across a book
                  Breeding farm animals. For livestock. in-to and fact.
                  Prof. E. Ya. Borisenko. - 2nd ed., Revised. and abbr. - Moscow: Selkhozgiz, 1957.
                  In it, in the chapter "LIVESTOCK AND ZOOTECHNICAL SCIENCE UNDER FEUDALISM" there is such a paragraph.
                  "In the 742th – 814th centuries, during the monarchy of Charlemagne (XNUMX–XNUMX), the triple field flourished, meadow cultivation and sheep breeding developed."
                  Meadow farming is a forage production sector that is engaged in improving natural forage lands, creating seeded hayfields and pastures, and their rational use.
                  Maybe they still sowed grass?
                  1. +2
                    28 July 2018 21: 03
                    Under Charles the Great, Erica was bred in prototypes of pharmacies.

                    But the Vikings are another diocese.

                    But to evaluate where there is a dry meadow, where I can’t flood the Vikings.

                    Plus, the climate was probably milder.

                    The classic is Greenland.

                    But the boundary question for some meadow has always been.

                    And here in Zalesye, when Krivichy and Vyatichi settled, mostly pigs were grazed in the forest.
                    1. Cat
                      28 July 2018 23: 14
                      Regarding the creation of the feed base, he seriously rummaged. I came across the fact that the Scandinavians were one of the first to sow a "wedge" for horses. But I didn’t find about food for sheep and sheep.
                      Typical crops are considered - clover, oatmeal in the reference books on Scandinavia they are. But they sow specialized and in sufficient quantities from the 16th century.
                      On the organization of graveyards in Scandinavia. Here an interesting thing is grazing cattle organized differently than ours. In the summer, cows with fathers were sent to summer pastures. In winter they were returned to hmm ... to the house. Moreover, housewives rarely trusted the work of milking cows and went to milk them twice a day. So this indirectly confirms your case with food in Scandinavia was tight.
                      Two more facts.
                      The Scandinavian cows were so cool that they were fed fish in the hungry years.
                      The epos of Scandinavia has kept the dream-wish of a simple "Northman" - "to get from the local giant a miracle cow that feeds on ......." fanfares "that lick stones" !!!
                      According to Turgenev - it is easy to write in the village when the cows moo and you write about yourself.
                      Today, for the first time, her future cat was brought to her mother. Which, for Asya, her life saw only us and her commodity, our cat, Sonya.
                      Stoshka jumped out of the carrier and began to walk around to sniff the site. Reflexes instantly took their toll and she forgot that she was a purebred shorthair British blue blood. In 15 minutes, she ate two butterflies, one frog, and even tried to mouse in a silo pit. I caught a worm, but I have cut it. And then in the greenhouse I saw a big black neighbor's cat. Who had been watching her for about three minutes. Realizing that they saw him, he fluffed up his already fluffy hair, stretched out his back, raised his tail with a pipe, pulled the pole on which he sat and .... and believing that he had completed the maximum program for a cat - macho. He sat down and froze, pointedly looking the other way. Stesha, having seen such a handsome man (to be honest, there is something to look at, is a black and fawn long thick coat, green eyes, and the Siberian himself) quietly began to creep up to him. He sits still. Stesha quietly, quietly, step by step, approached the cat. The cat, already worked out, began to turn its head in her direction. It remains only to wink a couple of times and "the thing in the hat" - "lady of yours!" But Steshka did what no one had expected of her. He purely human shoved his paw into the side. Hefty three times her size, the cat lost his balance from surprise and, in order not to hit his face in the mud, he tried to portray some kind of somersault in a jump. He practically succeeded, but the groom did not count and with all four paws got into a deck of water. Ponuro swam to the edge and instantly disappeared into the bushes.
                      1. +3
                        29 July 2018 00: 12
                        If you take Norway - 75% of the territory - mountains, lakes and glaciers, 22% - forest.
                        Suitable for agriculture - 3%. I do not think that during the time of the Vikings it was much better. There were more forests.
                        And my cat is panicky afraid of the street and generally leave the house. Three times they tried to “marry” - for three days I sat at the refrigerator or cupboard and rushed at all.
                        I can’t even imagine what she would do in the village.
  2. Cat
    28 July 2018 07: 44
    Fanfare !!! bully
    Less than six months !!! lol
    After the second and third parts of the “Vikings,” the moderators pleased us first. Keep it up, next time come in with a tenth !!! fellow
    Better yet, choose a chronological order by the draw method or scientific poke !!! drinks
    Although seriously, thanks to the editorial staff, we could just forget !!! hi
    1. +2
      28 July 2018 09: 00
      Scandinavian wars. hidden threat. episode one
  3. +3
    28 July 2018 10: 27
    The author, as always, pleased with a funny picture from a Viking fan - the saray "long house", in reality backed by decks and covered with turf, in the picture is covered no less than ondulin laughing

    If you bring the picture in line with history, then it becomes clear the civilizational level of the Scandinavians of the Viking era - they even did not know the log cabin and the roof from the shingles. The Scandinavians were stuck in the Neolithic when they were driven into a reservation on the Erbina / Celt Peninsula.
  4. +2
    28 July 2018 11: 45
    Thank you for the article
  5. +3
    28 July 2018 11: 51
    "If you bring the picture in line with the story ... "
    If you bring the picture in line with history, then depending on the climate and topography, the design of the housing also changed.
    In wooded places and places where winters were not too harsh, houses were built from the woods, using one of several methods: vertically laid planks corner to corner (“barrel” construction), horizontally laid planks between vertical posts (bul), built huts or log cabins. There was also an old tradition of building thick walls of earth, stones and peat and roofing of peat. In such a house, a tree was needed only for roof beams and for internal details, such as room walls and cladding. At the same time, the house was warmer than a log cabin and spread in wet, cold and treeless Viking colonies in the Atlantic.
    All this is confirmed archaeologically.
  6. Cat
    28 July 2018 14: 47
    if you bring the picture in accordance with the story

    Andrei, you are right at the dawn of the history of the Scandinavians did not set log cabins. But starting from the 10-11th century, similar structures on the territory of the Scandinavian Peninsula begin to appear. And archaeologists find them.
    There is even a lingering polemic from whom the Scandinavians borrowed log houses. There are three versions of the origin of log cabins: Germanic (Gothic), Finnish and Slavic.
    For the interest! The word izba appeared among the Slavs a long time ago, but it is not of Slavic origin. It is believed that our ancestors borrowed it from the German-speaking tribes. However, at the same time with the word - a sword. So, apparently, at the dawn of our history, we lived next to more advanced German-speaking neighbors. Probably from the ready Chernyakhov culture. But the Scandinavians mastered such technologies much later.
    By the way! The first log houses were in the bowl and with a characteristic groove on top of the log, but such huts rotted. The revolution was when they began to make a groove from the bottom of the log. Then water stopped accumulating in between the logs. Moreover, the primacy of this innovation belongs to our ancestors.
    1. +1
      28 July 2018 17: 29
      The Scandinavians were wild people all the way at the Neolithic level of 3 millennium BC. (which is confirmed by the vestiges of matriarchy in the form of inheritance transfer along the female line). Literally all the benefits of civilization, the Scandinavians borrowed from their southern neighbors - metal processing - from the Aryan-Cimmerians, shipbuilding - from the Aryans-Slavs, the manufacture of swords - from Erbins-Celts.
      Only after Christianization in the 2 millennium A.D. Scandinavians were able to climb the civilization ladder to the European level (through the transfer of knowledge by European monks).

      Scandinavians, by definition, could not borrow anything from the Goths, immigrants from the golimny Scandinavia. The Germans are not Goths, the latter migrated from Scandinavia in the 2 century A.D., and, as you know, the Romans fought with the Germans proper before the advent of our era. Another thing is that a small tribe of Goth-Scandinavians mixed with much more numerous Germanic tribes and assimilated culturally and linguistically, after which only the tribal title remained from the original Goths.

      The first Finns (hunter-gatherers) appeared in future Finland only in the first millennium A.D. and for a long time lived in the plague. Build huts (as well as wash in bathhouses, sow crops and keep livestock) they were taught by the Slavs - the indigenous inhabitants of these places.
      1. Cat
        28 July 2018 20: 43
        shipbuilding - among the Aryan Slavs

        We have already addressed this issue.
        Rooks and nozzles of the Slavs and Sneki, Knorra and Dakarra of the Scandinavians have an initial conceptual difference.
        The boats of the Slavs had a smooth lining in the joint, the Scandinavian ships more archaic in the overlap.
        Separately in this line is Slavic or Old Russian nasad. If the boat keel was formed by wetting with subsequent heating of the dowels passed through the boards. Instead of a keel, Nasad had a boat chiselled from an oak trunk or other tree. (monkusil). The sides were stacked with overlapping boards. A similar chip is received by the Novgorod rooks. Having a smooth bottom, the sides were built up with overlapping boards. Which is evident in the absence of full frames gave greater rigidity. The last Old Russian ships with a mixed set of plating were Novgorod ukshui. At the same time, the later Pomrr carbases had a double inner lining, an outer lap. But they could no longer run along the rivers.
        By the 13th century, the Scandinavians basically had ships with lining in the lap, and only with the advent of modern type ships began to build ships with smooth lining.
        So to say that the Scandinavians have learned something from the Slavs-Aryans is possible, but necessary to clarify, the process of mutual exchange falls on the 11th and 12th centuries. By the way, the famous Belyans and Chusov barges were lined with lining. As simpler and cheaper. Since the river fleet was disposable only down to the river, and then to the firewood
        The planes as reusable vessels had mixed skin, but with a full set of frames and stingers. By the way, almost all Slavic ships, Russian river ships and even the first steamboats were built without a single tail, the Scandinavian ships had more advanced iron fittings from the 9th century.
        Somewhere like that.
        1. +1
          28 July 2018 20: 49
          You are talking about the shipbuilding of the Eastern Slavs, I am talking about the shipbuilding of the Western Slavs (Wends, Bodriches, Lutichs, Ruyan, etc.), and the boundary is not of our / our era.
          1. +1
            28 July 2018 21: 06
            As for the iron parts of the Slavic ships:

            “The finds of boat rivets in Pskov and Staraya Ladoga also belong to the eighth century. It is worth paying attention to the fact that the West Slavic ships were similar in shape to the Scandinavian ones, and iron rivets were also used in their manufacture, but less often than with Scandinavian ships. During excavations in Wolin, Szczecin and Kolobrzeg archaeologists discovered a number of parts of ships with iron rivets. "

            1. Cat
              28 July 2018 23: 45
              Andrew, I understand you correctly, "iron rivets"?
              Maybe you meant staples, nails and something like that?
              On the ships. In principle, if you discard various local exotic schools of design (for example, Egyptian with its reed ships or Chukotka with its kayaks). Two main ones can be distinguished:
              1. Mediterranean - with smooth skin, extremely light body and the same maximum elongation. Starbon mentions triremes with an extension of 6 to 1, and Schnetzel even speaks of 8 to 1. The oars were the main driving force of these ships.
              2. Atlantic - keel, with sides in the overlap. The main "engine" is the wind. For the first time they are mentioned by J. Caesar (Veneti). Ships of the Slavs have something from both schools. But the early western boats of the Slavs had more characteristic features of the Mediterranean school, and the Scandinavian Dakkars of the Atlantic.
              1. +1
                29 July 2018 11: 31
                I quoted from a historian’s article, where the fact of finds in Ladoga iron parts of ships dating from the 8 century AD is valuable. What is “rivets” in this context - this is a question for the author of the article (woman).

                PS Venets are Slavs who lived in the middle of the first millennium BC. in the Venetian (Venetian) lagoon.
                Ave julius caesar laughing
  7. +1
    29 July 2018 11: 32
    A few pictures are not visible. There are signatures, and images - yok. request
    Interestingly, is it just me?
    In general, a plus!
  8. +1
    29 July 2018 17: 51
    skewered meat, fish, millet cakes, and vegetables in the summer, and all this was served in huge quantities

    Author, no need to read this way. Clear business, eternally hungry skald, swallowing saliva, constantly described epic feasts. All the poets of those unfamiliar years (loafers and parasites who lived with handouts from the owners) enthusiastically describe the huge, many months, wasteful feasts. Which, of course, were not.
    A lot of meat could be served sometimes when for some reason they did not manage to smoke or wither it. A feast or two could give a harvest festival, although what kind of harvest is there in Norway? It would be enough for beer, which, incidentally, must be stored in the form of grain for the whole year, and this, as you can understand, was very difficult.
    I think that some excesses could sometimes afford bandits, robbing the English coast. And even then, I think that all this brought hundreds of times less profit than described in the sagas.
  9. 0
    30 July 2018 16: 48
    As far as I understood from the text, the sedentary (those who did not go fishing about the seas) Vikings were quite adequate people.
    Even a specialist in Google scored a search for a “Viking house” - there were very practical people.
    Thank you, author, interesting material!

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