Military Review

Ural Cossack army in the First World War. H. 2

During the East Prussian operation 4-17 August 1914. The 15 Cavalry Division operated as part of the 2 Army, covering its left flank in the Zeluen area. 7 August received the task of scouting in the strip between the lines Serpets - Strasbourg - Bischof Sverder and Zuromin - Lautenburg - Lobau. On August 11, advance to the village of Loken, acting on the Heilsberg-Zinten front, cutting off enemy's retreat routes to the Vistula, destroying railways and bridges and destroying logistical institutions. After entourage and putting 17-18.8. units of the 2 Army and the withdrawal of the rest, the 16.9.1914 division was transferred to the 10 Army, operating in the Kadzidlo area in October. At the end of December, it was transferred from the Myshinets-Horzhele area to Plonsk K 31.12. The 3 Urals Cossack regiment was located in the area of ​​Starozheba, Bodzanov.

At the start of the 1915, the 15 Cavalry Division operated under Prasnysh. The 3 Urals Cossack regiment distinguished itself by a horse attack on the German infantry near the village of Zeleny. Then the division operated in Lithuania and Kurland. From the end of May to 2.7. was part of the detachment of Major-General Count M.N. Grabbe, acting on the right bank of the river. Venta. At the same time, it was listed as a reserve of the 5 Army. She participated in the battle of Shavli (now Šiauliai), in early July she fought with the German 6-th reserve division. 3.7. she was subordinated to the commander of the 7 Siberian Army Corps and held back the advance of the German 41 Infantry Division. 4-5.7. covered from the German cavalry the departure of this corps. 5.7 evening. included in the cavalry detachment of Lieutenant-General Prince G.I. Trubetskoy, and 7.7. attached to the 19 Army Corps. 1915 retreat ended at the turn of the river. Western Dvina.

The Ural Cossack Division (4, 5, 6 and 7 Ural Cossack Regiments) 12-15.8.1914 advanced from Uralsk to the South-Western Front. After unloading 20.8.1914 in Wlodawa, the division was sent to the left flank of the Fourth Army.
In the area Otroch division and a separate guards cavalry brigade 29.8. made the detachment of Major General A.M. von Kaufman. In early September, the division conducted reconnaissance at the junction of the 4 and 5 of the Russian armies in the area of ​​Senyavy, revealing its enduring occupation by the Austrians.

As part of the 4 Army, she participated in the Warsaw-Ivangorod operation, acting in September on the left bank of the Vistula and holding back the enemy’s attack on Ivangorod. In early October, the division concentrated in Izdebno, and 9.10 forced the Vistula near Pavlovice, and 11.10 participated in the battle of Ivangorod. Then, the pursuit of the enemy’s withdrawing units almost to the fortress of Krakow and subsequent participation in the Lodz operation in November - covering the left flank of the 4 Army. 4.11. concentrated in the area Dzyaloshina, and 5.11. sent to the city of Novoradomsk. 7.11. By order of the commander of the 4 Army, part of the division was advanced to Petrokov to establish interrupted communications with the troops of the 5 Army and reconnaissance in the direction of Kolyushek. 8.11. being temporarily subordinated to the Fifth Army, assisted the 5 of the Don Cossack Division in the protection of Vidava and Schertsov. 11.11.1914 returned to the 4 Army, on its right flank. 19.11. under the onslaught of the German 1-th Guards Reserve Brigade, it withdrew to the villages of Mikorska Volya and Belkhatov, and in the morning 20.11. left them, retreating to the east.

With 20.11. the division is subordinate to the commander of the 2 th Guards Cavalry Division, Major General Ya.F. von Gyllenschmidt, who headed the consolidated equestrian corps. On his orders, one brigade of the Ural Division took up defense in front of the village of Stradzev, the other retreated along the Petrokovo Highway to the reserve in the area of ​​Gomolin - Oprzhzhov. Then, in the reserve to Petrokov, the entire division was withdrawn, except for the 6 of the Ural Cossack regiment defending the village of Capricorn. In the village of Grabica 21.11. The 7 th Ural regiment covered the withdrawal of the Russian cuirassier regiments under the onslaught of the German cavalry. Since the dawn of 22.11. He returned to the reserve, and before dawn 24.11. took up defense in the Kamotsinek - Tsisov sector. In 14.30, the enemy knocked out a regiment from the village of Kamotsinek, forcing him to move south to the village of Tsisov. 26.11. units of the Ural Cossack Division participated in repelling the attacks of the Austrian 27 and 31 infantry divisions, which sought to break through to Petrokov. After the transition to a positional war remained in the 4-th army.

In early May, the 1915 2 Brigade (6 and 7 Ural Cossack Regiments) of the Ural Cossack Division participated in the successful counter strike of the 25 Army Corps of the 4 Army under Opat, which resulted in the defeat of the Austrian 25. infantry division.

Co. 2.5. the brigade was located in the village of Volia Bodzekhova, and 3.5. received the task - to advance to the villages of Krashkov and Rostylitsa, and, having crossed the range of the Swietokoshiski Mountains, to beat the enemy in the rear. Speaking at 14.30, the brigade went to the village of Krashkov, where she spent the night. With the receipt of a report on the movement of enemy outgoing convoys along the Opatov road, the 20 Ural Cossack regiment was ordered to attack them. By 6 hours the regiment went to the village of Neskurzhev Old, pushing a lava of four hundred to the road. From the residents learned that the carriage passed an hour ago. In the morning of May 22, the brigade moved to the southern foot of the ridge and advanced on the villages of Butkovice and Piskrzhin, contributing to the right-flank units of the 4 Grenadier Division. The 3 th Ural Cossack regiment attacked and knocked the enemy out of the trenches from the village of Butkovice to the village of Neskurzhev-Novy. Having retreated, the Austrians took refuge in the forest, their pursuit was made more difficult by rugged and swampy terrain. Having dismounted, the Urals took the two villages listed above and began to fire at the enemy's trenches located south of the enemy. By the evening of 7. the brigade was located in the village of Goloshitsa, and on the 4.5 of 10 hours in May it moved to the village of Pyurkov, sending two hundred to observe the front of the village of Popropytsya - the master yard - the village of Ivaniska. Happy 5. west of Pyurkov, the Cossacks, having dismounted, fought with subunits of the German 5.5-th Landwehr division, advancing from the village of Lagov. On the night of 4. units of the 8.5 Army Corps, including the 25 Brigade of the Ural Cossack Division, began to withdraw to Radom positions.

In the future, as part of the same 4 Army, the Ural Cossack Division participated in the retreat of the 1915 summer, operating in Eastern Poland and Western Belorussia. 25.6.1915 near the village of Borkovizna, a hundred 5 of the Ural Cossack regiment captured three lines of enemy trenches, putting the Austrian battalion to flight.

To 9.9.1915, the Ural Cossack Division was transferred to Novogrudok and transferred to the 2 Army deployed to eliminate the Sventsian breakthrough of the Germans. First, the division ordered to go to the town of the Town, and 11.9. move on Molodechno, going to the area Krivichi - Budslav. On 13.9. numbered 2980 fighters with 8 machine guns and 12 guns. Directly obeying the headquarters of the 2 Army, the division supported the offensive of the Twentieth Army Corps, captured 14.9. D. Pine and took 144 prisoners.
In March, 1916, during an operation south of Lake Naroch, the Ural Cossack Division was part of the Infantry General Group. Balueva. It had to develop the success of the group, advancing to the north-west on Konstantinov and Lyntuna, blocking the paths of retreat from Kovylnikov and leading reconnaissance to the west, on Kuschany, Zheladz, Mikhalishki, Nestanishki, i.e. to r. Vilia. Since the infantry of the Baluev group failed to break through the German positions, the plan was not implemented. Then the division returned to the Fourth Army and served in the upper reaches of the river. Shchara north of Vygonovskogo lake. After the transfer of the 1916 Army to Romania in early November 4, the division was again subordinated to the Second Army and remained on the right bank of the Shchara until the end of 1917. In the spring of 1917 in the division, there were two cases of non-execution of combat orders on the basis of conflicts in the payment of salaries.

The 8 and 9 Ural Cossack regiments 29-30.8.1914 arrived from Uralsk on the South-Western Front in the Ivangorod region. The 8 th regiment was included in the Sixteenth Army Corps of the Fourth Army, the 9 th regiment came under the direct control of the Ninth Army, one of its four hundred served in its headquarters. Until the summer of 1915, the Cossacks of these regiments participated in all operations of the 4 and 9 armies.
The 9 Urals Cossack Regiment 22-27.7.1915 was relocated to Odessa, where up to 25.11.1915, as part of the Seventh Army, served to guard the Black Sea coast. Then, with the transfer of the Seventh Army to the South-Western Front, she followed her, carrying a coherent and other service at her headquarters. 20.7.1916 The 9 th Ural Cossack regiment was included in the Second Army Corps, and its hundreds were assigned to the divisions of this corps: the 3 th Turkestan rifle and 26 th infantry. 13-19.8. part of the regiment occupied the area of ​​advanced positions in the village of Ukhrinov. With 22.8. The regiment developed the success of the 21 th Turkestan Rifle Regiment. In the morning 24.8. the regiment's division (3-I and 4-I hundreds) conducted a horse attack in dd. Bokow and Dyatyatin. Heaped with peaks of 50 people, hacked to pieces with 64 checkers, 2 shot, 3 officer and 216 soldiers captured. Losses of the Urals: 10 injured. The actions of the Urals people “inspired Turkestan riflemen”. 28.8. The regiment was withdrawn to the corps reserve in dd. Ugripov and Trostyanets, then Podgaytsy. With 31.8. in readiness for an attack at the Redwood folwark. 11.10. the regiment was transferred to the 41 Army Corps and until the end 1916 was in its reserve.

With 26.5.1916, the 8 Ural Cossack Regiment actively participated in the offensive of the South-Western Front. 29.5. in a battle at the Krokatyn tract and with. Olesha 8-th Ural Cossack regiment equestrian attack reflected the Austrian counterattack at the joint of the 161-th Alexandropol and 162-th Akhaltsikha infantry regiments of the 41-th infantry division, which allowed the infantry to fight off the lost machine guns and capture the X-MTH division, which allowed the infantry to recapture the lost machine guns and capture XMNM divisions 300.-30.7. The regiment pursued the enemy, departing from the Burkanovsky forest and with. Olesha Captured with. Lityatin and 1.8 enemy soldiers.
By November 1914, in addition to the above-mentioned units and subunits, the Ural Cossack army deployed 1 and 2. The Ural Cossack special hundreds, they were deployed in Tsaritsyn and Uralsk. In 1916, it operated as part of the Thirty-second Army Corps, incl. during the summer offensive of the Southwestern Front. In 1917, the 10 Ural Cossack Regiment was formed from spare hundreds.

At the end of the 1917-beginning of 1918, all the regiments of the Ural Cossack army operating on the fronts returned to its territory. On the way, all but the three below are disarmed by the Bolsheviks. The 1 and 8 Ural Cossack regiments moved under the command of the commander of the last colonel SG Kurin. Under Voronezh, the 1917 regiments fought back in November with an attempt by the Bolsheviks to disarm themselves, then proceeded by rail to Atkarsk, where they disembarked, crossed the Volga on the ice above Saratov, plunged into echelons and arrived in the Urals region. 5 Ural Cossack regiment Colonel VS Tolstova also returned with weaponsreflecting numerous attempts at disarmament, incl. near Astrakhan, where his fighters on the contrary seized 4 guns from the Bolsheviks.
During the First World Ural Cossack Army put Cossacks and 13175 generals and officers into the service of 710. 335 Cossacks killed, 1793 injured and 92 missing. 5333 of the Ural Cossacks were awarded with St. George crosses and medals, 35 officers received the Orders of St. George and St. George’s weapons.

The atamans of the Ural Cossack army and the military governor of the Ural region: Lieutenant-General S.S. Khabalov (24.1.1914-13.6.1916), Major-General V.P. Martynov (1917), elected ataman, Major General MP Borodin (with 27.3.1917)

Chairman of the military administration of the Ural Cossack army: Colonel V.P. Martynov (from 14.1.1909 to the end of 1916)

The leaders of the Ural Cossack Division: Major General, with 30.1.1915, Lieutenant General A.M. von Kaufman (19.7.1914-18.4.1917), Major General I.A. Nikulin (with 7.5.1917), Major-General V.I. Akutin (9-12.1917)
Chief of Staff of the Ural Cossack Division: Lieutenant Colonel, with 23.1.1916 Col. VM. Smirnov (25.6.1915-2.1917)

White A. Galicia battle. M. 1929;
Vetoshnikov L.V. Brusilovsky breakthrough. Operational and strategic essay. M., 1940;
Goshtovt G.A. Cuirassiers of His Majesty in the Great War. Paris, 1938;
Kartaguzov S.V. 1st Ural Cossack Regiment on the fronts of the First World War // Militaryhistorical research in the Volga region. Vol. 6, Saratov, 2005;
Kartaguzov S.V. The officers of the Ural Cossack troops 1914-1918. M .: Reytar, 2012;
Kartaguzov S.V. “To form a time of military actions ... Ural Cossack battery”: Participation of the Ural Cossack artillery in the First World War // Military-Historical Journal, 2008, No. 11;
Strelyanov (Kalabukhov) P.N., Kireev F.S., Kartaguzov S.V. Kuban, Terek and Ural Cossacks in the offensive of the South-Western Front 1916. M., 2007.
Articles from this series:
Ural Cossack army in the First World War. H. 1

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  1. Cat
    Cat 24 August 2018 08: 16
    Dear Alex, once again, many thanks !!!
    Allow me to consider today's article a gift to my beloved, since my great-grandfather on my grandmother’s line was verst in the Ural Cossack army and was probably a participant in the events you described. Unfortunately, I have not been able to establish the regiment number yet, but slowly my search in this direction (my feline pedigree) is progressing.
    Sincerely, Your Cat!
  2. Koshnitsa
    Koshnitsa 24 August 2018 12: 03
    During the First World War, the Ural Cossack army put into service 13175 Cossacks and 710 generals and officers. 335 Cossacks were killed, 1793 were wounded and 92 were missing. // Excellent. The loss ratio says a lot. In the three years of the war, just over two percent of those drafted died, less than in the DRA.
    1. tank66
      tank66 24 August 2018 18: 35
      Not to argue, but because of Friday laughing "Weighing" losses throughout the OKSVA, and VHF in PMV - in this case, I think it is not correct. It is necessary to take, with such estimates, the units corresponding in size, and "remove" non-combat losses from typhoid-paratyphoid and other eastern pendinok., Western fronts unusual. hi
      1. Koshnitsa
        Koshnitsa 24 August 2018 21: 03
        The Urals, just fought in a considerable part of them, both in Persia and on the territory of Turkey, right up to Baratov to the present Iraqi Mosul, there were also all kinds of east winds. Especially in the era before antibiotics.
        Just a comparison of the two wars of WWII and WWII, absolutely shocking anyone.
        It is necessary to compare with what is comparable.
  3. XII legion
    XII legion 29 August 2018 10: 37
    Uralians showed themselves perfectly
    Moreover, on all fronts and against all opponents