Military Review

Ussurian Cossack Host in the First World War

The Ussurian Cossack army of Russia was formed by 26.6.1889 on the basis of the Ussurian half-battalion from the south-eastern part of the Amur Cossack army. It occupied a strip along the right bank of the r. Ussuri, on the river. Sungachi and along the western and southern shores of Lake Khanka, the administrative center of a special Ussurian Cossack district with 31.7.1890 - Vladivostok.

The army was led by the ataman (subordinate to the Amur governor-general), who was also the military governor of the Primorsky region. In 1894, Amur Governor-General S.M. Dukhovskiy led off (canceled in 1910-1914) for the use of the army 9,96 million hectares. 1898 has created a troop rule. At 1908, the headquarters of the troops was located in Nikolsk-Ussuriysky (now Ussuriysk).

With 1895, the army was replenished with settlers from other (Donskoy, Orenburg, Zabaykalsky, etc.) Cossack troops. 1895 people moved to 2061, 1896 people moved to 1075, 1897 to 1145, 1898 to 413, 1899 to 1205 1901, 1295 people to 1902, 354.

The entire population of the Ussuri Cossack region (including Cossacks) was 1894 - 7203 (7040) people, 1901 - 14701 people, 1907 - 20753 people, 1909 - 29235 people, 1913 - 34520 people on 1917 - 44434 (33823) The Ussuri Cossacks in 1917 8% of the population of the Primorye region, and the army belonged 1,17 million hectares.

In 1890, the Ussuri foot half-battalion was transformed into the Ussuri equestrian division of a three-hundred-strong squad. In wartime, this division was to be put up (from 1902 regiment, from 1912 regiment and division), in the peace period the Ussuriysk army maintained one horse-drawn hundred (in 1902 a division of two hundred, from 1914 a regiment of three hundred personnel). Cossacks also served on the Amur-Ussuri Cossack flotillawatching the border, transporting goods between villages.

The Ussuri Division participated in the suppression of the Ihehetuan uprising in China in 1900, the Ussuri Cossack regiment in the 1904-05 Russian-Japanese War: the headquarters of the regiment and two hundred arrived in Liaoyang 1.2.1904, another four hundred 25.2.1904. In 1-th floor. 1910 in connection with the plague epidemic in China 450 Cossacks were watching the border.

8.1906 Ussuri equestrian division included in the formed Ussuriysky equestrian brigade. Also in the brigade included the Primorsky Dragoons and 1-th Nerchinsky Cossack (Transbaikalian Cossack troops) regiments. Ussuriysky Cossack Division lodged in Khabarovsk, in 3.1914 converted into a regiment of three hundred.

K 1913 UssurKV consisted of six sections.

18.7.1914 declared mobilization of troops Amur Military District. The Ussuri Cossack regiment is brought to the six-hundred composition, the Ussuri Cossack Division and 6 special horse hundreds are formed.

In Oct. 1914 Ussuri Cossack regiment as part of the Ussuri horse brigade sent to the front. From the beginning of November, the 1914 brigade operated as part of the North-Western Front. In November-December, 1914 operated north of Warsaw, in the area of ​​Tsekhanova and Mlava. In February, 1915, as part of the 12 Army, participated in the battles of Prasnysh, being located west of r. Orzhits. The Ussuri regiment distinguished itself during the capture of the village of Niskovizna, in the battle for the crossing at the village of Rudk Skrod, and also in the battle near the village of Portsyagi, where he rescued the 16 squadron of the 39 Siberian rifle regiment of the 4 Siberian Army Corps. In May, the brigade first defended at the turn of the river. Narew, then acted in western Kurland. 3.6. between Telshshe and Trishki, she broke into the German rear and destroyed the convoy of the 2 Cavalry Division, west of Lucniki, and then attacked the column of the 6 Cavalry Division south-west. All this significantly disrupted the supply and communication of the German troops.

In July, the 1915 Ussurian horse brigade as part of the 5 Army participated in the battle of Shavli. From the end of May to 2.7. was part of the detachment of Major-General Count M.N. Grabbe, with the assistance of the 17-th Infantry Division holding the position on the right bank of the r. Venta from Okmyan to Libau-Mitawa railway. The brigade was distinguished by the ability to fight and on foot, was considered a particularly stable compound and was used as a mobile reserve. For example, on the night of 2.7. passed positions to its neighbors and made a 20-km flank march to the north, to the Podnek area. Here is the afternoon 2.7. The Ussuri brigade (18 squadrons and hundreds with 10 guns) fought the German 41 Infantry Division (12 battalions with 80 guns), delaying its advancement and allowing time for the 13 Siberian Rifle Division to approach. 3.7. The brigade is subordinated to the commander of the 7 Siberian Army Corps, Lieutenant General N.I. Sulimov, the whole day led the battle with the German 6 th cavalry division at Alt Jvarden, and in the evening went to Ekendorf to cover the right flank of the corps. Fighting with the German cavalry, the brigade at the 5.7 evening. went to Goftsumberg and was included in the cavalry detachment of Lieutenant General Prince G.I. Trubetskoy. 10.7. fought with Shmettov’s cavalry corps near Shukshtany.

In the battle of Vilna, the Ussurian brigade with 15.8.1915 operated as part of the cavalry detachment of Lieutenant General N.N. Kaznakova, taking the line Mishnyuny - the lake and the river. Kertusha before the estate Voronovsk. The Kaznakov detachment, submitting to the 5 Army, covered the right flank of the 10 Army. At the end of August, the brigade occupied positions on the Bolosh and Dongis lakes, consistently led battles against the 10-th Landwehr and 58-th Infantry Divisions. In early September, the compound operated in the area of ​​Dvinsk (now Daugavpils), 8.9. sent from Kozan to Pastavy. The 25.9.-6.10.1915 consisted of 1897 fighters with 7 machine guns and 10 guns. In October, the 1915 Ussurian horse brigade reformed into a division.

In December, the Ussurian Cossack Division sent 1915 to the theater of war, arriving 26.1.1916 in Creutzburg on the Northern Front. In 3.1916, the division is included in the Ussuri horse division. By the summer of 1916 division was in reserve of the Northern Front. 5-10.7.1916 was transported by rail from Wenden to Kamenetz-Podolsky, to the 9 Army of the South-Western Front. The division made a three-day march to Bukovina, to Shipotkamerana, where, despite the lack of roads and rains, joined the attack of the troops of the 9 Army and until October she fought wooded Carpathians. At the end of November, the 1916 division made a 10-day shift to Romania, where in December it covered the retreat of the Romanian army to the line of the r. Gray At the same time when the division formed infantry division. After the departure, the division was in reserve in the Tekuchi-Byrlat district, in January 1917 was transferred to the Chisinau region to facilitate feed allowances.

Ussurian Cossack Host in the First World War

In May 1917. included in the 3 Cavalry Corps, at the end of August participated in the campaign of Lieutenant General A.M. Krymov on Petrograd, in October - in the campaign to the same Major General P.N. Krasnova. In September, it was located in the Pskov region.

In December 1917. The Ussuri Cossack Regiment and the Ussuri Cossack Division were sent to Primorye, where 1918 was demobilized in January. The first echelon with the Ussuri Cossacks arrived at the Grodekovo 2.1.1918 station.

In all, 1917 officers and 57 Ussuri Cossacks were on active duty for 1972. Of these, 483 received St. George crosses. During the war 165 Cossacks killed, 541 injured and 24 went missing. Thus, the army lost the killed 8,37% of the soldiers.

The atamans of the Ussurian Cossack army and the military governors of the Primorye region: Major General M.M. Manakin (28.2.1911-3.1.1914), temporarily served as colonel E. B. Kruse (1.1914), Lieutenant-General A.D. Stashevsky (21.1.1914-13.1.1916), Lieutenant-General B. .A. Tolmachev (20.1.1916-13.3.1917 - removed by the UssurKV gathering), elective: Esaul N. L. Popov (with 4.1917), podsesaul I. P. Kalmykov (with 3.10.1917).

Chairman of the UssurKV troop rule: Colonel, with 6.12.1915, Major General E. B. Kruse (16.5.1913-after 10.7.1916), Esaul N. L. Popov (with 4.1917).

The command composition of the compounds and parts UssurKV.

The commanders of the Ussurian horse brigade, with the 18.10.1915 divisions: Major Generals L. P. Kiselev (19.2.1912-5.2.1915), Colonel P. P. Zhulebin (temporarily 2-3.1915), A. M. Krymov (27.3.1915-30.3.1917), Colonel Zheleznov ( temporarily in mid-January 1917), P.N. Baron Wrangel (temporarily 23.1.-11.2.1917 and with 15.3.1917, appointed 30.3.1917-9.7.1917), A. A. Gubin (9.7.-7.10.1917), B. R. Khreshchatitsky (from 22.10.1917 to 1.1918).

Chiefs of Staff of the Ussurian Horse Brigade, with the 18.10.1915 division: Col. K. K. Peters (with 24.7.1913-1.1915), acting post Lieutenant Colonel M.Ye. Leontyev (22.3.1915-3.8.1916), Lieutenant Colonel G.P. Polkovnikov (1-7.1917).

Commanders of the Ussurian Cossack Regiment: Army Chief A. Gudzenko (11.1914 - beginning of 1915), colonel, with 8.4.1917, Major General A. A. Gubin (19.9.1915-7.5.1917), Colonel Pushkov (September 1917), colonel L. V. Verigo (from the beginning of September 1917 to 1.1918).

Wrangel P.N. Notes. November 1916. - November 1920. T. 1. M.-Minsk, 2002;
Goshtovt G. A. Cuirassiers of His Majesty in the Great War. 1915. Paris, 1942;
Krasnov P. N. On the domestic front // Archive of the Russian Revolution. Berlin, 1921, T. 1, C. 97-190.

Zhernakov A. About the Cossacks of the Ussuriysk in connection with the brief history Ussuri Cossack troops. Vladivostok, 1915;
Savitsky, A.G. A brief historical sketch of the Ussurian Cossack troops. Khabarovsk, 1908;
Savchenko, S. N., Ussurian Cossack Army in the Civil War in the Far East (1917-1922). Khabarovsk, 2002.

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  1. Magadan
    Magadan 16 August 2018 07: 25
    Of the almost 2000 Cossacks, only 165 died, with almost 500 fighters receiving George!
    Just a super result. A lot of stories of brilliant military training and courage of the Cossacks. It is a pity that many pages are forgotten, and the very memory of our valiant Cossacks is trying to defame with all their might. And even worthy people were led by anti-Cossack propaganda, accusing the Cossacks of all mortal sins ....
  2. Albatroz
    Albatroz 16 August 2018 09: 02
    The Ussuri Cossack army, especially Ukb, became famous in the WWI.
    More than deserved
  3. Nagaibak
    Nagaibak 16 August 2018 12: 46
    Is it true that the Ussuri team was awarded the St. George flag or standard? Will someone explain to me?
    1. fuxila
      fuxila 25 October 2018 17: 33
      The Ussuri Cossack regiment had insignia on headdresses for the Russo-Japanese War. Cossacks of the 1st Nerchinsky Transbaikal and Amur Cossack regiments and soldiers of the Primorsky Dragoon regiment, who were also part of the Ussuri division, had the same signs. In addition, residents of Amur and Primorye had insignia for suppressing the "Boxer" uprising in 1900, and Amur and Nerchians also had St. George's silver trumpets for the same campaign.
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 5 November 2018 20: 22
        Thanks for the info. I heard about the St. George award for World War I.
  4. Amurets
    Amurets 16 August 2018 13: 09
    The Ussuri Cossack army of Russia was formed on 26.6.1889 on the basis of the Ussuri pedestrian half-battalion from the southeastern part of the Amur Cossack army .... The Ussuri division participated in the suppression of the Ichtuan revolt in China in 1900.
    I will simply add: after the uprising of the Ichtuanians and the liquidation of the "Manchurian wedge" in the Amur region, in 1900 and later, it was necessary to dramatically increase the number of the Amur and Ussuri Cossack troops. I want to add that in addition to the troops listed by the author, in 1903 Cossacks from the Orenburg Cossack army began to appear in the Far East. My paternal grandfather and his brother were from the village of Orenburg, Orenburg Cossack army.