Clean and on wheels. Part of 1
Baths on the position.
The custom of steaming in a steam bath is one of the most widespread in Russia. From a primitive peasant bath to well-planned urban public baths (with showers, baths and swimming pools) - in any conditions a Russian person of the beginning of the 20 century did not deny himself the pleasure of steaming in the bathhouse.
In peacetime, every soldier of the Russian imperial army bathed once a week in a steam bath, due to which, perhaps, the incidence rate (especially of skin diseases) among Russian soldiers was so small compared with the armies of other countries.
But in the marching conditions of wartime, the Russian troops could use the bath only by chance - and this is when the soldiers of the Army in Forces, for weeks and months, being in the trenches of advanced positions, needed it especially strongly. But insanitary conditions led to the emergence of parasites, which brought with them not only painful anxiety, but also were distributors of dangerous diseases.
In previous wars, losses from infectious diseases often exceeded many losses from weapons the adversary.
We give a few numbers to prove this. For example, in the Russian-Turkish war 1877 - 1878. for 1 of the year and 4 of the month, the loss of Russian troops from enemy weapons was expressed in the figure of 36455 people, and from diseases - 87621 people; in the Crimean War 1854 - 1856 the French army lost 20210 from the enemy’s effects, 75375 people died from the disease, and the British army lost 4604 people from the weapons in the same war, and 17580 people from the diseases. And even the Austrian observation corps, who did not take part in the battles, lost 35000 people from some diseases.
The following fact serves as an even more convincing example: during the first winter in the Crimean campaign, the British lost twice as many people from typhus than the French - but then the British took various measures to improve the health of their troops, while the French did nothing still leaving their soldiers to spend the winter in tents - in the former unsanitary conditions. As a result, on 10248 deaths from typhoid fever among the French, only 10 people died from the disease from the English.
These figures illustrate the terrible danger that threatens the army, which does not take measures to keep the body and clothing clean and destroy parasites. And the most radical measure to achieve the latter is the use of warriors baths. After all, no matter how many removable underwear, whatever measures are taken to destroy parasites, the dirty body of a soldier is a grateful ground for the reproduction of all kinds of parasites and the spread of infectious diseases. And during wounds, dirt from the body or underwear that accidentally entered the wound turns the most insignificant wound into an infection with serious consequences.
Russian troops massively created a stationary bath. But the command and government thought about how to reach as many people as possible and serve the soldiers as quickly and efficiently as possible.
At the meeting of 19 in October 1914 in October, the Main Committee of the Ministry of Transport and Communications for assisting sick and wounded soldiers, the chairman of the committee E. E. Rukhlova expressed the idea to assist the Army in action by creating a mobile bath-train bath.
The proposal caused a lively response among the members of the committee, and it was decided to choose a special commission for the construction of the train-bath.
The commission included: Chairman N. D. Baidak (Chairman of the Board of the Moscow-Vindava-Rybinsk Railway Society) and members I. K. Ivanovsky (Head of the Nikolaev Railway), F. M. Valuev (Head of the North-Western Railways), V. I. Svyatitsky (manager of the Petrograd network of the Moscow-Vindava-Rybinsk railway), M. N. Groten, Dr. M. A. Zausailov, A. P. Klyagin, G. P. Adashev, P. N. Kotelnikov, M. M. Ivanov, A. O. Chechott and VD Shemansky.
Having received the task to design and build a train-bath (which was absolutely new), the commission, when discussing the composition of the train-bath, concluded that, in addition to the bath, changing rooms and dressing rooms, it was necessary to create cameras to destroy parasites on linen and clothes washable, and also be able to disinfect underwear and clothing. It was also considered desirable after the bath to serve hot tea to soldiers in special tea cars, so that those who washed out immediately did not get into the cold air.
It was necessary to create living quarters for the administration and crew in such a train, as well as to arrange a kitchen for those serving the train, carriages for warehouses of linen, soap and other necessary supplies. A power station wagon was also needed to illuminate the train, the water tank, etc.
Thus, the commission stopped at the following train-bath composition: 4 carriage - bathhouse itself, 2 car locker room, 2 car dressing room, carriage for disinfection, carriage for disinsection, 3 carriage tea and kitchens, 2 caravan carriage, 3 car of storage rooms - warehouses, 2 tanks for water, a wagon-power station and a locomotive with a tender for heating cars and heating water for a bath.
As a result, the composition of the train-bath - 19 cars, 2 tanks and locomotive. In case the maneuvering of the train due to its size would be difficult, which would prevent it from approaching the advanced positions, i.e. to the place of the most productive work, the commission decided to equip the train so that it could be divided into 2 independent train-baths.
Two large oil tanks, insulated with felt and iron, were taken to store water. In addition, there was a supply of water in the tender of the locomotive and in the tanks of the bath cars themselves. To replenish the water supply except the railway water supply (which could have been damaged in the area), the train had an 2 portable pump with all the necessary devices for supplying water from any natural source, and when the train was divided into two parts, one pump could work from a power station, and the other from the dynamo, mounted on a steam train.
The 8-wheeled locomotive with a tender (from the number of old ones excluded from service) is intended for heating all cars of the train-bath, as well as for heating the bath water. The steam locomotive served as a boiler for steam and water heating. A dynamo-machine is installed on the train for lighting the train-bath - one of its parts in the case of division, as noted above. The locomotive also had a portable electric pump for supplying water from the nearest natural source.
The next component of the train-bath is a wagon of disinsection - the destruction of parasites on linen and washable clothes. This car has 6 cameras installed. Each chamber consisted of a wooden box, inside which on the horizontal axis was placed an 6-faceted drum of a wide-leafed metal grid. The drums were driven by handles placed at the ends of the axles. Each chamber had a ventilation pipe. All the chambers were heated with the help of a coil placed below - through which steam was passing from the engine boiler. The temperature in the chamber reached 100 and more degrees - which ensured the destruction of parasites on clothes and underwear of the washing soldiers.
The way of working was the following: bags of linen are loaded into the drums, and the drums are driven into rotation. Heated air for 10 - 15 minutes kills parasites. The mechanism was tested on 4 November 1914 of the year - and it was found that the device heats up well and stably maintains the required temperature.
It would seem that for greater effect, clothes should be placed directly in the drum-chamber without bags - but then a lot of time is spent on disassembling, sorting and distributing things to each soldier. Bags were used loosely - and the parasites were qualitatively destroyed, even in the folds of woolen things.
Each soldier, taking off his underwear and clothes, put the first one into one, and the second into a different bag - to which the numbers corresponding to the occupied places were attached. The orderlies transferred the bags to the disinsection wagon, and after the end of the disinsection they transferred the bags to the dressing room - placing them in accordance with the numbers of the places where they were in the changing room.
The vehicles were located in the middle of the carriage — bags of dirty laundry and clothes came through one door of the carriage, and through the opposite, clean objects came out.
The next component of the train-bath was a car - a disinfection chamber of the Japanese system, but of an improved type. The carriage is well insulated, the outside is sheathed with wood, and inside the walls are lined with zinc welded sheets.
The car is divided into three parts. The first part is intended for a warehouse of contaminated linen and clothes, the second - the average - the actual disinfection chamber, and the third was used to accommodate neutralized items. In the first compartment, the Simon system steam generator is placed, which gives a large amount of superheated steam (its advantage over non-superheated steam is that the disinfected items are not sufficiently moistened, and are immediately ready for use after disinfection). Disinfection in this cell required at least half an hour of time - and served only to disinfect infected or suspicious objects (and not the laundry and clothing of everyone washing in the bath).
The principle of action was as follows.
The disinfection chamber was heated to 65 °. Then disinfected items were placed in it - in a hung condition. Then, using a nozzle, superheated steam was blown into this chamber with the addition of formalin. To eliminate the pungent odor of formalin, after the end of disinfection, ammonia was injected in the same way - and the disinfected items immediately became usable.
The train lighting is electric. It was carried out from its own power station. The latter also set in motion a pump for pumping water. In case of deterioration of electric lighting, the train is equipped with all necessary devices for lighting with candles.
In the same car shoe and tailoring workshops are located - for the production of small repairs of shoes and clothes. There was also the necessary staff of shoemakers and tailors, as well as a significant stock of tools and materials. A portable electric pump is installed in the same car to supply water from the source along the route - which we discussed above.
Next are dressing cars.
For the locker room, 4-axle wagons are used. Outside they are warmed with felt, roofing felt and wood paneling. These cars had double floors, which are covered with linoleum. Entrance doors are placed one on each side. The windows of the cars are made at the height of the available hatches and arranged in a checkerboard pattern. Glazing - in the form of pressed glass. In the cars there were three ceiling fans - as in ordinary passenger cars.
The dressing room equipment consisted of benches with numbered seats (48 units), and for service personnel and barbers there were unnumbered spaces under the windows. The shelves above the benches and the places under them are also numbered and served to accommodate the removable linen and clothes undressed. Each seat is 650 mm in size, on a bench, shelves and under a bench, separated from another by a partition.
Before entering the locker room, each fighter handed over his valuables for storage to the head of the train - under the receipt. At the entrance to the dressing room, each soldier received a metal number, which he searches for and takes the appropriate place. A visitor puts his dirty outer clothing in one bag and his laundry in another. Bags, with pre-attached numbers corresponding to the numbers of the owners, are placed under the benches and on the upper shelves.
In the dressing room, the soldiers could be trimmed and shaved - barbers existing in the car. The haircut was done by mechanical or manual typewriters.
Since the bath, if it is used by infectious patients, can bring the opposite effect (in the sense of spreading the infection), the paramedics and bath attendants who are part of the administration of the train-bath were charged with the strict duty to inspect each group of soldiers in the locker room before admitting wagon bath.
Identified patients, especially with skin diseases, as well as suspicious ones, the paramedic was immediately isolated and allowed to use the bath separately from the healthy ones. After this, the bath, dressing room and dressing room were thoroughly disinfected.
From the locker room, soldiers who had undressed and left their dirty laundry and clothes through warmed inter-car crossings moved into the bath-cars.
Rope mats were placed on the floor of the locker rooms and in the passages.
Consider the "heart" of the train-bath-car-bath.
When designing the car-bath, the main requirement was taken into account - so that with the largest volume of those who washed themselves, the least possible amount of water should be spent and the most economical cost should be spent.
To this end, it was decided to stay on the shower system - which has the advantage that with a constant change of fresh water washing washable, there is less chance of transmitting an infection from one person to another. The relative cheapness of the shower system also mattered.
Having become accustomed to bathing on the shelves traditional for a Russian bath-house, the Russian soldier did not change his habit in the bath-train. The steam room allowed the fighter to lie on the shelf for several minutes - to sweat and steam, and then go into the shower.
For the bath cars, 4-axle Pullman 3-class cars were used - well-warmed outside with felt, roofing and sheathing. For greater purity and strength, the car panel is covered with zinc, and the upper part of the walls, the ceiling and the floor are covered with linoleum and painted with oil paint. The floors are covered with a wooden lattice, had a significant slope to certain places - in which there were holes for water drainage, equipped with pipes with water siphons.
Two thirds of this carriage was occupied by a soap compartment and one third by a steam room In the first compartment, along the walls of the car, there were 24 showers and 4 taps - two with hot and two with cold water. Souls are separated from each other by partitions - to provide each washable with an isolated place. Benches are installed in the middle of the compartment.
The second compartment, the steam room, had parks for shelves, three showers, also partitions insulated from each other, and an 2 tap.
In the steam room there were installed additional radiators - and the temperature reached 65 degrees. Cold and hot water mixed with special mixer taps is held for each soul. The windows are double, supplied with pressed glass. On both sides of the cars - insulated vestibules (to keep the bath temperature as high as possible). To prevent the erosion of the path at the points of the parking of the bathhouse, dirty water was diverted to a considerable distance from the railway.
How was the washing process?
Undressing in the locker room, the soldiers went into the bath. Here each of them received a bar of soap, a washcloth and a metal basin (for making soapy water). Issued inventory, watched the order in the bath and adjusted the mixer taps 2 bath attendant (for each car).
As we noted above, each car-bath had 24 shower seats - hence, one car-locker room that accommodated 48 people required two car-baths. At the same time half an hour was given to washing. While the people were washing, the orderlies carried their bags of laundry into the disinfection chamber (to kill insects) and (if necessary) into the disinfection chamber.
Washed in the bath went into the dressing room. It was organized similarly to the dressing room. Upon entering it, the fighter according to the number that was issued to him at the entrance to the locker room, easily searched for the number of his place (the same as in the locker room) and found a set of clean underwear and his clothes, which had already been rendered harmless and disinfected. Dirty linen, after appropriate disinsection was transferred to the warehouse car for dirty linen.
On other details of the functioning of the train-bath, as well as on how large-scale such trains operated, in the next article of the cycle.
The ending should ...
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