After the conclusion of an armistice in March 1968, the combat capability of the air defense forces of North Vietnam was seriously increased. By the second half of 1968, the air defense troops of the DRV had 5 air defense divisions and 4 separate radio regiments. The Air Force formed the 4 Fighter Regiment, which operated 59 MiG-17F / PF, 12 J-6 (Chinese version of the MiG-19С) and 77 MiG-21F-13 / PF / PFM. From 1965 to 1972, the X-NUMX SA-95M and 75 anti-aircraft missiles were delivered to the DRV in the DRV. The role and intensity of the use of the air defense missile system in repelling American air strikes can be judged based on the fact that at the time of the end of the war, 7658 missiles were spent or lost.
Among the new fighters were MiG-21PFM with improved take-off and landing characteristics, more advanced avionics, a KM-1 ejection seat and a suspended gondola with an 23-mm gun GSH-23L. Shortly before the end of the Vietnam War, the MiG-21МФ with more powerful engines, the built-in 23-mm cannon and the RP-22 BRLS entered the VNA air force. These fighters already had the ability to mount four air combat missiles, including those with radar seeker, which increased the combat capabilities in poor visibility conditions at night.
Also, Vietnamese pilots mastered Chinese-made supersonic fighters J-6. Compared to the MiG-17F, armed with two 30-mm guns, the supersonic J-6 had great potential when intercepting tactical and carrier-based American attack aircraft aviation. According to Western data, until January 1972, 54 J-6 fighters were sent to Vietnam.
The Vietnamese J-6 first joined the battle on 8 in May of 1972. That day they went up to intercept the Phantom F-4 four. The Vietnamese said they won two aerial victories, but this is not confirmed by American data. According to the memoirs of the American pilots who participated in the fighting in Southeast Asia, Chinese-made MiG-19 were even more dangerous than the more modern MiG-21, armed only with missiles. In 1968 — 1969, Vietnam received the 54 F-6, which was armed with the 925 th Fighter Wing. During the hostilities, the air regiment suffered significant losses, and in 1974, China handed over the DRV to the 24 F-6.
Until December 1972, the North Vietnamese radio engineering divisions underwent significant quantitative and qualitative enhancement. In 1970, the P-12MP radar appeared in the air defense system, which could operate in the flicker mode to protect against Shrike anti-radar missiles. The existing P-30 radar and the PRV-10 radio altimeter were also upgraded to improve noise immunity. received surveillance radars P-35 and highly mobile P-15, designed to detect low-altitude targets.
As of the end of 1972, the number of anti-aircraft artillery at the disposal of the Vietnamese People’s Army and the Viet Cong units had reached 10 000 guns. Approximately half of the Vietnamese anti-aircraft guns were 37-mm 61-K and Sparky B-47 assault rifles. Despite the fact that the 61-K was put into service in the 1939 year, and the B-47 shortly after the end of the Great Patriotic War, these anti-aircraft guns shot down more enemy aircraft and helicopters in Southeast Asia than all the other anti-aircraft guns.
Vietnamese calculation 37-mm anti-aircraft gun 61-K
Judging by the available photographs, a number of open-top anti-aircraft towers with 37-mm paired guns were delivered to the DRV. Apparently, these were sea 37-mm installations В-11М, which were mounted on stationary positions in North Vietnam.
Unlike the 61-K and B-47 guns, designed to be placed on the deck of the ship of the turret, the B-11M were protected with splinter armor and equipped with a forced water-cooling system for the barrels, which made it possible to conduct long firing.
From the middle of the 60's, in North Vietnam, 57-mm C-60 anti-aircraft guns were used to protect important objects. In practical rate of fire, they were slightly inferior to 37-mm machine guns, but had a large slant firing range and reach in height.
Fixed position 57 mm C-60 guns
The target designation of the six-gun battery was centrally carried out by PUAZO-6 in conjunction with the SON-9A gun-tracking radar. Numerous fortified positions were built around Hanoi and Haiphona for anti-aircraft guns of caliber 57-mm and above. Some of them have survived to this day.
During the Vietnam War, virtually all 85-K and KS-52 anti-aircraft guns were stored in the DRV from the Soviet Union. By the middle of the 1-x these guns are hopelessly outdated, but in the warehouses there were very significant stocks of shells to them. Although the 60-mm guns did not have centralized gun-drive drives and were mainly firing anti-aircraft guns, they played a certain role in repelling American air raids. At the same time, the consumption of anti-aircraft missiles of all calibers was very high. During the period of intense American air raids, at least one train with shells arrived daily in Chinese airways through the Chinese territory.
In the 60-s, the 100-mm anti-aircraft guns of the KS-19 available in the DRV air defense forces were considered quite modern. The fire of the six-gun battery was centrally controlled by the CON-4 radar station. This station was created in 1947 year on the basis of the American radar SCR-584, supplied during the Second World Lend Lease. Although the TTN battery 100-mm anti-aircraft guns could fire air targets flying at altitudes up to 15000 m at speeds up to 1200 km / h, the active jamming generators available on American aircraft that were actively used from the 1968 of the year often paralyzed the work of gun stations and the guns fired anti-aircraft fire or according to data obtained from optical rangefinders. Which significantly reduced the effectiveness of shooting. However, the same applied to the SON-9, used in conjunction with C-57 60-mm guns.
Vietnamese ZSU-23-4 in firing position
At the final stage of the war, low-altitude C-125 SAM systems appeared in the VNA, used mainly to cover airfields, self-propelled anti-aircraft guns ZSU-23-4 Shilka and towed twin anti-aircraft gun ZU-23. However, data on how modern it is by the standards of those years weapon proved to be effective in the conditions of Southeast Asia, in the open press there is practically no.
Appear C-125, Shilka and 23-mm towed pairings in North Vietnam by how many years earlier, the losses of American and South Vietnamese aviation could have been significantly higher, which, of course, could have an effect on the timing of the end of the conflict. Many historians who write about the Vietnam War pay attention to the fact that the USSR, at about the same time interval, supplied the Arabs with much more modern equipment and weapons of the air defense forces. For example, the export version of the Cube-Kvadrat SAM system appeared in Vietnam only at the end of 70-x, the same applies to the RPK-1 VAZ radar system, which had significantly greater capabilities than the gun-laying station DREAM-9A and DREAM-4. This was due to the fact that the Soviet leadership rightly feared that modern high-tech weapons would end up in China, which at the end of the 60s in many respects behaved openly hostile towards the Soviet Union. The Soviet representatives in the DRV, responsible for the delivery of equipment, weapons and ammunition, repeatedly recorded cases of loss of goods sent from the USSR while passing them by rail through the territory of the PRC. First of all, this concerned the stations targeting anti-aircraft missile systems, anti-aircraft missiles, surveillance radars, radio altimeters, radar stations and MiG-21 fighters. Thus, China, without disdaining outright theft, after the cessation of military-technical cooperation with the USSR, tried to pull up its own Air Force and air defense forces to the present level. In this regard, many samples of equipment and weapons were delivered to North Vietnam by sea, which was associated with a high risk. American aviation regularly bombed Haiphong, mined the port waters, and underwater saboteurs operated there.
The VNA leadership, which had the experience of partisan warfare itself, paid great attention to increasing the capabilities of small-scale air defense forces operating in isolation from the main forces. In the middle of the 60-ies, the Vietnamese side requested the leadership of the USSR to provide them with an easy anti-aircraft system capable of effectively fighting American aircraft in guerrilla warfare in the jungle and suitable for carrying as separate packs. After receiving the Vietnamese order, the 1967-mm anti-aircraft mining installation ZGU-14,5 was successfully launched into production in the 1 year, which successfully passed field testing as early as the 1956 year. With a mass in the combat position 220 kg, the installation was disassembled into five parts with a mass of no more than 40 kg. It is also possible to transport ZGU-1 in the back of a truck. As the experience of combat use of the ZSU-1 has shown, it can fire directly from the vehicle. The Vietnamese very often used improvised ZSU to escort transport and military convoys and anti-aircraft cover at the troop concentrations.
14,5-mm quad machine gun type 56
Simultaneously with the ZGU-1 folding and suitable for carrying over long distances, several hundreds of quad 14,5-mm ZPU Type 56 were shipped from the PRC to North Vietnam. This installation was a complete copy of the Soviet towed ZPU-4, which were also available in the air defense units of the VNA. The Chinese equivalent of 14,5-mm Sparky ZPU-2 supplied to Vietnam is known as Type 58.
In addition to 1971-mm, PGI-14,5 and 1-DShK, small infantry units of the VNA in 12,7 received at their disposal Strela-2 MANPADS with a launch range of up to 3400 m and reachability of 1500 m, which dramatically increased their ability to combat low-altitude aerial targets.
Seriously strengthened air defense system of North Vietnam was subjected to rigorous testing in the second half of December 1972. Due to the breakdown of the peace talks, the delegation of North Vietnam 13 December 1972 left Paris. The main reason for the termination of the dialogue was the unacceptable demands made by the leadership of South Vietnam and supported by the United States. In order to force the DRV government to return to negotiations on favorable terms, the Americans launched an air operation Linebacker II (eng. Linebacker - midfielder). The X-NUMX strategic bombers B-188, 52 F-48A fighter-bombers, capable of carrying low-altitude throws and more other types of 111 aircraft, were attracted to it. That is, almost the entire group of US strategic, tactical and carrier-based aviation, based on this theater of operations. The operation began on the evening of December 800, 18, with a simultaneous attack on the main home airfields of North Vietnamese fighters and the well-known positions of the air defense system. Subsequently, the main efforts of the American military aviation were focused on the destruction of important industrial facilities, the capital of the DRV, Hanoi, the main seaport of Haiphong and the industrial region Thinghuen were subjected to intensive raids. The air operation lasted 1972 days. During this time, 12 carried out massive strikes: 33 - strategic aviation, 17 - tactical and aircraft carrier, 16 made sorties, including 2814 - strategic bombers.
B-52G at Andersen airbase, 1972 year
For the first time, the United States Air Force engaged B-52 Stratofortress strategic bombers to strike the DRV territory in April 1966. Then they struck two blows at the “Ho Chi Minh Trails” section bordering Laos. Before 1972, B-52 regularly bombed supply lines and Vietcong positions in South Vietnam. Bombers operated from Andersen bases in Guam and Upatao in Thailand. The main burden of the struggle with the “Stratospheric Fortresses” fell precisely on the calculations of the air defense system. By that time, there were about 40 anti-aircraft missile divisions armed with CA-75M in the DRV.
Already at the end of 60, Vietnamese calculations were carried out on CA-75M, which learned quite a bit of sophisticated equipment, learned how to mask their complexes in the jungle, and make ambushes on the flight routes of American aircraft. Often, the Vietnamese almost in their arms dragged complexes along the glades laid out in dense tropical vegetation. At the same time, the airfield system often operated with a trimmed lineup: the 1-2 launchers and the CHP-75 guidance station. The search for the target was carried out visually, since the P-12 radar unmasked the position with its radiation and was too burdensome when traveling off-road.
The moment of defeat by the anti-aircraft missile of the American reconnaissance aircraft RF-4C
The victims of the North Vietnamese air defense systems, leading the "free hunt", often became Drones, single tactical reconnaissance aircraft or strike vehicles that broke away from the main group. During one of these raids, on November 22, in the area between the demilitarized zone and the 20th parallel, the first American strategic bomber was shot down. The B-52D received critical damage as a result of a close rupture of the warhead of the B-750B missile, the crew managed to reach Thailand and parachute out.
B-52D bombing South Vietnam
The largest number of sorties in Southeast Asia was made by the B-52D modification bombers. This bomber was able to carry 108 227-kg bombs Mk.82 with a total mass of 24516 kg. Usually, bombing was carried out from a height of 10-12 km. At the same time, a zone of continuous destruction of 1000 on 2800 m was formed on the ground. Given that up to a hundred bombers simultaneously participated in the raids, they were capable of inflicting enormous damage on the economy and defense potential of North Vietnam.
In order to eliminate losses from VNA air force fighter aircraft and to minimize the effectiveness of anti-aircraft artillery fire, B-52 raids against the DRV were carried out exclusively at night. However, it was not possible to completely avoid losses. On the night from December 19 to 20, when repelling raids on Hanoi and Haiphong, anti-aircraft missile divisions launched American bombers around 200 missiles. In this case, there were cases when 10-12 missiles were used almost simultaneously by one bomber. By the end of 1972, most of the American “strategists” had very powerful broadband active jamming stations, and the guidance operators, often unable to accompany the target, put the missiles at the center of the interference. As a result, six B-52 were shot down that night, and several more were damaged. It turned out that when using a significant amount of missiles on one plane, EW stations do not guarantee its invulnerability. Substantial losses incurred by the bomber wings of the strategic aviation command caused a break in the bombardments, the American command quickly developed a new tactic during two days, the experts refined the electronic warfare equipment, and the radio reconnaissance aircraft detected the position of the air defense missile system and radar for further suppression or destruction. The Americans temporarily abandoned their actions in large groups, sending bombers on 9-30 missions. The next massive air attack took place on December 26. The B-78G 52 bomber group and 42 B-52D bomber climbed from Andersen airbase, and Utapao airbase also joined them. Ten sites located in the vicinity of Hanoi were bombed. This time, a new tactic was tested - seven waves of five or six triples in each went to the targets along different routes and at different heights.
The vulnerability of strategic bombers of various modifications was different. So, experts note that B-52D, equipped with ALT-28EM jamming equipment, turned out to be much less vulnerable than D-52G, which did not have such equipment. Tactical and carrier-based aircraft for self-protection were forced to carry suspended containers with EW equipment, which reduced the bomb load.
F-105 Thunderchief bombing fighter jets, leader of jammer EB-66 Destroyer
Often enough to cover the fighters of bombers, loaded to the eyeballs with bombs, the planes of electronic intelligence and EW B-66 Destroyer were allocated. In addition, dozens of tons of aluminum foil were dropped on the routes of the impact machines. Dipole reflectors formed a curtain that made it difficult for American radars to detect American aircraft and escort their missile guidance stations.
The interception of American "strategists" by fighter aircraft also proved to be very difficult. It would seem that the slow, bulky “Stratospheric Fortresses”, reaching large groups, should have been light targets for supersonic MiG-21 fighter jets. However, MiG pilots failed to achieve results that would have forced the American command to abandon the use of B-52.
The first attempts to intercept the B-52 using the MiG-21PF were undertaken in March of the 1969 year. But the Americans quickly found North Vietnamese fighters at a field airfield near the demilitarized zone and bombed them. In the first half of 1971, the MiGs repeatedly launched unsuccessful attacks. However, the interception of the Stratospheric Fortresses at night was extremely complicated by strong electronic countermeasures. The Americans not only interfered with the P-35 ground surveillance radars, but also jammed the fighter targeting radio channels. Attempts to use airborne radar MiG-21PF were also unsuccessful. When the RP-21 radar was turned on, its indicator was completely illuminated due to the high level of interference. In addition, the radiation of the MiG radar was recorded by warning stations mounted on bombers, which unmasked the interceptor. After that, the B-52 arrows and US escort fighters immediately activated. For the first time, MiG-21PF successfully attacked B-52 20 on October 1971. The fighter, induced by the bombers on commands from the ground, after briefly turning on RP-21, specifying the position of the target, fired the P-3C rocket from the maximum distance. IR GOS rocket captured heat-emitting engine B-52, but one hit of a relatively light melee UR designed to defeat tactical aircraft was not enough for a heavy "strategist" and the damaged American bomber was able to reach its airfield.
During the operation Linebacker II, interceptor fighters managed to shoot down two US strategic bomber. This time there were more advanced MiG-21МФ. Good luck smiled to the pilot of the 921 th Fighter Aviation Regiment Pham Tuan at night 27 December. Thanks to the coordinated actions of the guidance service, the Vietnamese pilot missed with the escort fighters and accurately entered the top three B-52, going with aeronautical lights on. A volley from two missiles launched from the 2000 m, he destroyed the bomber and was able to safely return to his airfield. After one B-52 was shot down, the other bombers, the next ones in the group, quickly got rid of the bombs and lay back. For this feat, Pham Tuan, who later became the first Vietnamese astronaut, was awarded the Golden Star of the Hero of Vietnam.
The second B-52 Vietnamese interceptors managed to shoot down the next night. Unfortunately, the Vietnamese pilot By Haun Thieu did not return from a combat mission. What actually happened was not known for certain. But on the ground next to the wreckage of the downed B-52 fragments of the MiG were found. Most likely, the pilot of the MiG-21МФ fighter during the attack collided with a bomber or fired missiles from too close a distance and was killed by a bomb blast.
Debris In-52, shot down during the operation Linebacker II
The B-52 raids continued until January 28 and 1973, and stopped just a few hours before the signing of the Paris Peace Accords. During the Linebacker II operation, the B-52 bombers on the 34 target dropped approximately 85 000 bombs with a total mass of more than 15 000 tons. During the bombing of the territory of North Vietnam, the American strategic bomber aircraft destroyed and seriously damaged 1600 various engineering objects and buildings. Storage facilities for petroleum products with a total capacity of 11,36 million liters were destroyed, ten airfields and 80% of power plants were disabled. According to official Vietnamese data, civilian casualties were 1318 people killed and 1260 injured.
According to Soviet sources, the enemy's 81 aircraft, including 34 B-52 strategic bomber, were destroyed during the repulse of the “New Year air offensive”. The VNA anti-aircraft missile forces shot down an 32 of this type of aircraft, and fighter aircraft recorded two B-52 at their own expense. Americans give other statistics: according to their data, they irrevocably lost 31 aircraft, of which 17 are considered shot down during hostilities, 1 bomber is written off due to combat damage as non-recoverable, 11 crashed in flight accidents, 1 was written off due to non-recovery combat damage and 1 burned out at the airfield. However, among those “crashed in flight accidents” there must be cars damaged by missiles or anti-aircraft guns. There is a case when, during landing at an airfield in Thailand, heavily damaged by a close rupture of the Z-V-52 missile, rolled out of the runway and exploded on mines installed around the airfield to protect against partisans, only the side gunner in the tail section survived . Subsequently, this aircraft was recorded as "crashed in a flight incident." All in all, the United States believes that the CA-75M air defense system in Southeast Asia shot down American aircraft 205.
After the raids on the territory of the DRV, the air war in Southeast Asia did not stop. Although the Americans withdrew their ground forces as part of the “Vietnamization” of the conflict, combat aircraft of the US Air Force and Navy continued to deliver bombing and assault attacks on the advancing battle formations of the North Vietnamese army and transport communications. At the end of the 60s, detachments of South Vietnamese partisans actually joined the regular units of the Vietnam People’s Army. Along the "Ho Chi Minh Trail", along which columns were moving south along with trucks tanks and artillery, batteries of anti-aircraft guns and even positions of anti-aircraft missile divisions appeared.
However, from the very beginning of the liberation movement of the Vietnamese people, French and then American combat aircraft were even fired from flint-shotguns. This episode is even featured in Air America's 1990, with Mel Gibson and Robert Downey Jr. starring.
North Vietnamese militia learn to fire at air targets
All the South Vietnamese partisans and military personnel of the North Vietnamese army were required to practice their fire skills on air targets. For this, they even created special handicraft "simulators".
Vietcong fighter aims from M2 carbine to American helicopters
Partisans operating in the jungle, as a rule, did not miss the opportunity to fire at planes and helicopters that were within reach. For this purpose, the most diverse small arms of Soviet, American and even German production were used.
Vietcong fighters firing at air targets from the American machine gun M60
Oddly enough, until the overthrow of the South Vietnamese regime in the VNA, MG-34 anti-aircraft machine guns, delivered from the USSR in the 50-s, were used. This is confirmed by numerous photographs of those years.
Vietnamese anti-aircraft gunners with MG-34
But at the same time, no mention was made of the use of Vietnamese anti-aircraft gunners with captured Japanese 13,2-mm anti-aircraft 13,2-mm 93 and 20-mm artillery 98 anti-aircraft guns in combat. The same applies to the Hotchkiss M13,2 and M1929 1930-mm machine guns, although they were supposed to go to the Vietnamese as trophies from the French contingent.
Vietnamese calculation 12,7-mm machine gun DShK
But there are a lot of photos of anti-aircraft calculations with 12,7-mm machine guns of DShK and DShKM of military and post-war release and their Chinese copies of Type 54, which externally differ in muzzle flame arresters and sighting devices.
The machine gunner is ready to open fire with a machine gun DShKM
Very often, the Vietcong and VNA fighters fired from Soviet and Chinese rifle machine guns at air targets. Of the Soviet machine guns, these were most often SG-43 and SGM. At the beginning of the 70-x in service with the Vietnamese, the Chinese Type 67 appeared, which constructively had much in common with the Goryunov machine gun.
VNA fighters firing at air targets from SGM easel machine gun
However, in North Vietnam there were some very rare anti-aircraft machine-gun installations. So, for the air defense of stationary objects was used the installation of the arr. 1928 g. Under the machine gun system Maxim arr. 1910
Vietnamese calculation of anti-aircraft machine gun arr. Xnumx
It is noteworthy that by the year 1944 practically all anti-aircraft installations of this type in the Red Army were driven out by large-bore DShK heavy machine guns. Yes, and before the end of the Second World War ZPU arr. 1928 has lived very little.
Anti-aircraft fire from small arms and anti-aircraft machine-gun systems was particularly destructive for helicopters, which were very widely used by the American and South Vietnamese armed forces. Since 1972, the Strela-2 has appeared at the disposal of the North Vietnamese military and partisans operating in South Vietnam.
Fighter VNA with MANPADS "Strela-2"
According to information from domestic sources, in the period from 1972 to 1975, the year in Vietnam produced 589 MANPADS launches and shot down 204 American and South Vietnamese airplanes and helicopters. However, this information is likely to be greatly overestimated. According to American data, the Strela-2 missiles in reality destroyed no more than 50 aircraft, which, in general, is consistent with the statistics of the use of Soviet first-generation MANPADS in other conflicts. At the same time, in the book of Chris Hobson “Losses in the air in Vietnam”, taking into account actions in Cambodia and Laos, the portable Strela-2 complexes could have hit about a hundred airplanes and helicopters. At the same time, many observers noted that the warhead of the missile of the portable complex was relatively weak. Its power was quite enough to destroy helicopters UH-1 Iroquois and AN-1 Cobra, as well as light attack aircraft A-1 Skyraider and A-37 Dragonfly. But the larger cars, often getting hit, returned safely to their airfields. In addition to helicopters and attack aircraft, the ganships and military transport planes in the Southeast Asia were often hit by military transport aircraft, which were involved in supplying the besieged South Vietnamese garrisons.
Combat damage caused by hitting a MANPADS missile by safely returning to its airfield with the AC-130 Specter ganship
Among the survivors of the strike "Arrows-2" were even two South Vietnamese fighter F-5 Tiger II. At the same time, the Strela-2 MANPADS, despite the not always sufficient power of the warhead, together with the anti-aircraft guns played a very prominent role at the final stage of the Vietnam War, preventing the air forces of South Vietnam from slowing down the offensive of VNA units. So 29 on April 1975 of the year, on the penultimate day of the war over Saigon, MANPADS were shot down by the A-1 Skyraider attack aircraft and the “ganship” of the AS-119K Stinger.
Piston attack aircraft A-1, made an emergency landing
Regarding the losses incurred by the air force, navy, army and aviation of the USMC during the Vietnam War, the controversy has not ceased until now. As shows story Wars, loss counting is always hampered by incomplete information, official mistakes made by documents or researchers during material collection and analysis, and sometimes by deliberate distortions of objective data. Detailed consideration of this topic requires a separate publication, but based on the analysis of various sources, it can be concluded that the Americans in Southeast Asia lost about 10 000 aircraft: approximately 4000 aircraft, more 5500 helicopters and 578 reconnaissance drones downed over the Northern Vietnam and China. Here you should also add the losses of American allies: 13 aircraft and helicopters of the Australian Air Force and more 1300 South Vietnamese aircraft. Of course, not all airplanes and helicopters lost by the United States and its allies were shot down in battle. Some of them crashed during flight accidents or were destroyed on the airfields by partisans. In addition, North Vietnam in 1975, at the South Vietnamese air bases, managed to capture 877 aircraft and helicopters. The ZSU American-made M42 Duster, armed with an 40-mm pairing and towed four-way 12,7-MM55, which were actively used at the final stage of the war for firing at ground targets, also became trophies of the DRV army. In 1965, the Americans, fearing the attacks of the North Vietnamese IL-28 bombers, deployed MIM-23 HAWK anti-aircraft missiles around their airbases, but they did not transfer the South Vietnamese armies and all the Hoki returned to the United States after the withdrawal of American troops.
In turn, the DRV Air Force lost the 154 fighter, including during the air battles: 63 MiG-17, 8 J-6 and 60 MiG-21. Also, radio engineering units and anti-aircraft missile forces of the Vietnamese People’s Army lost more than 70% of the available radar and air defense systems. Nevertheless, it can be stated that the air defense forces of the DRV, relying on the assistance provided by the USSR and the PRC, managed to inflict damage on the US military aircraft, which was the main striking force of the United States in the Vietnam War, which were unacceptable to Americans. What ultimately forced the American leadership to look for ways out of the conflict and led to the unification of North and South Vietnam into a single state.
To be continued ...