We often use the expression “God of war”, which is completely obsolete. An expression born too long to be true to us. Just a cliche. Just words. In an age when huge intercontinental missiles are in mines, equipped with nuclear warheads, smart and deadly inevitable.
When in the thickness of the sea waters, huge killers are hiding not only ships, but also entire countries, and entire airfields on the surface, capable of single-handedly providing air support to entire armies.
When a simple infantryman is able to destroy not only enemy soldiers, but also Tanks, armored vehicles, bunkers and bunkers. When even automatic weapon perceived as an addition to powerful weapon systems. A soldier with a gun is no longer perceived as a serious force.
It would seem, how can a barrel weapon be "God" in the age of such powerful weapons? Produce per person about the same effect? Not even shots. Just by your very existence. God also does not show many miracles. This does not prevent the rest to believe. And even unbelievers somewhere in the depths of the soul to think about its existence. Search for other names, definitions for your own faith.
"Hyacinth" in any form returns a person to the understanding that artillery is really a god of war. Next to such a weapon, you understand the pride of the artillerymen and the horror of the enemies. As you already understood, today we will talk about the 152-mm self-propelled gun 2С5 "Hyacinth" and its sister - the towed gun 2А36 "Hyacinth-B".
Armament is continuously being improved. Systems appear that can strike from such distances where it is impossible to strike a counterstrike with already existing systems for technical reasons. The firing range allows the enemy to feel relatively safe.
It is clear that the presence of other types of weapons can compensate for this imbalance. However, only guns can completely neutralize the capabilities of the enemy guns. Just because the use of other weapons may be impossible for various reasons.
The understanding of this fact by the leadership of the USSR Armed Forces, as well as the strengthening of the capabilities of the artillery systems of a potential enemy, forced the Soviet designers to begin work on the creation of a long-range cannon. November 21 1968 issued an order MOP №592 on the development of a new long-range gun caliber 152-mm.
The order concerned at once three defense "monsters". The artillery unit was assigned to the legendary "Motovilikhe" - the Perm machine-building plant. The chassis for the self-propelled unit was to be developed by the Sverdlovsk Transport Engineering Plant (SZTM). Ammunition had to be developed by the V. V. Bakhirev Research and Development Machine-Building Institute (NIMI).
The main developer of ACS has become SZTM (today UZTM).
G. S. Efimov became the chief designer of the chassis.
The chief designer of the 2А37 cannon is Yu. N. Kalachnikov.
The chief designer of 152-mm ammunition - A. A. Kallistov.
According to the order of the MOP SKB Motovilikhinsky plant, both versions of the gun must be developed at once - towed and self-propelled. Moreover, both versions must have identical performance characteristics and use identical ammunition. For the rest, the designers did not make any special restrictions.
Those who follow our publications about stories Soviet artillery systems have already seen two innovations that were not in the design and manufacture of previous products.
First, the new guns were not created under the already existing and in service with ammunition. Involvement in the design of THEM meant that the ammunition for the "Hyacinth" was originally designed from scratch. The gunsmiths understood that it was not realistic to create a more or less "light" long-range self-propelled gun that shoots conventional ammunition. The range was necessary to increase it at the expense of new ammunition.
Secondly, for the first time "Motovilikha" designed not only towed, but also self-propelled systems. In all earlier systems, the algorithm was different. On the chassis installed already proven towed guns. That is, the designers were forced to "customize" these systems under the chassis. In this case, originally designed two identical tools - towed 2А36 and for installation on SAU - 2А37.
The advance projects were presented as early as September 1969. Moreover, future cars were developed in three versions at once. In the open, ballroom and tower. After a detailed consideration of all the options, the option of open location of the gun on the chassis was called the most promising.
Following the review of the 8 advance projects on June 1970, the resolution No. 427-151 was adopted, according to which it was proposed to activate the work on the ACS Giatsint. In fact, this resolution sanctioned full-scale project work.
The first two experimental ballistic installations 152-mm guns "Hyacinth" were ready in late March-early April 1971. However, subcontractors let them down - THEM. Scientists could not in time to apply for testing new cartridges. The delay in time due to their fault was six months.
But in September, the 1971 testing began. Ballistic installations had a barrel length of 7,2 meters. In the course of numerous tests, the following results were shown: the full-charge initial speed of 945 m / s and the range of 28,3 km, on the enhanced charge - 975 m / s and 31,5 km, respectively.
During the tests, a very strong pressure of the muzzle wave was observed. In this regard, it was decided to reduce the weight of the full charge from 21,8 kg to 20,7 kg and lengthen the barrel by 1000 mm by introducing a smooth nozzle.
Ballistic tests ended in March of the 1972 of the year, and 13 of April of the 1972 of the year were presented the projects of the Hyacinth in self-propelled and towed versions. Gun "Giatsint-B" adopted by the Soviet army in 1976 year.
Knowing the story of "Motovilikha", you ask yourself a natural question: was the SKB satisfied with the 2А37 gun? It is clear that the separate-cartridge loading approved "from above". It is clear that the main work was carried out in this direction. And other options?
Indeed, the designers of SKB developed another weapon - 2A43 "Hyacinth - BK". In this embodiment, the gun was with a cap grip charging. However, after the showing of the government commission, it was considered unpromising.
Carthus loader had two more experimental guns. 2A53 Hyacinth-BK and 2A53M Hyacinth-BK-1M ...
There was also "Dilemma - 2А36". 2A36M. This instrument was equipped with an additional battery, a NAP unit, a satellite receiver, an antenna unit, a self-guided gyroscopic goniometer system, a computer, and a mechanical speed sensor.
Tactical and technical characteristics of the 152-mm gun "Hyacinth-B":
Calculation persons: 8
Combat weight, kg: 9760
Loading: separate - sleeve
The main types of ammunition: high-explosive fragmentation, active-reactive, cumulative anti-tank shells
Initial OFS speed, m / s: 590-945
OFS weight, kg: 46
Vertical guidance angle, degrees: -2 ... + 57
Horizontal guidance angle, degrees: -25 ... + 25
Rate of fire, rds / min: 5-6
Maximum range, m: 28 500
Transfer time from traveling
in combat, min: 2-4
It is transported by ATT, ATS, ATS-59 tractors, KamAZ trucks.
The barrel consists of a pipe, casing, breech and muzzle brake. Muzzle brake multi-slot. Efficiency muzzle brake 53%.
The shutter is horizontal wedge, with a semiautomatic, rolling type. The alternate delivery of the projectile and the liner with the charge is produced by a hydraulically driven chain spreader. The rammer automatically returns to its original position after delivery of the projectile and cartridge case.
The hydraulic actuator of the rammer is powered by a hydropneumatic accumulator, recharged when the instrument rolls back. Thus, during the first shot, the shutter is opened and the delivery is done manually.
The recoil device consists of a hydraulic brake recoil and a hydropneumatic tensioner. When recoiling, the recoil cylinders are fixed.
The balancing mechanism is pneumatic, pushing type. Lifting and turning mechanisms sector type. Beds are box-shaped, welded.
Shooting from a gun is conducted from a pallet. The wheels of the gun are hung out. Lifting and lowering of the implement onto the pallet is carried out with the help of hydraulic jacks.
Dual wheels with pneumatic tires. Suspension torsion type.
Now back to the ACS. Let's start with the gun 2А37 "Hyacinth - C". The first experienced guns were handed over to SZTM at the end of 1972 of the year. In the serial production of ACS launched in the 1976 year.
The barrel of the 2А37 cannon consists of a monoblock pipe, a breech and a muzzle brake. The multi-caliber slit muzzle brake is screwed onto the tube. The effectiveness of the muzzle brake - 53%. The shutter is horizontal wedge with semi-automatic rolling type.
Brake recoil hydraulic groove type, pneumatic knurler. The recoil cylinders roll back along with the barrel. The length of the rollback is greatest - 950 mm, the shortest - 730 mm.
Chain ram with electric drive. Sending is made in two steps - a projectile, and then - the sleeve.
Lifting and turning mechanisms are sector type guns. The balancing mechanism is pneumatic, pushing type.
Rotating parts are a machine on the central pin, which serves to connect the machine with the chassis.
The gun has a light shield, which serves to protect the gunner and part of the mechanisms from bullets, small fragments and the action of a muzzle wave when firing. The shield is a sheet stamped construction and is fixed on the left cheek of the upper machine.
The gun sights consist of a D726-45 mechanical sight with a PG-1M gun mount and an OP4M-91A riflescope.
Ammunition is located inside the case. Chargers serve shells and charges from the car manually.
When firing, the ACS is stabilized using a folding base plate. The transition time from traveling to combat is no more than 4 minutes.
So let's summarize. TTH SAU 2C5 "Hyacinth-S".
In serial production with 1976. Adopted in service in 1978.
- swinging part: SKB of the Perm Machine-Building Plant named after V.I. Lenin (Perm, Motovilikha),
- KB PO "Uraltransmash", Sverdlovsk.
Mass production: ON "Uraltransmash", Sverdlovsk.
It is intended for the conduct of counter-battery combat, the destruction of long-term firing points and field facilities, to combat heavy self-propelled artillery and enemy tanks.
152-mm gun 2А37.
OFS 3ОФ29: 28,4 km
OFS 3ОФ59: 30 km
ARS: 33,1 km
Minimum: 8,6 km.
Rate of Fire - 5-6 rds / min.
Corner GN: +/- 15 hail.
Angle VN: -2,5 ... + 58 deg.
Charging: separate-sleeve, semi-automatic.
Ammunition: 30 shells.
It is possible to use a nuclear weapon with a capacity of 0,1-2 CT.
Calculation: 5 people, when feeding from the ground: 7 people.
Mass of installation in the stowed position: 28,2 t.
Engine - diesel B-59.
Engine power - 520 HP
Fuel capacity - 850 liters.
Speed: 60-63 km / h. Power reserve - 500 km.
rise: 30 hail
roll: 25 hail
pit width: 2,55 m
wall: 0,7 m
Ford: 1,05 m.
Like most Soviet artillery systems, the Hyacinth has combat experience. Very little time has passed since the start of production of this tool, when the gun had to fulfill its purpose in Afghanistan. It was from there that the second name of this system, “Genocide,” came. The soldier will always find the most accurate designation of the weapon that helps him beat the enemy.
We did not find official data on the use of these tools in both versions. However, there are photographs that confirm this fact.
Used "Hyacinths" in Chechnya. Then in the events in South Ossetia. At least as part of the army, they entered the territory of this republic.
There is also information that the Ukrainian army used these guns in the civil war in the Donbas.
Anyway, after the collapse of the USSR, this system became the property of several countries at once. There are guns in Belarus, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Finland.
In general, this gun is currently quite comparable with the best Western models. And serve her long enough. "God of war", he is God. As long as there are wars on the planet, there will be a God of war. Such is the banal, but still true.