Fighter of the First World in full growth. CH 2. 1915-1916

In 1915 – 1916 further development of the combat uniforms of the European armies - reflecting the specifics of military operations of the First World War.

1. French infantryman, spring 1915

After the battle of Marne, France, more than any other country, faced the urgent need to dress up their army - for a war that, as it became apparent, would last much longer than expected. And the sky-blue uniform was born.

Fighter of the First World in full growth. CH 2. 1915-1916

2. Silhouette of a French infantryman.

1. Capi M 1914 simplified type.
2. Anti-gas glasses, which appeared since May 1915.
3. Scarf gray-blue fabric.
4. Overcoat simplified type of new color. Single breasted, on 6 buttons. On the collar is the number of the regiment.
5. Rubberized case for glasses.
6. Steel head protection - lining under the cap. It was used until Adrian's helmet appeared in February 1915.
7. Modified gear to the rifle Lebel.
8. The combat pack of the French infantryman in full packing.
9. Sugar bag M 1892 simplified military model.
10. Liter flask M 1877 in a gray-blue wool case.
11. Culottes of the 1914 M style in pantaloons appeared in combat units at the end of 1914 - the beginning of 1915.
12. The windings, originally intended for alpine shooters, were distributed to the entire infantry at the end of 1914.
13. Boots M 1912.
14. Lebel 8-mm rifle with a 1886 / 93 M bayonet.

3. German infantryman. Western Front, April 1915

German field uniform was also simplified. In the first weeks of the fighting, the red numbers of the regiments were removed from the helmet covers, and the numbers and monograms on the epaulets turned green, and soon disappeared completely. All leather products turn dark brown or black. Ersatz materials began to be introduced (for example, brass was replaced with colored iron). In 1915, the blue uniform is canceled. For the lower ranks, only the 2 type of uniform remains: a gray field uniform and (later appeared) a uniform of considerably simplified cut - the latter was even called not a uniform, but a blouse (Bluse). In 1915, the peaks were removed from the helmets.

4. Silhouette of a German infantryman.

1. A helmet of M of 1915 - pikehube without peak.
2. Field uniform M 1914 - a simplified version of the uniform M 1907 / 10.
3. Blackened belt 1895 M with iron badge.
4. Cartridge pouches M 1909.
5. Unloading.
6. Bag with gas mask.
7. “Smooth” hand grenade M 1915.
8. Sugar bag M 1887.
9. Flask M 1907 in ersatz case.
10. The 1887 M blade with the 1898 / 1905 M sheathed bayonet attached.
11. Trousers M 1914. The gray color became darker, but the red edge remained.
12. Hiking boots M 1866. In 1915, it was ordered to blacken them.
13. Mauser M 1898 rifle caliber 7,92 mm.
14. Bayonet M 1898 / 1905.

5. Italian Light Infantry Fighter - Bersalier, 1915

Like most European armies, the Italian passed through the reform of field uniforms at the beginning of the 20 century. At that time, Italy was an ally of Austria-Hungary and Germany, being impressed by the victories of the last in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871. In 1909, Italy, like Austria-Hungary, adopted a new color of field uniform, close to the German fieldgame arr. 1907, but still different from the last - gray-green "grigio-verde". The light infantry or Bersalier, founded by captain Alessandro La Marmor in 1836, was the elite of the Italian army. Light infantry units repeatedly deployed during various Italian 19 campaigns of the 20th century, and their fighters gained a reputation as courageous and enterprising warriors.

6. Silhouette of a bersalier

1. Hat artificial leather with black and green cock tail. Brass emblem placed on the image of a flaming grenade.
2. Uniform M 1909. Bersalieri cloak closes the collar with buttonholes, bearing the stars of the Savoy dynasty.
3. Trousers M 1909 with 2 diagonal pockets.
4. Winding M 1909.
5. Mountain boots M 1912.
6. Cloak M 1912.
7. Equipment M 1907. We see a pair of twin pouches for 6,5-mm caliber cartridges for the Carcano carbine.
8. Sugar bag M 1907.
9. Bayonet M 1891.
10. 6,5 mm. Carcano carbine M 1891. Carabiner was originally a cavalry weapons, but was later issued to light infantry and special units.

7. British infantryman. Western Front, October 1915

The British continued to adapt their uniforms to the realities of modern warfare — now to the conditions of positional confrontation. Especially as a massive (so-called "Kitchener") army, originally formed from volunteers, was deployed on the European continent. The silhouette of a British soldier was changing - influenced by the conditions of a trench war. For example, the standard cap gave way to a soft model - with folding ears and a nazatylnik, which provided better protection for the head from the cold.

8. Silhouette of a British infantryman.

1. Cap M 1915.
2. Field uniform M 1902 (rifle regiments had black buttons).
3. Bag for gas mask.
4. Field equipment M 1914. In total, 50 cartridges were placed in pouches.
5. Rusk bag.
6. Field uniform trousers.
7. A spoon with a fork is an example of non-statutory wearing of cutlery items.
8. Winding khaki.
9. Boots.
10. Rifle Mk 3.
11. Protection of the breech of the rifle.

9. French infantryman. Verdun, 1916

The French infantry entered the battle of Verdun, disguised and re-equipped. The sky-blue uniforms and Adrian's helmet became the “calling card” of the French First World War “Poyal”.

10. Silhouette of a French infantryman.

1. Steel helmet Adrian in the case. Covers existed in two colors: sky blue and khaki.
2. Blue neck tie.
3. Overcoat M 1914 / 15. Insignia - field.
4. The collar of the corporal's overcoat with the regiment number (7 th infantry).
5. Metal cover gas mask TN. Appeared at the end of 1915.
6. Equipment for the rifle Lebel M 1915.
7. Hiking backpack M 1893 / 1914 greenish. Stored spare boots, bowler and other accessories.
8. Rusk bag 1892 M khaki.
9. 2 liter flask M 1877 in a blue case.
10. “Kulot Pantals” M 1914.
11. Winding.
12. Boots M 1912.
13. Carbine Berthier M 1892 / 1907.

11. German infantryman. Verdun, February 1916

The field blouse, which had replaced the field uniform by this time, also had a gray color, there were no colored edges and no cuffs of peacetime. The sleeves turned away, forming a simple cuff. Planck covered buttons. Epaulets - from the same gray fabric (for infantry - with white edging on the top and sides). By the middle of 1916, the leather helmet is replaced with a steel helmet. A gray field cap with a red band was preserved until the end of the war — it was worn in cases when it was not wearing a helmet. Often boots with windings replaced boots. The 184 Infantry Regiment soldier in the illustration already has the silhouette characteristic of the German infantry 2 half of the war - the newest (at the beginning of 1916) steel helmet Stahlhelm, field blouse, assault satchel, equipment items blackened.

12. Silhouette of a German infantryman.

1. Stahlhelm M 1916.
2. Field blouse M 1915.
3. Gas mask M 1915. and its metal case.
4. Assault backpack M 1915. The ends are fastened, giving the satchel a round shape. Attached bowler.
5. Rusk bag 1887 M from ersatz material.
6. Flask M 1907.
7. Individual tool M 1887 - pick and ax in the covers.
8. Bayonet.
9. Belt M 1895. Such cartridge pouches appeared in September 1915.
10. Trousers M 1914.
11. Boots black leather M 1866.
12. 7,92-mm Mauser M 1898.

13. French Alpine Shooter, 1916

Alpine shooters already in August 1914 had a more practical uniform than the rest of the infantry — at least not including scarlet pants. And the shape of the “blue devils” (as the Germans christened the Alpine shooters after the fighting in the Vosges at the end of 1914) did not undergo significant changes - retaining their caps, overcoats and blue trousers with yellow trim. The distinguishing elements of the form were the famous Alpine beret and the uniform of a specific cut.

14. Silhouette of alpine arrow.

1. Alpine beret M 1889 dark blue wool.
2. Blue neck tie.
3. Uniform M 1916. "Vareuse-dolman" gray-blue.
4. Adrian M Helmet 1915.
5. Protigazovy mask M2 in a metal case gray-blue.
6. Equipment for Lebel M 1888 / 1914 rifle brown leather. Included and specific unloading.
7. Alpine camping backpack M 1893 / 1914. To it is attached a lot of necessary things, including alpenstock.
8. Sugar bag M 1892.
9. 2 liter flask M 1877.
10. The pants are gray-blue color M 1915 with yellow edging.
11. Winding M 1910.
12. Boots M 1912 / 16.
13. Rifle Lebel M 1886 / 93.

15. British infantryman, Somme, July 1916

The battle of the Somme, which began on July 1 1916, became a large-scale baptism of the "new" British army. In terms of uniforms, the distinctive features of steel are the steel helmet “Brodie” or “shaving bowl” and a system of colored emblems of the parts, even on the back of a serviceman. In the illustration, a fighter of Company A of the 1 Battalion of the Lancashire Fusilier Regiment.

16. Silhouette of a British infantryman.

1. Steel helmet Mark 1 "Brody", which appeared in November 1915.
2. Field uniform M 1902. The red emblem identifies the 29 division - a veteran of the fighting on the Gallipoli peninsula during the Dardanelles operation (arrived in France in March 1916).
3. Equipment M 1908.
4. Ammunition cartridge for additional ammunition.
5. Antigas mask PH.
6. Shovel. An indispensable thing in the production of trench work, and during trench battles.
7. Trousers M 1902.
8. Winding khaki.
9. Boots.
10. Rifle Mk 3.
11. Bayonet M 1908 / 13.
12. Rifle belt
13. Rifle cutting pliers for cutting barbed wire.

17. Fighter of the Italian Alpine infantry. Italian Front, 1916

15 experimental alpine companies appeared as part of the Italian army in 1872. The Alpines experimented with samples of the new uniform in 1906, in mountainous conditions. They were one of the best units of the Italian army.

18. Silhouette of an Italian alpine infantryman.

1. Felt hat "Alpini" M 1910. In the center of the emblem of the regiment. The color of the pom-pom could have been set by a battalion.
2. Uniform M 1909.
3. Trousers M. 1909.
4. Wool socks. Awarded to troops operating in the mountains.
5. Winding M 1909.
6. Mountain boots M 1912.
7. Equipment M 1907. Visible dual cartridge pouches.
8. Bayonet M 1891.
9. Sugar bag M 1907.
10. Flask M 1907.
11. Gas mask M 1916.
12. Rifle Mannisher Karkano, 6,5-mm.

19. Russian infantryman. Eastern Front, Winter 1916

The Russian soldier had a winter uniform — basically (a tunic, harem pants, a peaked cap), similar to the summer, but from wool fabric. Many items of the winter uniform itself (hat, hood, felt boots, etc.) had no counterparts in the Western armies, favorably distinguishing the Russian infantryman among the brothers in arms and enemy fighters.

20. Silhouette of Russian infantryman.

1. Papa M 1910 natural or artificial fur.
2. Hood. Used at temperatures below 5 degrees. He defended his neck and ears.
3. Overcoat M 1881.
4. Marching equipment infantryman, which included a lap belt and cartridge pouches.
5. Hand grenade.
6. Shovel in the case.
7. Gas mask Zelinsky-Kummant.
8. Cartridge pouch M 1893.
9. Boots.
10. 3-linear 7,62-mm Mosin rifle with a bayonet.

21. Fighter of the French Foreign Legion. Western Front, 1916

Already at the beginning of the war, an influx of volunteers allowed the formation of 4 marching regiments of the Foreign Legion - dressed in standard uniform of the French infantry. In the spring of 1915, the legionnaires received a new blue form. In October of the same year, as a result of heavy losses on the Western Front, one regiment of the Legion remained. At the end of 1915, he received a mustard khaki uniform. Along with the Moroccans, the legionaries became one of the most honored units of the French army during the First World War.

22. Silhouette of a French legionary.

1. Adrian M Helmet 1915. Mustard Khaki.
2. Neck tie khaki.
3. Overcoat M 1915.
4. The legionnaire was awarded the Military and Colonial medals, as well as the Military Cross.
5. Blue wool belt. A typical accessory of a fighter - a veteran of wars in African deserts (it is very cold at night in the desert). Similar scarves except Legionnaires wore and Zouava.
6. Gas mask М2.
7. Equipment for Lebel rifle: waist belt M 1903 / 14, shoulder belts M 1892 / 1914 and 3 pouch M 1916.
8. Camping satchel fully loaded.
9. Sugar bag M 1892.
10. 2 liter water flask M 1877.
11. Kulot Pantals M 1914.
12. Winding.
13. Boots M 1912.
14. Berthier M 8 / 1907 15-mm rifle with a bayonet.

The ending should ...
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  1. +10
    4 July 2018 05: 24
    Thank you for continuing the topic and clarification.
    1. +5
      4 July 2018 18: 40
      beautiful illustrated selection
  2. +11
    4 July 2018 08: 05
    Colorfully and in detail)
    I wonder why the French decided that the protective color is blue?))
    1. +10
      4 July 2018 08: 52
      why did the French decide that the protective color is blue

      By the way, for some reason, this form really went to them. At one time, the film The Path of Glory (Ant Hill) with K. Douglas made an indelible impression.
      But it seems that the blue (in shades) color is the traditional color of the French army and heraldry?
    2. +7
      4 July 2018 11: 57
      The Austro-Hungarians and Finns also had a bluish tint.
      Apparently, it’s like that for Boschs sitting in a trench, French soldiers attacking in full growth were not so clearly visible against the sky. Although, for sure, there is an exact answer, specialists will tell you.
  3. +10
    4 July 2018 08: 25
    Italians dandies. The English have a Brody steel helmet just like a basin. For some reason, such a design was used until the end of the Second World War.
    1. +8
      4 July 2018 08: 53
      I also liked the soft cap with headphones and headspace. Oriented. And they say - the British are conservatives ...
      1. +6
        4 July 2018 10: 16
        By the way, the tactical designation system (rhombuses, triangles, squares) applied to the uniform shows that it was born in WWI and that the British invention
    2. -1
      5 July 2018 03: 35
      Such a helmet with wide brim well protected from shrapnel. Therefore, the British and introduced such a helmet. The helmet of Andrian, by the way, also has relatively developed fields. The Germans, on the other hand, began to create helmets later than the French and the British, when they had already stopped practicing filling up their bodies with corpses under shrapnel fire, so the German helmet has practically no fields.
      1. 0
        5 July 2018 07: 33
        Why then is it believed that the German helmet gave the best protection against shrapnel?
        It is unlikely only because of the increased strength (thickness). The form.
        1. -1
          5 July 2018 07: 41
          Quote: Adjutant
          Why then is it believed that the German helmet gave the best protection against shrapnel?

          Who counts?
          1. +1
            5 July 2018 07: 55
            Specialists. I read a number of works, now I don’t remember everything. I remember the Schiffer edition, also of the University of Kent.
            By the way, the form covered the head and ears both from the impact of shrapnel bullets and fragments, and the sound wave. It is considered one of the most successful (if not the most successful) helmet PMV.
            Of ours, for example.
            An assessment is given at the bottom of the article, including and in relation to protection against shrapnel.
            1. 0
              5 July 2018 09: 26
              Well, the fact that the German helmet was the best is indisputable. In WWI, Adrian had helmets for Russians and French, British baskets for shaving and German helmets for Germans and Austro-Hungarians. Especially there was no choice.
    3. -1
      26 July 2018 00: 07
      This design of the "basin" was intended to protect against shrapnel and splinters, he also served in the WWII. Reconstructions do not take into account many more items of equipment. Russian soldier without a bowler hat, cider, flask, bebut ...
  4. +9
    4 July 2018 08: 53
    Interestingly, everyone had shoulder straps, except for the Russian infantryman, who had only a waist belt. And many more, many years.
    1. +8
      4 July 2018 10: 18
      Maybe dear Olgovich Russian soldier as more hardy not so needed unloading as the Europeans?
      1. +8
        4 July 2018 11: 40
        Quote: Adjutant
        Russian soldier as more hardy not so needed unloading as the Europeans?

        Hello Svetoslav!
        The weight is the same, but the shoulder straps, I think, allow you to distribute it more evenly. Although constrained, to some extent ...
        Modern "unloading", I think, is their development.
    2. +5
      4 July 2018 12: 00
      The Germans EMNIP unloading is very infrequent. At least judging by the photos from the war.
  5. +9
    4 July 2018 08: 55
    In the fighter in the top photo, it seems that the French quartermaster's symbols are clipped to the knapsack - a tripod for the boiler and a tarpaulin bucket?
    Until the 15th year, these gourmets sincerely believed that it was much better for a soldier to cook his own food individually. The experience of the wars of the beginning of the 20th century taught them nothing.
  6. +10
    4 July 2018 08: 59
    Still, what was the form 100 years ago, a sight for sore eyes!
  7. +3
    4 July 2018 12: 24
    Quote: heavy division
    Colorfully and in detail)
    I wonder why the French decided that the protective color is blue?))

    Imaginative fantasies
  8. +5
    4 July 2018 12: 51
    The most effective look are “bersaliers”: a hat with feathers and a raincoat. If this “bersallera” is given a sword then it will pass for some dandy of the times of Louis12.
    The "frogmen" have a bm Form at the Foreign Legion ", while the rationality and quality stand out: the Russian and English forms.
    I noticed that shoes with windings prevailed and in the Russian army windings were common. I wonder what it is connected with.
    Once in my childhood I talked with a veteran and he said something like this: the windings are certainly good, but with them more fuss than with boots and footcloths. I knew very well what boots with footcloths looked like, and I could not imagine the windings, much less understand them. + Honestly, it’s still not clear to me what guided us when introducing the windings.
    1. +4
      4 July 2018 13: 12
      I will allow myself to quote the officer of the 5th joint venture of the Russian army in part, he says about the form:
      The soldier's outfit included: summer clothing (a cotton tunic with two breast pockets and trousers; linen and footcloths; a protective cloth on a forage cap with an iron cockade; an overcoat of gray-overcoat soldier's cloth, on hooks, with a canvas lining to the waist; protective epaulettes, cloth or molle ; belt leather belt with buckle (copper belt plaques with a double-headed eagle have been preserved by rare soldiers, usually personnel); leather boots), winter (cloth tunic with two breast pockets, waist belt with two hooks for refueling the waist belt; cloth safety pants; flannel linen and cloth footcloths; a flannel tab with ties; a faux lamb hat with a detachable back plate and sides, which made it possible to cover the neck and ears; to protect the nose and mouth - a cloth strip sewn at one end tightly to the inner edge of the hat (the other end was fastened on a button sewn to the other side of the hat); a quilted wadded jacket and trousers; boots - vyd only in winter).
      In 1917, after the February Revolution, cloth or calico caps appeared, boots with windings. This mod was a success. But wearing the windings required the art of donning - otherwise they would fall or unwind. Winter mittens - nice and warm - had an index finger and thumb - for the convenience of rifle shooting.

      The fact is confirmed by this work, which, in my opinion, still has no equal in terms of developing the RIA uniform.

      It says that the windings appeared only at the end of the war, and partially replaced the boots. The reason is lack of skin. Still, the armies of the warring parties became gigantic, multimillion, and each soldier needed a pair of boots. The phenomenon is common to all of Europe; among the Germans, windings appeared even a little earlier.
      1. +1
        5 July 2018 15: 29
        It seems that our soldier passed in boots much longer than foreign ones. Yes, and not the Ersatians were much more.
        It’s right - naturalka is both healthier and more durable.
    2. +2
      4 July 2018 13: 34
      Shoes need less leather.
    3. +2
      4 July 2018 15: 13
      Quote: Royalist
      I noticed that shoes with windings prevailed and in the Russian army windings were common. I wonder what it is connected with.

      Lack of leather for boots. In peacetime, there was still enough skin, although partly it was necessary to purchase it abroad.
      In peacetime, the army did not lack either uniforms or footwear, although due to the low culture of animal husbandry and low technology for leather processing, Russia did not cover its needs with domestic resources and was forced to import leather from abroad. For example, in 1902, 1818 thousand pounds were imported, in 1904 - 1728 thousand, in 1906 - 1885 thousand, in 1908 - 3057 thousand, in 1910 - 3413 thousand, in 1912 - 2765 thousand pounds.
      © Bloodless
      But in wartime, it was first necessary to abolish sock standards and lower the bar, then start purchasing shoes abroad, and in the end, switch to boots with windings. 65 million pairs of boots were not enough.
  9. +3
    4 July 2018 15: 08
    For some reason, I recall the Roman infantryman in full gear, that is, "Mule Maria."
    Everything you need on yourself, and not only to move, but also to fight!
    Thank you,
    beautiful and informative
    1. +3
      4 July 2018 18: 46
      here about whom the article in this section would be. Gaius Marius and the "chicks of his nest" Quintus Sertorius, Sulla and Caesar are truly great commanders
  10. +1
    4 July 2018 21: 48
    And where is Austria - Hungary? In my opinion they have a very not bad field shape.
  11. 0
    14 July 2018 01: 03
    Despite all the compilation, but precisely for the laborious work - the author - deservedly above all praise! If only for the good!

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