230 years ago, the "Swedish king Swedish" attacked Russia

60
230 years ago, 21 June (2 July) 1788, the Swedish army under the command of King Gustav III invaded Russian Finland. Thus began the Russian-Swedish war 1788-1790.

prehistory



Russia has waged wars with Sweden for the Baltic States, Finland and the rule of the Baltic Sea for centuries. By the beginning of the XVIII century, the Swedes were able to oust the Russians from the region and turned the Baltic into a “Swedish lake”. The Swedish Empire became the main opponent of Russia in the north-west. In the XVIII century, the advantage passed to Russia. During the Northern War 1700-1721. Russian armed forces defeated the Swedes on land and at sea. In the world of Nishtad 1721, Sweden was inferior to Russia, the Baltic States and southwestern Karelia, retaining Finland. As a result, Sweden lost its possessions on the eastern coast of the Baltic and a significant part of possessions in Germany. Russia received access to the Baltic Sea. Sweden has lost the status of a great power.

The Swedish elite all century tried to take revenge, defeat Russia, to reject it from the shores of the Baltic. In 1741, Sweden declared war on Russia, counting on the weakening of the Russians during palace coups and after the war with Turkey. However, the Swedes lost a series of battles on land and at sea and asked for peace. According to the Abos peace, Russia did not put much pressure on Sweden. A part of Kümenigord and Neyshlot Lena with the Fortress of Nyslott and the cities of Vilmanstrand and Friedrichsgam withdrew to the Russian Empire. The main significance of the Abos peace was that the border was moving away from St. Petersburg and thus the danger of the enemy attacking the Russian capital was reduced. Thus, Russia consolidated its position on the Baltic Sea and strengthened the defense of the north-western borders. At the same time, Sweden again confirmed Russia's acquisitions in the Baltic States.

Preparing a new war

In 1743, under pressure from Russia, Adolf-Fredrik was declared heir to the childless King Fredrik. In 1751 he came to the throne. However, Empress Elizabeth Petrovna’s calculation for Adolf-Fredrik turned out to be erroneous, because after ascending the throne, his views on foreign policy issues coincided in many ways with the views of the party of hats, which adhered to anti-Russian orientation. The king reigned, and ruled the country Riksdag, more precisely, the government appointed by him. In the Riksdag and across the country, there was a struggle between the party of hats and the party of caps. In general, it was the struggle of the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie for power. The Hats were in favor of a revanchist war against Russia and the restoration of Sweden’s position on the political arena of Europe. They were guided by an alliance with France and Turkey. “Kolpak” preferred cautious foreign policy, opposed too wasteful spending of public funds (weapons, war), and for the expansion of trade, including with Russia.

Russia, both under Elizabeth Petrovna and Catherine the Second, was friendly to Sweden. Petersburg did not have any territorial, economic or other claims to the Swedes. From the beginning of her reign, Catherine was completely absorbed in Polish and Turkish affairs. Russia was not up to Sweden. So, the son of Catherine, cesarevich Pavel Petrovich after the death of his father Peter III became the duke of Holstein-Gottorp. This duchy claimed Sweden and Denmark. In order not to have a reason for conflict in the north of Europe, Catherine in May 1773, forced her son to abandon the duchy. In addition, Catherine subsidized the party "caps" and individual peace-minded Swedish politicians and the military. Only a one-time package of money for this purpose, Ambassador Osterman made 337,9 thousand rubles. The purpose of the subsidies was not to disturb the peace in Sweden, but rather its stability. It is clear that St. Petersburg did this not out of love for the Swedes, but in order to untie its hands on the western and south-western strategic directions (Poland and the Black Sea region). In the North-West Russia, the main strategic tasks have already been solved. It is worth noting that France financially supported the party "hats". And the French just sought to change the existing political system in Sweden and plunge it into a war with Russia.

In 1771, Adolf-Fredrik died from a blow that happened after an overly heavy lunch (the monarch was in poor health). Throne was occupied by his son, cousin of the Russian Empress Catherine II (Adolf-Fredrik was the brother of Catherine's mother), Gustav III. He was considered an enlightened monarch, his education involved the best people of Sweden at that time. Gustav was well-read and, like Catherine, was no stranger to literary activity. He loved the theater very much, he even composed plays himself. His phrase: “The whole world is the stage of the stage. And all men and women are mostly actors ”entered into history.

Having received a large subsidy from France, Gustav organized a coup d'etat in order to strengthen the power of the monarch. In August, the Riksdag 1772, at gunpoint, passed a package of new laws that significantly expanded the powers of the king. The government became only an advisory body to the monarch. The Riksdag, in charge of which there was legislation and taxation, was now convened only by the will of the king. At the same time, from the very beginning of his rule, Gustav set out to prepare for war with Russia. Already in the 1775 year, he curled his confidants: “It must, without losing a single minute, prepare for defense. In order to end such a war as soon as possible, I intend with all my might to attack Petersburg and thus force the Empress to conclude peace. ”

At the same time, Gustav wrote kind letters to his sister Catherine and offered her a union. Catherine and Gustav exchanged friendly letters for several years. Gustav even came to meet with Catherine in Petersburg (1777) and Friedrichsgam (1783). During the second and last meeting, Catherine presented “brother” Gustav 200 thousands of rubles. Gustav took the money, but still boasted among his entourage plans for an attack on Russia. Catherine, who had her own eyes and ears at the Swedish court, knew about these plans. And even in 1783, she wrote to Gustav about this “idle talk,” that is, she actually warned the Swedish king.

230 years ago, the "Swedish king Swedish" attacked Russia

Swedish king Gustav III (1746 — 1792)

The outbreak of war

Meanwhile, Stockholm decided that they had developed a favorable strategic environment. In 1787, the Russo-Turkish war began. The governments of Turkey and France allocated Sweden large subsidies for the war with Russia. With the start of revolutionary events in France, England also becomes the sponsor of the war against Russia party. In addition, Gustav introduced a royal monopoly on the production and sale of vodka, which allowed filling the treasury. The king decided that it was his finest hour. But according to the Swedish constitution, the king did not have the right to start a war first. True, there was a reservation in case Sweden was attacked. In the spring of 1788, Gustav's agents spread a rumor that the Russian fleet was preparing a surprise attack on Karlskrona. In fact, the Russian authorities at this time were preparing to send the best ships of the Baltic fleet to the Mediterranean for war with the Turks.

In St. Petersburg, they knew well about the preparation of the Swedish army and navy, but could not do anything. 27 May 1788, Ekaterina wrote to G. A. Potemkin: “But the mad king of Sweden will start a war with us, then ... I will appoint Count Pushkin as commander of the army against the Swedes.” Catherine the Second wanted to prevent the war with all her strength and hoped to the last that all Gustav’s preparations were a big bluff. So, 4 of June 1788 of the year she reported to Potemkin: “As long as the Turkish power is turned on you, the King of Sweden, receiving money from the Turks, armed the military ships to twelve and transfers the ships to Finland. All these demonstrations are going, I think, to the end in order to stop the fleet equipped to the Mediterranean. But this one, despite it, will go on its way ... ”Dale Catherine noted that the Swedes, apparently, would not start a war, stopping at a demonstration. “It remains to solve a single question, whether to endure the demonstrations? If you were here, I would decide in five minutes what to do, talking to you. If I were to follow my inclination, I would have ordered the fleet of Greigov and the squadron of Chichagov to break up the demonstration: the Swedes would not have built ships in forty years. But having done such a thing, we will have two wars, and not one, but, perhaps, will pull after themselves the consequences unforeseen. ” Thus, St. Petersburg feared war on two fronts, despite the obvious aggressive intentions of the Swedes.

By order of Catherine, the Russian ambassador in Stockholm, Count Andrei Razumovsky, gave the Swedes a note demanding clarification on the weapons of Sweden. At the direction of Razumovsky, this note was made public and was published in the Swedish press. Gustav took this quite peaceful message as an excuse for war. It is impossible, they say, the Russian ambassador to address the people and the Riksdag over the head of the king. The Swedish monarch presented Russia with an ultimatum: to punish the Russian ambassador; give Sweden land in Finland, withdrew to Russia under the contracts 1721 and 1743. and all of Karelia; Turkey to return the Crimea and make peace with Porto on the terms of the Ottoman Sultan; the disarmament of the Russian fleet and the return of ships sailed to the Baltic Sea.

It is clear that not a single state, without suffering a crushing defeat, would not have gone on to fulfill such conditions. Not surprisingly, after reading the note of Gustav, the Prussian ambassador to Russia, Baron Keller, remarked that it was “composed, of course, in confusion of the mind.” Obviously, Gustav overestimated his military skills and wanted to do what King Karl XII failed in the course of the Northern War. He wrote to his favorite, Armfelt: “The idea that I could avenge Turkey, that my name would become known to Asia and Africa, all had such an effect on my imagination that I didn’t feel much excitement and remained calm the moment I went to meet all kinds of dangers ... So I crossed the Rubicon. ”

Knowing that all the attention of the Russian government was drawn to the war with the Ottoman Empire, which had diverted our military forces to the southern frontiers of the state, Gustav, with our military weakness in the north, was absolutely sure of the success of the unexpected attack. By the beginning of the war, Sweden had 50-thousand. army and corps of the Finnish police in 18 thousand people. The plan of the Swedish command was to launch broad military operations in southern Finland and at the same time deliver a powerful blow to the Russian fleet in the home area, Kronstadt, thereby ensuring the landing of the landing corps near St. Petersburg. In the event of a lightning capture of St. Petersburg, Gustav hoped to dictate the world favorable to Sweden to the Russians. Thus, the Swedish king assigned the main role to the fleet in the war.

Russia was not ready for war in the north, all its main forces were concentrated against Turkey and in Poland: there were almost no troops on the Finnish border, except for the garrison fortress. In the south were the best commanders of Russia. The Russian troops in Finland under the command of V.P. Musin-Pushkin (Ekaterina was grateful for his support in 1762, but knew about his low military capabilities — she called her “insoluble bag”) numbered 18 — 19 thousand people. The Russian plan of war provided for a reflection of the Swedish forces in the event of an attack on Petersburg and a counterattack in the direction of Helsingfors and Gothenburg. For this, the troops were located in the Vyborg area.

Russian fleet (31 battleship and 16 frigates) despite numerical superiority was inferior to the Swedish fleet (23 battleships, 14 frigates) in armament, seagoing qualities of ships and the degree of preparedness of personnel. In addition, the government, despite the threat from Sweden, was still planning to send the best ships with the most experienced commanders and sailors to the Mediterranean. All maritime activities were aimed mainly at the urgent preparation of the Archipelago squadron. By May 27, a squadron intended for an expedition to the Archipelago (15 battleships, 6 frigates, 2 bomber ships, 3 boats, hospital ships and 6 transports) entered the Kronstadt raid. Three 100-gun ships “Saratov”, “Three Hierarchs”, “Chesma”, frigate “Nadezhda” and 3 of 5 transport of June were sent to Copenhagen under the command of Vice-Admiral V. Fondezin. Ships with a large draft could not pass the shallow Zund without preliminary unloading, which required considerable time. The rest of the squadron during this time was supposed to go to Copenhagen and connect with the squadron. Transports loaded with guns and other materials intended for the 5 ships and 2 frigates built in Arkhangelsk also went with this detachment. These vessels under the command of Rear Admiral I. A. Povalishin were sent from Arkhangelsk to Copenhagen to be connected with the squadron S. C. Greig. Simultaneously with the squadron V.P. Fonesisin from Kronstadt came out three frigates Mstislavets, Yaroslavn, and Hector to observe the Swedish fleet at Karlskrona, Sveaborg and the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia.

The Russian rowing fleet was completely unprepared for war. By the outbreak of hostilities, Russia had all the 8 available paddlers in the Baltic against Swedish 140. Meanwhile, the experience of previous wars has shown that a strong rowing fleet is necessary for successful operations among the islands and skerries of the Baltic Sea. True, Russia had an ally - Denmark. Sweden threatened Denmark with rejection of Norway, which was then in union with the Danes. According to the Tsarskoye Selo agreement with Russia 1773, Denmark pledged in the event of a Swedish attack on Russia to enter the war on the side of Russia, putting 12-thousand against Sweden army, 6 battleships and 3 frigate.

June 20 Swedish fleet out in the Gulf of Finland. He had the task of a sudden attack to defeat the Russian fleet in a decisive battle, and then block its remnants in Kronstadt. Having achieved dominance at sea, the Swedish command, given the weakness of the troops defending the Russian capital (the main forces of the Russian army were concentrated on the Finnish border), intended to transfer the 20-thousandth airborne corps from Finland on the ships of the galley fleet to Oranienbaum and Krasnaya Gorka. The fall of St. Petersburg, according to the Swedes, led to victory in the war.

The hostilities began on land. Using the provoked border incident, the king was able to start a war without the consent of the Riksdag. June 21 (July 2) 1788 of the year 36-th. the Swedish army led by the king, without declaring war, crossed the border into Finland. The Swedes attacked the customs post near the fortress of Nyslott and began its bombardment. Gustav sent an ultimatum to the commandant of the fortress, one-armed Major Kuzmin, in which he demanded that Nashlot be given. The brave officer replied to the king: "I am without hands and cannot open the gate, let his Majesty work for himself." As a result, the garrison of the Russian fortress from 230 man defied the Swedish army. Throughout the war, the Swedes never managed to open the gates of Nashloth.

Thus, the war began Sweden with the aim of revenge and the return of dominance in the Baltic. The Swedes were hoping for a blitzkrieg: to stun the Russians with a sudden blow, to destroy the Russian fleet and take Petersburg, forcing Catherine the Second to sign the world. Russia entered the war in an unfavorable situation, when its best commanders and troops were tied to the Ottoman Empire by war. The Russian Baltic fleet, despite its numerical superiority, was inferior to the Swedish fleet in armament, the seaworthiness of ships and the degree of preparedness of personnel.

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  1. +2
    29 2018 June
    Gustav's aphorism is surprisingly similar to Shakespeare.
    1. +1
      29 2018 June
      Peter I once and for all put an end to the military dispute between Russia and Sweden over the northern territories.
      1. +1
        29 2018 June
        Undoubtedly! And the events described in the article are a vivid example of this. lol
      2. +7
        29 2018 June
        Quote: Wend
        Peter I once and for all put an end to the military dispute between Russia and Sweden over the northern territories.

        And in my opinion, the final point was set by Alexander the First in 1809, when Russia chopped off Finland from Sweden as well. hi
        1. +1
          29 2018 June
          You're right. For this, the Swedes now see submarines and the Russian threat.
          1. 0
            29 2018 June
            Quote: Conductor
            You're right. For this, the Swedes now see submarines and the Russian threat.

            laughing laughing
      3. +5
        29 2018 June
        Learn the history, dear Wend! Finally we measured Sweden only as a result of the Russian Swedish war 1808-09.! Only then they took Finland all away! Russian emperors and empresses were always condescending to more than once beaten Swedes, which is amazing!
        1. +1
          29 2018 June
          Quote: andrewkor
          Learn the history, dear Wend! Finally we measured Sweden only as a result of the Russian Swedish war 1808-09.! Only then they took Finland all away! Russian emperors and empresses were always condescending to more than once beaten Swedes, which is amazing!

          That you tell your reflection in the mirror. Peter I put an end to Sweden, as a great empire, subsequent events are the pursuit of Swedish claims for greatness.
          1. -2
            July 1 2018
            Quote: Wend
            Peter I put an end to Sweden, as a great empire,

            I will disappoint you a little. The fact is that Sweden was NEVER A GREAT EMPIRE. Peter I, and his followers and other scriptwriters, tried to present her in every possible way in order to show the exaggerated significance of victory in the Northern War. However, Sweden did not have any vast colonies (but only small lands along the Baltic coasts), not to mention the vast overseas territories (of which it had none at all), not a strong ocean fleet (yes, there was a fleet, but in general it was only the Baltic, and the Danish fleet was often stronger than Swedish!). It was a normal, strong from a military and economic point of view, but still a second-rate power. Simply, the Moscow kingdom at that time was, unfortunately, generally a third-rate country in terms of economic and military development. And yes, we didn’t have a fleet in the Baltic at all, and indeed, in fact, the Navy as such, so the Swedish fleet was a huge force for us at the beginning of the 18th century. But he could not compete closely with either the British, the French, or even the Dutch.
            1. 0
              July 2 2018
              Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
              Peter I tried to present her in every possible way.


              Can an example where Peter tried to do this?
        2. 0
          29 2018 June
          Moreover, it was only by the middle of 19 that Sweden was recognized as a country that did not pose a military threat to the Russian Empire.
          1. -1
            July 2 2018
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Moreover, it was only by the middle of 19 that Sweden was recognized as a country that did not pose a military threat to the Russian Empire.

            That in itself is practically worthless: either Sweden has become weaker than Russia, or Russia has become stronger than Sweden, or both. And in Europe, Sweden was not even taken into account.
        3. +1
          29 2018 June
          The monarchies of Europe are essentially all relatives. Gustav III was not without oddities (this is normal for the monarchies of those times), an avid theater-goer. His surroundings sometimes did not understand whether this is a king or a man playing a king, well, what kind of king is without a winner’s laurels. He did not intend to overthrow Catherine, to occupy Russia; in general, Russia was chosen among all the candidates as the most convenient opponent. “Gustov III the winner” was all that interested him, of course, as always, all this was presented under specious pretexts. As the author writes:
          Taking advantage of the provoked border incident

          In fact, here Gustov remained Gustov. He ordered his theatrical costume designer to sew the uniform of the Russian army and, using the mummers, organized a provocation, which went down in history as the “Swedish occasion”. (subsequently widely used by different peoples and countries as an occasion for war)
      4. +5
        29 2018 June
        Quote: Wend
        Peter I once and for all put an end

        If once and for all - then there would be no more three wars! Once and for all - it was in 1809, when we shoved Finland from them!
    2. 0
      29 2018 June
      It remains timid to hope that the author has heard about the creative legacy of Bard.
    3. 0
      29 2018 June
      "All the world's a stage,
      And all the men and women merely players: "- This is Shakespeare stole from Gustav.
      1. +2
        July 2 2018
        Quote: alebor
        This is Shakespeare stole from Gustav.

        Yeah. Especially when you consider that Shakespeare died a century and a half before the events described.
  2. +1
    29 2018 June
    Very interesting war.
    And surprisingly dimly lit.
    Although the battle, incl. and between linear fleets - a classic of the genre and pride for Russian weapons
    1. +7
      29 2018 June
      Quote: Brutan
      Very interesting war.
      And surprisingly dimly lit.
      Although the battle, incl. and between linear fleets - a classic of the genre and pride for Russian weapons

      Just the war with Sweden was eclipsed by the Russian-Turkish war - Kinburn, Ochakov, Fidonisi, Fokshany, Rymnik, Ishmael, Tendra and Kaliakria.
      As a result, few people remember the revel battle of Admiral Chichagov, won at a ratio of 10 Russian LK against 22 Swedish (moreover, the Swedes managed to lose 2 LK - one surrendered to the Russians, and the other ran aground and was burned by the Swedes).
      Few people remember the battle of Krasnogorsk, when Admiral Cruz, again yielding to the enemy quantitatively and qualitatively (Chichagov had the best ships, and under the command of Cruise they collected everything that could go to sea), fought with the Swedish fleet for two days - and did not miss him to Kronstadt.
  3. +5
    29 2018 June
    Sweden is an amazing example of the beneficial, peacekeeping influence of Russian weapons: after defeats from Russia for 3 centuries in several wars, it forever became neutral
    1. +3
      29 2018 June
      Andrei, you are sometimes unbearable in your great-power Russophilia.
      1. +2
        29 2018 June
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        Andrei, you are sometimes unbearable in your great-power Russophilia.

        You do not like Russia?
        1. +4
          29 2018 June
          Discussions with you are fruitless and wasteful in energy. Look for another "donor". All the best.
          1. +1
            29 2018 June
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Discussions with you are fruitless and wasteful in energy. Look for another "donor". All the best.


            and who is easy now? Discussion, of course, it is more expensive than a monologue, write books, textbooks on TI, there is no feedback.
      2. +2
        29 2018 June
        You say so, as if there was something bad about it.
        1. +3
          29 2018 June
          I don’t see anything wrong with love for Russia. Just sometimes it takes on hypertrophic forms.
      3. +2
        29 2018 June

        Quote: 3x3zsave
        Andrey, you sometimes unbearablein its great power Russophilia.

        I love Russia, yes! Yes
        If it causes indigestion in someone, then this is his problem .. request
        Is not it?
        PS By the way, why are you writing about the emotions that I evoke in you? belay Neither to me, nor to anyone else, they are NOT interesting, I assure you!
        Read the VO rules about WHEREOF the comments on the articles are for and maybe then save us from unnecessary verbal husk hi
        1. +2
          29 2018 June
          Good. Where did you get the successful three-century peacekeeping activity of Russian weapons against Sweden? Only, please, without emotion and verbal husk, as you put it.
          P.S. digestion problems Your comments cause other users, for example, "RKKASA", I am quite loyal.
          1. +2
            29 2018 June
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Where did you get the successful three-century peacekeeping activity of Russian weapons against Sweden?

            From the History of Russia: there is such a section Russian-Swedish Wars: they were only from the Livonian war 8 piecesis 16, 17,18,19 centuries
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            P.S. digestion problems Your comments cause other users, for example, "RKKASA", I am quite loyal.

            So I was surprised ...
            1. +3
              29 2018 June
              Yes, you will not suspect you in the narrowness of thinking! Why then not take it even wider? Or is Alexander Yaroslavovich not Russian, and Birger is not a Swede?
              1. +1
                30 2018 June
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Why then not take it even wider? Or Alexander Yaroslavovich not Russian, but Birger is not a Swede?

                belay Alexander defended Novgorod Republic and was Novgorod the prince.
                Russia, in the form in which we know it, I think, appeared around the 16th century.
                before that was the Principality of Moscow.
            2. +1
              July 2 2018
              Ol'govich, sometimes you really get a little bit on the line: what kind of PACIFICATION is this, if it took 8 WARS for him ?! As in my opinion, pacify once and in full. Like Germany in 1945 or Georgia (hopefully) in 2008.
              1. +2
                July 3 2018
                Quote: Alex
                Olgovich, sometimes you really get drunk a little: what kind of PEACE is it, if it took him as much as 8 WARS ?!

                But more than 200 years This dangerous enemy is NOT climbing anywhere.
                Is this not the result ?: belay
                Quote: Alex
                As in my opinion, pacify once and in full. Like Germany in 1945 or Georgia (I hope) in 2008.

                Germany has been taught many, many times (see History).
                Georgia is what? request
                1. +1
                  July 3 2018
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  Georgia is what?
                  The country is such (see Geography)

                  Quote: Olgovich
                  Germany, many, many times taught
                  How much exactly? And once pacified? Also specifically.

                  Quote: Olgovich
                  But for more than 200 years this dangerous enemy has NOT climbed anywhere.
                  Isn't that a result?
                  The result is unequivocal. And what year did you get it? Specifically this, and not in retrospect?
                  1. +1
                    July 4 2018
                    Quote: Alex
                    The country is such (see Geography)

                    This is a country?! lol
                    Quote: Alex
                    How much specifically? And once pacified? Also specifically

                    With A. Nevsky, start and go! And Germany today is the enemy!
                    Quote: Alex
                    The result is unequivocal. And what year did you get it? Specifically this, and not in retrospect?

                    1809 g
                    1. +1
                      July 12 2018
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      1809 g
                      That's what this is about.
              2. +1
                July 3 2018
                Quote: Alex
                What is PEACEFUL if it took him as much as 8 WARS ?!


                Excellent and efficient. After him, how many Swedes or asked to participate in wars against Russia - did not agree. It seems, and I want to, but it hurts painfully.
                So they sat on the priest exactly in neutrals, and in the East, and in the WWI, and in the Winter and the Second World War.

                Quote: Alex
                As in my opinion, they pacify once and in full. Like Germany in 1945


                Wow, "once." Germany was "pacified" by the whole world and with difficulty 2 times in 30 years. And, unlike Sweden, it is not neutral now, but it is entirely in a bloc hostile to Russia
                1. +1
                  July 3 2018
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  Excellent and efficient. After him, how many Swedes or asked to participate in wars against Russia - did not agree. It seems, and I want to, but it hurts painfully.
                  My comment was not about the result at all, but about the end. What year is it received? Obviously not the one that is discussed in the article.

                  Quote: Gopnik
                  Wow, "once". Germany with the whole world and with difficulty 2 times "pacified" over 30 years
                  They pacified her once and, IMHO, forever. Everything else is so, given by tinsel (and even then not always, Naplern No. XXUMX is not destiny), money was cut down (and the US bought out the debt), and again everything was done in a new way. In 3, everything was different; Stalin set a goal to eliminate the German threat in the bud. And he, as you know, knew how to achieve his. And the fact that she is now in the block is precisely in the block, and in her she is far from the first violin.
                  1. 0
                    July 3 2018
                    Quote: Alex
                    My comment was not about the result at all, but about the end. What year is it received? Obviously not the one that is discussed in the article.


                    So Olgovich did not write that this result was obtained specifically in this war. And so, by the way, as a result of some wars, Sweden was not that neutral, but generally allied Russia.

                    Quote: Alex
                    They appeased her once and, IMHO, forever.


                    They pacified her as a result of two world wars. The first time I bucked - the whole world broke. The second time I tried to take revenge - they took the whole world again. The German threat was “eliminated”, although the FRG army was always considered a probable adversary.

                    Quote: Alex
                    And the fact that she is now in the block is precisely in the block, and in her she is far from the first violin.


                    So they and the two world wars was in the “bloc”. And what’s not the first violin now - the second thing, it’s not easier for us that the "violinists" appeared abruptly.
                    1. +1
                      July 3 2018
                      Quote: Gopnik
                      So Olgovich did not write that this result was obtained specifically in this war.
                      Here I tried to point out. Sweden was driven into a state of understanding of realities for a long time, persistently and quite productively. What is the great merit of Russian weapons.

                      With Germany after the WWII, things could have been different if not for the exorbitant ambitions of France and the connivance of the States with the silent glance of England. But the key word is "could." Everything turned out just as Foch said after Versailles: "This is not peace, this is a truce for 20 years." And only Potsdam put an end to German militarism. That is why I believe that appeasement (albeit by force of arms) occurred in 1945.

                      Quote: Gopnik
                      So they and the two world wars was in the “bloc”.
                      Yes, only the roles there were different. In WWI - the locomotive and the basis of the military power of the Central Powers. In WWII, and in fact almost the only real military force. Now ... To be honest, these tolerastov mired in gay parades, allowing Africans to stick their unwashed hands (and other parts of the body) under the skirts and jeans of their women, do not cause me any emotions at all. If they cannot even tune the violin, then how can they play in the Grad Opera.

                      And "the country's army is a probable adversary" ... I remember that this was also taking place on the VC uni. So there, too, France was taught to England. And rightly so: you need to know the enemy by sight. Even that.
                      1. +1
                        July 3 2018
                        Quote: Alex
                        Here I tried to point out. Sweden was driven into a state of understanding of realities for a long time, persistently and quite productively. What is the great merit of Russian weapons


                        So Olgovich wrote exactly the same thing.
    2. +1
      29 2018 June
      But the Swedes still have phantom pains; they are still looking for Russian submarines off their coasts.
      1. 0
        29 2018 June
        They would have to go to the doctor's office or drink "Elenium" to sleep in peace. Joking as a joke, and if sleeping badly at night, then glitches will be
  4. +4
    29 2018 June
    “Let only the dare to dare to enter my limits, I will keep the old lands with the sword and take new ones” - Catherine
    1. -1
      29 2018 June
      ... the slut was notable ...
      1. +1
        29 2018 June
        Quote: ver_
        ... the slut was notable ...

        To the harlot, the sheikh said: "You are drunk every day,

        And no matter what, you are drawn into the network by others! "

        Him on that: "You are right. But you, yourself, is that so,

        What do you think everyone is? "She answered laughing

        Omar Khayyam
      2. +3
        29 2018 June
        ... holding a candle?
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. -2
          July 1 2018
          Do you really consider Catherine II a virgin and a nun in the world? To get to the point of lowering at the end of life to 12% of the TOTAL budget of the Russian Empire for its holidays and gifts to lovers - you must still look for such an example in world history ...
          1. +1
            July 2 2018
            Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
            To get to the end of life at the end of life to 12% of the TOTAL budget of the Russian Empire for its holidays and gifts to lovers - in the history of the world one has to look for this example ...

            Louis 14 French and pohlesche noted - after his death about the problems of the treasury did not even stutter because of the almost complete lack thereof.
            Heinrich №8 Aglitsky also left the country with such a zero that I had to spoil the coin.
            Catherine the Great, although she was not a saint, and Russia of that time was not an earthly paradise, she left the receivers money in abundance. What they spent them on is a separate question.
            1. -2
              July 2 2018
              Quote: Alex
              Louis 14 French and pohlesche noted - after his death about the problems of the treasury did not even stutter because of the almost complete lack thereof.
              Heinrich №8 Aglitsky also left the country with such a zero that I had to spoil the coin.
              Catherine the Great, although she was not a saint, and Russia of that time was not an earthly paradise, she left the receivers money in abundance. What they spent them on is a separate question.

              Hmm, I don’t particularly know about financial problems in France because of Louis XIV’s expenses, but because of his immoderate ambitions and constant wars, yes, the country has become very ruined! But there was no financial crisis! It was formed only under Louis XV! About Henry VIII - this is generally the Middle Ages, well, you would still remember Genghis Khan ...

              But about the monetary situation in Russia under Catherine II, people simply don’t usually know. So, it was with her that paper money was introduced in parallel with metal money (which were in short supply and were used in import purchases). By such a measure, this former paid spy of Prussia was able to give an “emergency injection” of the Russian economy in wars, but brought down currency stability, the Russian ruble exchange rate in her reign only fell, and fell rapidly. And she didn’t leave enough money in the treasury for the successors, this is a fact. The money was spent on maintaining the 500.000 army (which no country in Europe had at that time), failed banking projects such as the Noble Bank, various "Potemkin villages", insanely luxurious palaces and gifts for lovers, etc. More or less, the budget of the Russian Empire was put in order (focusing on Prussian models of financing rigor) only Pavel I - and this (since there was a sharp and massive struggle against embezzlement, the nobility was deprived of gifts from the budget, etc.) and served as one of the reasons for his murder. Well, finally brought to a normal state after the "arts" of Catherine II, Russian finance was only Alexander I, and even then in the second half of his reign. So, in short, the financial history of Russia at the end of 18-beginning of 19 in ...))
              1. +1
                July 3 2018
                To begin with: type expressions
                Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                former paid spy of Prussia
                not an argument and need, at least, links to research. So leave no comments.

                The problems of Louis XV are a direct consequence of the financial policy of his predecessor. Including the cost of their own exaltation: Versailles flew the country is not a lot of money, but in a full-fledged golden louis. And only construction would be good, the maintenance was comparable to the expenses for the army. Yes, there was a whole army - an army of idlers and dish dishes. And the posts of the keeper of the cane or the caretaker of the royal chamber-pot? On them, the graphs and dukes consisted and received a lot of money. And he had no less lovers than Catherine's favorites. And the results: under Louis, the country almost diminished in size (the result of his wars), under Catherine it increased (the result of its wars).

                The appearance of paper legends is a natural result of the development of domestic trade and industrial development. The preservation of precious metals in international trade is evidence of the underdevelopment of the international banking system.

                Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                About Henry VIII - so it is generally the Middle Ages
                So, medieval rulers can spit on their country and they will be great at the same time, rulers of more near times - zats? Strange logic.

                And the last. What does it matter who comes from? Queen Victoria is also German, like the entire last dynasty, in the English she is considered quite her own. Moreover, the mouth will tear anyone who encroaches on its greatness. And here we have only one concern: where to find more guano, in order to show it to the whole world later.
                1. -2
                  July 3 2018
                  Quote: Alex
                  not an argument and need at least references to research.

                  Well, actually this fact is no longer a secret for anyone, the palace archives have been open for a long time, we have not XIX in the yard.

                  Quote: Alex
                  Yes, there was a whole army - an army of loafers and disholyses. And the posts of the keeper of the cane or the keeper of the royal night pot? The counts and dukes consisted of them and received considerable money.
                  Hmm, apparently you are a little unaware that the nobles should have supported themselves? and the goal of building Versailles is to keep the nobles closer to the throne, while weakening their economic power, in order to eliminate separatism?

                  Quote: Alex
                  And his lovers were no less than the favorites of Catherine.
                  A moot point. And certainly not all of his mistresses received gifts in the form of thousands of serf slaves, as it was in Russia in the “age of the golden Catherine,” and there were these slaves from our ancestors ... (oh yes, I forgot to say that serfdom in France it was canceled ... already in the 15th century ...).

                  Quote: Alex
                  And the results: under Louis, the country almost decreased in size (the result of his wars), under Catherine it increased (the result of her wars).

                  Do you think that only a decrease or increase in the size of a country indicates its ongoing development? I’ll disappoint, often it’s an inverse proportion, including with the standard of living of the common people and with the level of economic development. the simplest example is the huge empire of Genghis Khan, which was huge-huge, but with zero socio-economic margin of safety ...

                  Quote: Alex
                  The appearance of paper legends is a natural result of the development of domestic trade and industrial development. The preservation of precious metals in international trade is evidence of the underdevelopment of the international banking system.

                  It is you who tell the British who introduced the golden pound in the 19th century as an international standard, yeah. Paper money is the first sign of an economic crisis, and the depreciation of the national currency is proof of this.

                  PS So that you do not consider it offtopic, this is all because the constant wars of Catherine II greatly ruined Russia, including the essentially not very successful Russo-Swedish war (where, like a century later in the Russo-Japanese war, our troops were mainly fortunate on land were leveled by a couple of routs of our fleet at sea).
                  1. +1
                    July 3 2018
                    Clear. The discussion with you has ceased to be interesting: I will hammer in the head elementary truths from September 1, and now I have a vacation.
                    1. -2
                      July 4 2018
                      Quote: Alex
                      Clear. The discussion with you has ceased to be interesting: I will hammer in the head elementary truths from September 1, and now I have a vacation.

                      Alexander, in order to hammer someone’s elementary truths into your head, you must first understand them yourself, for which he wrote you the answer.
                  2. 0
                    July 4 2018
                    Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                    Do you think that only a decrease or increase in the size of a country indicates its ongoing development? I’ll disappoint, often it’s an inverse proportion, including with the standard of living of the common people and with the level of economic development.


                    The common people lived better under Catherine than under Louis 14. At least, doha is not massively from hunger.

                    Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                    it’s all to the fact that the constant wars of Catherine II greatly ruined Russia,


                    Maybe you are right. But, it should be noted that Russia did not start these wars - and since they attack you, you need to fight, there is nothing you can do, and it is advisable to bring these wars to victory. What Catherine did, unlike the Sun King, who, according to the results of the reign, ruined the country, but at the same time losing the war.

                    Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                    (where, as in a century in Russian-Japanese, basically the successes of our troops on land were leveled by a couple of routs of our fleet at sea)


                    Oh how. And what good luck on land were in Russian-Japanese? And what a pair of defeats at sea in Russian-Swedish? One defeat of the "army fleet" I know, yes. And second? In addition, the naval fleet arranged one rout for the Swedish naval fleet, not counting the “pair” of battles won, but not devastating,
                    1. -2
                      July 4 2018
                      Quote: Gopnik
                      The common people lived better under Catherine than under Louis 14. At least, doha is not massively from hunger.

                      And under Louis XIV, did the people in France massively die of hunger? Wow ... And let me remind you, with whom was such a small, well, just insignificant uprising, like Pugachevschina? Is it not under Catherine the Second? Why not ask a question?

                      Quote: Gopnik
                      And what good luck on land were in Russian-Japanese?

                      A simple fact is that the losses of the Japanese army in land operations exceeded the losses of the Russian army. Google it. Is this not evidence of more successful action?

                      Quote: Gopnik
                      In addition, the naval fleet arranged one rout for the Swedish naval fleet, not counting the “pair” of battles won, but not devastating,

                      Comrade Gopnik (hmm, strange nickname), the bottom line is that the 2 Ronchesalm put a bullet in the war, and not at all in our favor, just like Tsushima ...
                      1. 0
                        July 6 2018
                        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                        And under Louis XIV, did the people in France massively die of hunger? Wow..


                        Yes. And you do not know?

                        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                        And let me remind you, when was there such a small, well, absolutely insignificant uprising, like Pugachevschina?


                        Cool. So what? What did you want to say with this?

                        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                        the point is that the 2nd Ronchesalm put a bullet in the war, and not at all in our favor,


                        So what's up with the second rout? He put an end, because Russia wanted to put an end to this war unnecessary to her and agreed to the peace proposed by the Swedes. "Not in our favor" there is only a refusal to intervene in the internal affairs of Sweden.
  5. 0
    29 2018 June
    Quote: Proxima
    Quote: Wend
    Peter I once and for all put an end to the military dispute between Russia and Sweden over the northern territories.

    And in my opinion, the final point was set by Alexander the First in 1809, when Russia chopped off Finland from Sweden as well. hi

    Perhaps you are right: after 1809 the Swedes no longer had any fantasies. Perhaps there are some fantasies, but they are not publicly voiced
  6. 0
    29 2018 June
    The world of 1721 was Nistadt. The author made an annoying typo
  7. 0
    30 2018 June
    Excellent article, I look forward to continuing with my personal archive.

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