Starting with the projects of domestic multipurpose nuclear submarines 671РТМ / P "Schuka" (according to NATO codification "Victor-III"), 945 "Barracuda" ("Sierra-I"), and also American "Los Angeles", the concept of using multifunctional nuclear-powered submarine missile cruisers in the maritime and oceanic theaters of war, it began to slowly shift to the strike side. In particular, the specialists of the St. Petersburg Marine Engineering Bureau "Malachite" were assigned the priority task of adapting the 671РТМ / К modification submarines, as well as the submarines of later projects to the Granat strategic cruise missiles (KS-10) intended for Use of 122 caliber mm. On the other side of the Atlantic, similar work on integrating Tomahawks into a shooting complex of multi-purpose Los Angeles class submarines was carried out by specialists from Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding Newport News, as well as General Dynamics Electric Boat Division.
It is no coincidence that similar trends began to prevail in building the appearance of the weapons of multipurpose submarine cruisers. Against the backdrop of the considerable success of Soviet specialists in the development of 2-fly heavy and maneuvering with significant overloads of ship-based anti-ship missiles such as 4K80 Bazalt, 3M45 Granit, X-41 Moskit, as well as the progress of the American company McDonnel Douglas in tuning and launching into serial production of AGM-84A subsonic anti-ship missiles capable of massive use (deck forces aviation) to break through any ship’s air defense system available at that time, the defense departments and commands of the Navy of the superpowers realized that ship placement of the “strategic asset” of strike missile weapons alone could lead to real failure during major military operations involving fleet. For example, a successful anti-ship strike by the MAPL pr. 949 Antey forces against the Aegis rocket-control cruiser weapons Class "Ticonderoga", equipped with a universal vertical launcher Mk 41, clearly led to the loss of 30 — 60 "Tomahawks." A full-fledged enhanced AUG is 2 cruisers of this class, the destruction of which would lead to the loss of 60 — 120 SCR type RGM-109. As a result, the “long arm” of the fleet noticeably weakened.
The only way out of a difficult situation was to equip the "Axes" (modified UGM-109) multipurpose nuclear submarines 3-th generation. Considering their invulnerability to anti-ship assets, high acoustic secrecy, and therefore less likelihood of finding enemy hydro-acoustic means and interception by anti-submarine aircraft, Los Angeles became the main underwater strike component of the fleet, in addition to the high potential of the underwater predator achieved by the use of torpedoes, represented by torpedoes Mk 46 and Mk 48. Despite the fact that the use of the entire range of weapons, including C-10 "Pomegranate", as well as the UGM-109A "Tomahawk", on the Soviet and American submarines involved at that time advanced combat information control systems "Omnibus" and AN / BSY -1 (starting with SSN-751), synchronized with active and passive sonar complexes and operator terminals through a specialized multiplexed data communication bus, the American approach to the placement of the Tomahawk TFR has turned out to be more rational and up-to-date. In particular, starting from the SSN-719 “Providance” (modification “Flight II”) launched on July 27 1985, all submarines of the class are equipped with the 12 container modular universal TLU Mk 45 VLS, which can accommodate as transport-starting cells Mk 14 for Tomahawk cruise missiles, as well as modules for ASM UGM-84D2 / G / N.
Loading a transport and launch container with a Tomahawk cruise missile into one of the VPU cells Mk 45 multi-purpose nuclear submarine SSN-723 USS "Oklahoma City" class "Los Angeles"
Thanks to this innovation, the flexibility and responsiveness of the 30 fire work of the latest 688 / I submarines compare favorably with those of standard MAPLs with torpedo tubes alone. For example, submarines with vertical launchers allow simultaneous launching of strategic cruise missiles and anti-ship missiles at remote ground targets and surface ships, without putting all this work on the mechanisms of torpedo racks. And this, in turn, significantly reduces the likelihood of abnormal and emergency situations, because torpedo tubes can be involved in the tasks of a torpedo attack of several underwater and surface targets at once, which will automatically create restrictions on the parallel use of anti-ship and strategic RP. The concept of TLU Mk 45 has found its application not only in "Los Angeles". The next class of multi-purpose submarines with a similar "equipment" was the "Virginia" in the options "Block I / II" (built 10 units). The following "form factor" of vertical launchers entered the Virginia armament architecture of the Block III 29 August 2014 modification of the year (starting with the SSN-784 USS North Dakota submarine). It is represented by two 6-charging stationary modules of a revolving type with a total number of transport and launch glasses in 12 units.
The advantage of this TLU is the presence of only 2 powerful mechanized hatch opening / closing units of two turret-mounted PUs, while the classic Mk 45 has 12-like nodes with slightly smaller dimensions, which together take much more internal volume, which can be used to accommodate additional avionics equipment, or increasing rocket-torpedo racks. Naturally, in the case of using the Virginia multipurpose submarine exclusively as an underwater assault cruiser, a full volley of four 533-mm torpedo tubes and revolving vertical launchers can make 38 Tomahawks, and this is commensurate with a volley from the universal Mk 41 launchers control of rocket weapons of the class “Arleigh Burke”, only now it will be hundreds of times more difficult to detect and destroy such a low-noise underwater “arsenal” hiding somewhere in the waters of the north-eastern part of the Norwegian Sea rather than the AN / SPY-1D (V) AN / SPY-16D multipurpose radar and Link-XNUMX “Arley Burke” transmitter.
As you have already guessed, 5 X-class 150 submarines carrying Tomahawks and 30 — 40 torpedoes of the Mk 48 Mod 5 ADCAP / Mod 7 CBASS type 60 — 80 km torpedoes are an extremely formidable threat, and they are a very formidable threat for 600 — 885 CBASS, 1984 — 1989 class submarines, 70 — 80 CBASS submarines, 20 — 25 CBASS submarines, 10 — 60 CBASS class 70-XNUMX submarine one rather noisy Ohio-class underwater cruiser in shock version with SSGN codification. It will be quite easy to track this large object (“roaring cow”) by means of the modern highly sensitive hydroacoustic complex MGK-XNUMX Irtysh-Amfora-Yasen, which is installed on MAPL Ave XNUMX Yasen. If you rely on open press data, for example, on the verified analytical work of the retired rear admiral and the submarine division commander (XNUMX-XNUMX) Vladimir Dmitrievich Yamkov on the Independent Military Review resource, as well as the official parameters of the similar Irtysh- Amphora-B ”, it becomes clear that this SJC can“ grope ”the Ohio on a quiet run at a distance of about XNUMX — XNUMX km, while the Virginia shows up at a distance of no more than XNUMX — XNUMX km. In the same turn, the submarines of the Virginia class, equipped with a powerful in-shell nose-sonic station AN / BQQ-XNUMX, are able to detect the "Ash" on a quiet run at a distance of about XNUMX — XNUMX km. This is the first and rather unpleasant moment. The above figures, of course, can not fully correspond to real indicators, but rather closely reflect the real state of affairs.
In particular, in his article “Fighting People, Not Ideas,” Vladimir Yamkov compared the Virginia Block I with the SSNB Borei Ave. 955, where he indicated the range of direction finding of our strategic missile cruiser through AN / BQQ-10 on 50. km “Ash” in the existing variants of the 885 / M pr. (Severodvinsk and Kazan) can be detected at a greater distance. Why? The fact is that, unlike Boreas, the submarines of the 885 A / M Yasen / -M never received a water-jet propulsion type, instead there is a conventional 7 low-noise low-noise propeller of open architecture with composite damping of the blades. Of course, such a design noticeably dampens excessive vibration and acoustic noise; Moreover, judging by the profile of one of the blades on a camouflage cloak (photo of the Severodvinsk launch), it can be assumed that the 885 pr propellers belong to the so-called “cavitational” type with an increased area of the blades, which reduces the cavitational effect due to pressure distribution over a larger area than conventional screws with pronounced sickle-shaped blades. Meanwhile, this design does not eliminate the effect of cavitation completely, but only reduces it several times. As a result, the open-type water jet propulsion unit, installed on Borey, Virginia and Sea Wolfs, is much more efficient in terms of increasing acoustic secrecy.
Standard bow hydroacoustic station AN / BQQ-10A (below) and wide-aperture HAC LAB (above)
Much more problems from the MAPL “Virginia” can arise after equipping the Block III modification submarines with the newest in-situ hydroacoustic complex LAB (“Large Aperture Bow Array”), characterized by a larger area of aperture from the active transmitting emitters and, accordingly, passive receiving sensor hydrophones (1800 units) with an average service life from 20 to 30 years. A new acoustic grille, distinguished by a greater azimuthal scanning zone and resolution, has one more important advantage - a much longer range of direction finding in the passive mode of operation. “Ash” without a water propeller can be detected at a distance of 80 — 90 km in the shallow sea and 136 — 153 km - in the deep sea (the second far zone of acoustic illumination). Naturally, in difficult hydrological conditions, this range will significantly decrease, but the parameters of the Irtysh-Amphora will decrease.
Conclusion: as of today, only two operating submarines of the 885 "Ash" and 885 "Yasen-M" projects in dueling situations will hardly be able to oppose 8 once to the superior number of multi-purpose Virginia submarines. Meanwhile, the universal ship shooting complex 3РUM-14В UKSK, represented by a vertical c-9-c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9000 UC. take on board the total caliber ammunition in 346 units, or 32 units, taking into account the possibility of self-defense, which is almost 3 times more than in Virginia.
Thus, even "Severodvinsk" and "Kazan" have enormous potential in performing strategic strike operations, and, leaving the tasks of underwater battles with "Virginia" and "Los Angeles" for submarines of the "Pike-B" class, they are able to overcome anti-submarine forbidding zones. and access restrictions and the A2 / AD maneuver in the North Atlantic, and then make a successful attempt to strike with the Gauges on the necessary strategic Allied Strategic Offices in Western Europe or even on the east coast of the United States. We will not deny the level of danger of such operations, because we all are well aware of the intensity of the work of anti-submarine aircraft and frigates / EM PLO, which the command of the United NATO Navy in this region can afford. Against the background of the 2 / M Yasen / M submarines' superior X-NUMX superiority over the Virginia in the number of missile equipment, the command of the US Navy decided to hurry up and immediately issued to the British subdivision BAE Systems Inc. a contract for the development of improved and enhanced modular vertical PU, which should be introduced on a promising modification MAPL 885-generation "Virginia Block V".
First of all, we are talking about increasing the number of revolving launchers from two to four units. Secondly, the new fixed “drums” will not contain 6, but 7 strategic UGM-109E “Tomahawk Block IV” cruise missiles. Thanks to these measures, the number of cruise missiles in TLU alone will be 28 units, and the total (taking into account the presence of at least 4 torpedoes Mk 48 Mod 7 CBASS for self-defense on racks) will make 50 units only 15% behind. Considering that by the 2025 year, only 7 Yasen-class submarines will be in service with the Russian Navy, and the Americans will have 30-35 submarines "Virginia" of five "blocks" (including several units with new launchers), approximately 2,2-fold lag from the Americans in the shock arsenal (excluding at least 50 carrying the service of "Los Angeles", where the acoustic signature of the version "Improved Los Angeles" corresponds to "Pike-B"). Yes, the situation with the 949A Antey strike submarine cruisers with the new universal ship firing complexes and new universal launchers capable of using Onyx or 3 800МXNNXКК Caliber from 5K from 3K from 14K can be improved for the better for our fleet. CM-1A (225 and 72 missiles, respectively). Back in March 120, the Deputy Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation Yury Borisov announced the modernization of submarine data with the capabilities of the Far Eastern Zvezda plant in March during an interview with RIA "News».
Nevertheless, this will not give a global increase in the combat potential in comparison with the US multi-purpose underwater component, since the design of the Anteyev, as well as their enormous noise, remain. Consequently, modern sonar systems AN / BQQ-10, LAB, as well as shipboard AN / SQQ-89 (V) 12-15 (with ANB / SQS-53C bulb bulb) can capture similar targets at a distance of up to 80 — 100 km even complex hydrological setting. Consequently, in the course of a properly organized large-scale anti-submarine operation in the same North Atlantic with the use of anti-submarine aviation, which tightly arranges radio-hydroacoustic buoys, as well as anti-submarine surface ships, it will be quite easy to track down and destroy such “roaring arsenals”, and therefore rejoicing about the installation of “Calibrov” on 949-th project is not necessary.
And take a look at the number of Oscars II (NATO codification) in the ranks: in the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy there are only 3, the Pacific Fleet - 2. The situation is not pleasant. It is possible that the situation will radically change with the start of mass production of promising low-noise 5-class anti-ship and anti-submarine rocket carriers of the Husky class, designed to destroy the Virginia, Estuet and Ohio submarines using 91-R1 anti-submarine missiles “Kalib” -PL "with a radius of 50 km and speed on the air trajectory section in 2700 km / h, and for strikes against surface and ground targets by means of XRUMX 3 Zircon and 22X3K Kalibr-PL, respectively . An important feature of these submarines in terms of reducing acoustic visibility is the presence of an open-type water jet propulsion unit (as in Seawolf, Virginia, and Astute), which will significantly reduce the disturbance of the water column from the cavitation effect.
The use of composites-based sound-absorbing materials in the hull cover of the ship is also envisaged, while the most mobile and loud mechanisms of the power plant (steam-turbine plant and the main turbo-gear unit) will be placed on multilevel cushioning platforms of improved design. These design features should turn the Husky into even more dangerous and low-noise underwater hunters than the Virginia Block V. Here are just the prospects for the speedy implementation of the new project of the St. Petersburg Marine Engineering Bureau "Malachite" are today in a state of complete uncertainty, because the start of construction of the head boat is scheduled only for 20-s, while to create a visible advantage in the number of strategic cruise missiles basing will require more 20 — 25 Husky class submarines.