Basic sample and its disadvantages
In the basic configuration, the BMP-2 is equipped with a turret with anti-bullet armor on which all weapon systems are mounted. The main weapons The machine is a 30mm 2A42 automatic gun mounted on a stabilized installation. The PKT machine gun with a caliber of 7,62 mm is paired with a cannon. A horizontal tip was provided horizontally and vertically from -5 ° to + 74 °. Ammunition belts are located inside the fighting compartment: they contain 500 rounds for a gun and 2000 rounds for a machine gun. In case of collision with tanks The BMP-2 can carry a launcher from the 9K111 Bassoon or 9K111-1 Konkurs anti-tank complex with four missiles. On the sides of the tower were two blocks of smoke grenade launchers.
The jobs of the commander and the armament operator are equipped with advanced surveillance tools that meet the requirements of their time. So, at the disposal of the operator-gunner there is a combined sight of the type BPK-1-42 or BPK-2-42, used for shooting day and night. In the latter case, the scope is used in conjunction with the illuminator OU-5. The commander’s workplace is equipped with viewing instruments and an 1P3-3 sight, providing guidance for ground and airborne weapons.
By the standards of the late seventies and the near future, the BMP-2 had very powerful weapons that allowed it to fight a wide range of targets at ranges up to several kilometers. The maximum firing range of ATGW, depending on its type, reached 2-4 km. The effective range of the automatic cannon in terms of manpower was determined at the level of 4 km, and for lightly armored vehicles - up to 1,5 km. The slant range to the aerial target was limited to 2-2,5 km.
However, equipment and weapons developed, as a result of which the potential of the BMP-2 significantly decreased. Some features of this car, previously considered acceptable, have become significant shortcomings, and the available capabilities no longer meet the requirements of the time. As a result, various improvements were needed that affected various elements of the machine. First of all, the armament complex was being developed.
Given the capabilities of the Soviet light armored vehicles, the likely adversary was modifying his vehicles. As a result, since a certain time, the 30-mm automatic gun 2А42 has ceased to pose a special threat to the enemy. Available missiles with armor penetration to 700-800 mm no longer allowed to fight with new tanks. Finally, to use the ATGM, the crew had to manually place the container with the missile on the launcher, leaving the protected volume and being exposed to known risks.
BMP with an automatic grenade launcher
At the end of the eighties, a variant was proposed of a minor modernization of the BMP-2 machines, which allowed them to significantly increase their potential in the fight against manpower. The existing system of barrel weapons should be supplemented with an automatic AG-17 “Flame” grenade launcher. It is noteworthy that this project did not require special processing of the base machine, and any BMP could become carriers of grenade launchers.
In the stern of the turret, on the back sheet on the left, it was proposed to place a simple installation with fixtures for a serial grenade launcher. There was also a box for a tape with 250 grenade launchers. The horizontal guidance of the weapon was carried out by turning the entire turret, virtually synchronously with the main gun mount. For vertical laying, the grenade launcher received an uncomplicated drive in the form of a thrust connecting the swinging unit and one of the sights. Impedance controlled by commander or gunner
Installation diagram for AG-17 mounted on the stern of the tower. 1 - armor cover; 2 - articulated support; 3 - thrust; 4 - ROM-5 sight. Figure Btvt.info
A grenade launcher could fire in bursts and attack targets at ranges up to 1700. The VOG-17 shot at blasting formed a cloud of debris with a continuous defeat of manpower in 7 radius. , and at long distances will help the automatic gun 17А2.
In the late eighties, a new modification of the BMP-2 was adopted by the Soviet army. Soon the Kurgan Machine-Building Plant, which built such equipment, retrofitted a number of serial machines with new installations and grenade launchers. According to different sources, such an update has passed no more than a few dozen BMPs. In the future, the release of such a modification stopped.
"Bakhcha" for BMP
At the very end of the nineties, a new version of the re-equipment of the BMP-2 was proposed. In order to radically increase firepower when attacking various objects, it was proposed to unify the armament of this vehicle with the BMP-3. The project of the Tula Instrument Design Bureau meant the removal of the BMP-2 tower with its replacement by the Bakhcha-U universal combat module. At one time, this version of the infantry fighting vehicle was called the BMP-2M.
Battle module "Bakhcha-U". Photo KBP / kbptula.ru
The Bakhcha-U module is an armored turret with a turret basket, equipped with a set of barreled and rocket weapons, as well as controls. All weapons module assembled a single unit of weapons. It includes a 100-mm cannon launcher 2A70, 30-mm automatic cannon and PKT machine gun. The tower is full turnaround; the weapon unit swings from -6 ° to + 60 °. On the zygomatic sheets of the dome of the tower there are two blocks of smoke grenade launchers.
The weapon unit is mated with an automatic loader for the 100-mm cannon and means of supplying ammunition to other weapons. The 34 100 caliber mm and 4 9X116 “Kastet” missiles launched through the 2X70 barrel are placed in the “Bakhchi-U” packs. The 2А72 cannon ammunition consists of 250 shells, a PKT machine gun - 2000 cartridges.
"Bakhcha-U" is completed with a panoramic commanding sight with day and night channels, as well as a laser rangefinder. The gunner has similar equipment, but in his sight there is a laser channel to control anti-tank missiles. Arms control is facilitated by automated systems.
Using barrel weapons, the BMP-2 with the Bakhchoy-U is capable of attacking targets at distances up to 4 km. The use of modern missiles complex 9K116 allows you to increase the firing zone to 5 km. Missiles are able to penetrate up to 800 mm of homogeneous armor. High-explosive projectiles of two cannons of different caliber are effective against manpower and various buildings.
Prototype BMP-2 with module "Bakhcha-U". Photos Otvaga.narod.ru
The Bakhcha-U combat module, depending on the configuration and some design features, can weigh from 3,6 to 3,98 t. Its installation on the BMP-2 chassis leads to some unpleasant consequences. Thus, Bakhcha-U reduces the volume of the troop compartment and leads to the removal of a couple of places for soldiers. In addition, it makes the machine as a whole heavier, so that it can no longer float.
At the beginning of the last decade, domestic enterprises built an experienced BMP-2М with the Bakhcha-U module. This prototype was tested, and also participated in several exhibitions. Nevertheless, all the efforts of the project developers were useless. Despite the active promotion of new development, potential customers are not interested in them. Experienced car attracted the attention of exhibition visitors, but no more. The Russian army did not order the updated equipment, continuing the operation of the existing one.
BMP with "Berezhk"
Almost simultaneously with the previous project, another version of the modernization of the serial BMP-2 was proposed. This time it was planned to improve the characteristics of the equipment with the help of the combat module B05YA01 "Berezhok", also developed by the Instrument Engineering Design Bureau. Curiously, this version of the upgrade of armored vehicles was also designated as the BMP-2M. At the same time, unlike another project, he retained this name to our time.
Battle module B05YA01 "Berezhok". Photo KBP / kbptula.ru
For the first time, the Berezhok module was introduced in the mid-2000s, and soon became the subject of an export contract. The Russian army until a certain time showed no interest in such a product. Since then, the existing B05X01 module has undergone some updating and, after fulfilling all relevant requirements, was again offered to the Russian Ministry of Defense.
Both externally and in terms of its equipment, the new Berehok is similar to the BMP-2 full-time tower. It is also built on the basis of a conical dome and accommodates a variety of systems. In the frontal embrasure of the dome is mounted installation with an automatic gun 2А42 and machine gun PKTM. The pointing angles generally correspond to the base units of the BMP-2. On the stern of the roof of the tower is mounted a new installation with an automatic AG grenade launcher. Its basis is a large box for a tape with shots, on which there is a support for the rocking part with a grenade launcher. On the sides of the dome there are two twin launchers of guided missiles of the Kornet complex, covered with light armor shields. On the forehead - a pair of smoke grenade launchers.
The ammunition of the automatic cannon includes 500 shells, for the machine gun there are 2000 cartridges. In the box under the automatic grenade launcher transported 300 grenades in the tape. ATGM has four missiles. Depending on the type of missiles used, the BMP-2M with Berezhk is capable of hitting targets at ranges up to 8-10 km. Penetration - mm 1200-1300 for dynamic protection. The firing range of the gun and machine gun remained the same. A grenade launcher strikes manpower at distances to 2100 m.
Experienced BMP-2 with Berezhk. Photo KBP / kbptula.ru
On the roof of the turret, near the stern, there is a commander’s panoramic sight with all the necessary channels, including a laser range finder. Also on the roof, but in front, a similar gunner-operator device fits. This device also has the function of controlling a flying rocket using a laser beam. The weapon control system includes a weapon stabilizer, a target tracking machine, a ballistic computer and other devices for various purposes. OMS provides the use of all available weapons. In this case, the simultaneous launch of two missiles on one target.
Product B05YA01 "Berezhok", depending on the configuration, weighs from 2850 to 3250 kg. Thus, such a combat module does not significantly affect the total mass of the upgraded BMP-2 and does not deprive it of its existing qualities.
The choice of military
As already mentioned, in the middle of the last decade, the Berezhok module became the subject of an export contract. The Russian army, however, was in no hurry to order such equipment. The situation changed only a few years ago, in the first half of this decade. The Defense Ministry showed interest in Berezhka, and soon he got real prospects. An improved module began to be shown at exhibitions, and optimistic reports appeared in the media.
Finally, a full-fledged new technology modernization project was developed. The current project BMP-2М primarily provides for the installation of the B05X01 module in its modern configuration. In addition, the equipment is planned to be equipped with high power UTD-23 engines - HP 370. For comparison, the base engine of the UTD-20C1 machine develops only 300 hp. The increase in power will compensate for a slight increase in mass and maintain the desired mobility.
Not so long ago it became known that the army ordered the first batch of upgraded BMP-2M. 16 vehicles with new engines and weapons before the end of the year will have to go to one of the tank divisions of the ground forces. After a comprehensive study in parts, a decision will be made on the future fate of the project. When receiving positive results, the army will continue to upgrade equipment.
According to various sources, about 3,5 of thousands of infantry fighting vehicles of the BMP-2 type are currently being used in the Russian armed forces. About 1500 units of such equipment is in storage. All these machines belong to the basic modification, and therefore far from fully comply with current requirements. At the same time, the army is not yet able to replace the entire fleet with modern equipment and will be forced to continue its operation. To reduce the known risks of the army, waiting for a completely new car, will have to upgrade existing ones.
After several decades of searching for solutions and developing projects, the Russian army has chosen the most interesting and profitable way to modernize the existing equipment. In the foreseeable future, a full-scale serial modernization of the existing BMP-2 can develop, as a result of which the fleet of such vehicles will receive new combat capabilities and will be able to more fully meet the requirements of the times.
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