"I am ready to pay with my life for the trust of the people." To the 110 anniversary of Salvador Allende
But even a politician in Washington could not be called a “dictator”: he was a democratically elected president, and the enemies could not attribute any, even imaginary “atrocities” to him. He was killed because he was a socialist, carried out reforms in the interests of the common people and sought to maintain good relations with the Soviet Union. But his killer (not only the leader of a military coup, but also a real bloody tyrant) was supported by the States, and only then, many years later, the West partially recognized him as a dictator and even tried to judge (unsuccessfully!). But in those years, the United States and its allies were only concerned with how to reduce the influence of the USSR and socialist ideas in the world, and for this they even went to such measures as the support of an outspoken villain against the lawfully elected president.
It's about the president of Chile, Salvador Allende. In the terrible days of the September 11, 1973 coup in the Soviet Union, many watched the terrible ones with tears in their eyes. the news from a distant Latin American country. But the coup itself, its preparation and the role of the United States is a separate issue, and there will be a reason to consider it later. Today, on the 110th anniversary of Allende’s birthday, I would like to talk about himself, about his personality and his political and heroic path.
Guillermo Allende Gossens was born 26 on June 1908, in the southern Chilean city of Valparaiso. He was the fifth child in a far from poor family lawyer. In his family were fighters with the Spanish colonialists, so that free-thinking was a kind of family tradition. While still a schoolboy, Salvador became interested in the teachings of Marx. This was not surprising - in spite of the fact that he himself did not live in misery, from an early age he sympathized with the poor, the oppressed, the destitute. And for Chile it was very important - all Latin America of that time was the “backyard of the USA”. Social stratification, monstrous poverty of some against the background of the wealth of others; national wealth flowing out of the country ...
In addition, the young man was fond of sports: horse riding, shooting, swimming and other species. He graduated with honors from high school, after which he decided to become a doctor. The family supported him, especially since his great-grandfather was the dean of the medical faculty of the University of Santiago). Young Allende believed that this profession would allow him to do good, and this is the goal of human life on Earth.
However, a young man who turned 18 years old is obliged to serve in the army. El Salvador decided to go there earlier, immediately after the lyceum, so that in future this duty would not interfere with his studies. He served in the cuirassier regiment in the province of Valparaiso. After the army successfully entered the University of Santiago, which he graduated from in 1932 year. In parallel with his studies, he organized a student socialist circle.
The political situation in the country in those years was difficult. Power passed from hand to hand. In 1925, another coup took place, arranged by Carlos Ibáñez along with Marmaduk Grove. They went under the slogans of social justice, but then Carlos Ibáñez established in the country a dictatorship similar to the fascist one. He was even called "Mussolini of the New World". As for his former ally Marmaduke Grove, Ibáñez forced him to flee to Argentina. Grove did not want to give up and in September 1930 of the year tried to overthrow Ibáñez. He was arrested, after which he was exiled to Easter Island. However, he managed to escape from exile and in a roundabout way to get to Chile. In June 1932, he came to power and proclaimed the Socialist Republic of Chile.
As for Salvador Allende, he, a recent student, was on the side of Grove and urged students to support the newly formed republic. But she did not last long, and Allende, along with many other supporters of the revolution, was arrested. Half a year the young man spent in prison. It was released because another coup occurred in the country, after which an amnesty was announced. But his time had a strong impact on his medical career. He could not get a job and after long attempts he got a job at the Valparaiso morgue. He said bitterly that he dreamed of being a pediatrician, and became the “ripper of corpses." But even at this unloved work, he took the initiative to create a trade union of doctors and the National Health Service.
In 1933, the Socialist Party of Chile was founded. At its origins were Marmaduke Grove and Salvador Allende. In 1937, the latter became a deputy, and in 1938, the Minister of Health. In this post, he sought the access of poor citizens to medical services, benefits for pregnant women, and free lunches for schoolchildren.
However, the young politician always remained principled. And when the government in which he worked refused the social program, he left the post of minister.
Then he had to leave the Socialist Party, at the base of which he participated and which he headed by that time (1948 year). The fact is that the socialists, not listening to Allende, supported the government’s decision to ban the Communist Party, and he was totally disagree with them. He created the People’s Socialist Party, but there too soon there was a serious struggle. During the elections in 1952, his party members against his will supported the aforementioned Carlos Ibáñez. And then Allende came out of the new party, but he managed to find a common language with the former Socialist Party, where he returned. Now the Socialist Party was ready to get closer to the Communist. They founded the front "Popular Action". From this bloc, Allende unsuccessfully promoted to the presidency of the country three times - in 1952, 1958 and 1964. He even joked about this: "It will be written on my grave:" The future president of Chile is here resting. "
Later, the “Popular Front” became known as the “National Unity”. Several more political forces joined the alliance of communists and socialists: the Radical Party and part of the Christian Democrats. It was “People's Unity” that nominated Salvador Allende as a presidential candidate in the victorious 1970 elections of the year.
However, the victory went to the candidate from the left forces is not easy. He was ahead of his rivals, typing 36,6%, but could not enlist the support of an absolute majority of voters. According to the law, in this case his candidacy was sent to the Congress. There he was supported by Christian Democrats, despite the fact that the United States had already launched a campaign against him.
From the first day of his reign, the new president began to implement reforms in the interests of the poor. The United States and Britain became particularly angry after the large mining enterprises were nationalized. They didn’t like the agrarian reform of the “People’s Unity” government, during which many poor peasants received land. In addition, Allende and his government froze tariffs, raised wages, pursued a policy of restraining the growth of prices for the most necessary goods. He was very close to the common people, he communicated with the working people easily, for which he was nicknamed Comrade President.
Washington and its allies did not like Allende’s foreign policy, which was aimed at cooperation, first of all, with the Soviet Union, as well as with the GDR, China, Cuba, the DPRK and other socialist countries. Chile imposed economic sanctions against Chile. American intelligence agencies tried to provoke riots, such as the “March of empty pots”. Ironically, it was those who had never had empty pots that took part in such “marches”. It became particularly difficult after the United States announced a ban on the purchase of Chilean copper - it was the trade with this resource that enabled it to provide a significant part of the budget. “Let their economy shrivel,” so said American President Nixon. And then sabotage, murder of comrades and other covert operations, which the CIA is famous for, began. In particular, one of Allende’s closest comrades, Commander-in-Chief of the Army, René Schneider Chereau, was killed by US intelligence agencies. In Washington, they understood that while this man was leading the army, there was no need to think about a coup.
4 December 1972 of the Year Salvador Allende delivered a speech at the UN General Assembly. He spoke not only about the struggle of the Chilean people for their honor and dignified existence, not only about how external forces impede his country. In fact, he came out in defense of all the countries of the so-called “third world”, which face oppression, pressure and robbery from transnational corporations. This speech, of course, angered Washington, which already hated the young socialist country, which is also an ally of the USSR. It went to a coup d'état.
In August, the 1973 of the year in the Chilean parliament, many deputies opposed the president. A political crisis arose in the country, which Allende proposed to resolve with the help of a popular referendum on trust. Voting was scheduled for September 11 ...
But instead of a referendum on this black day, something completely different happened. Chief of General Staff Augusto Pinochet led the military coup. Of course, he was preparing for this more than one day, and most importantly, he had very specific owners. Those who were not so happy with the socialist path of Chile. Who introduced the sanctions, who arranged the secret operations.
Salvador Allende was asked to capitulate. He was promised to be allowed to leave the country. He could fly to the Soviet Union (of course, if he hadn’t been deceived yet). But he came to the presidential palace "La Moneda" in order to take an unequal battle at his workplace.
When the assault on the palace began using military aircraft and tanksAllende ordered all women and men without weapons leave the building. His daughters wanted to stay with their father, but he said that revolutions do not need needless sacrifices. And the President himself took the machine gun that Fidel Castro gave him once.
In his last address to the people, he said:
His speech was broadcast on the radio station Magallienes. And this was the last broadcast of this radio station - the putschists broke in and staged a massacre of the staff.
There are disputes about how Salvador Allende died in his last fortress - the palace "La Moneda". According to the memoirs of comrades, he died in battle. Pinochet's junta claimed that he committed suicide himself. A few years ago, the dead leader’s body was exhumed. The experts said that the version about suicide is most likely confirmed. However, suicide could be falsified.
In the end, this is not the most important thing. Whether he was shot dead in a battle with the rebels, or was he forced to keep the last cartridge for himself, so as not to be captured by them when resistance became impossible, but one thing is clear: he performed his duty to the end. And his death is in the bloody hands of the organizers of the coup. First of all, in the hands of Pinochet, as well as those who patronized him, despite his heinous crimes. In the same way as the death of the national Chilean poet, Nobel Prize winner Pablo Neruda, whose heart could not stand what happened ...
The Soviet poet Yevgeny Dolmatovsky devoted the poem “Chile in the Heart” to these events. It has the following lines:
But the road of struggle is hard and long.
Will pass through the living body
Chile passes like a shard.
Do not extinguish the three-year dawn.
Volcanoes do not forge ostuda.
But bitterly moan:
But it is terrible to exhale:
And the poem ends with the fact that “an angry mankind will appear in the courtroom not as a witness, but as a prosecutor”.
Unfortunately, Pinochet was never convicted for his bloody deeds, but life itself punished him: the leader of the junta was struck with dementia in his old age. Alas, there are still those who worship this “leader”, believing that he had done some kind of “economic miracle” (while forgetting about the blood-stained Santiago stadium, numerous tortures, tens of thousands of people who were tortured people).
The image of Salvador Allende remained in history as one of the brightest and most majestic. Even the enemies could not blacken him. He became an example of a leader who not only carried out reforms in the interests of the common people, but also accepted a martyr's death, not wanting to retreat before the conspirators. So, the poet Dolmatovsky is right: "Our business is irresistible."
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