Esperanto Connoisseurs: Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria

14
Looking through past years in my memory, I can't help but dwell on the period from 1986 to 1989. Interesting and some hectic time. All more or less active people were seized by a continuous public itch, a massive desire to show or support any initiatives. A lot then changed all sorts of modes and wind. One of them was the language of Esperanto.





History this phenomenon is. At the end of the first half of the 19 century, among the then progressive people, humanists and enlighteners, the theory began to walk: if people of the entire planet had a language to communicate with each other that all nations knew and understood, their feuds would instantly cease and reign on earth peace, kindness, progress and other lepota. Then began the first experiments on the creation of such a language. Their fruit was something called “Volapuk”, an artificial language that secular girls and dandies of London and Paris began to learn with great fervor. An adventure novel was even written, in which an expedition got lost in the wilds of Siberia and, having lost hope of salvation, came across a huge stone with incomprehensible inscriptions, but one girl on the expedition was able to read them, and this text helped them find the right way. The inscriptions were made on Volapuk.

However, this fashion did not last long, Volapuk was forgotten, and the word itself in the social salons became in the mouths of note-takers to denote artificial absurdity, stupid fiction or trick with a claim of significance.

However, the very idea of ​​creating a language of international communication did not die. And at the end of 19, the beginning of 20, a second attempt is made. Ludwig Zamenhof, a native of the then Russian city of Bialystok, a professor at Moscow University, a polyglot who perfectly knew many ancient and modern languages, creates the Esperanto language ... What can I say, the creation was beautiful and elegant. The language immediately admired the powerful minds. Leo Tolstoy immediately learned Esperanto. Maxim Gorky, Anatole France, Albert Einstein and many, many others followed.

Thanks to firm rules and the complete absence of exceptions, Esperanto's trammatics are very light, and words are created on the basis of ancient Greek, Latin and Sanskrit roots, at least a little, but familiar to every literate person. Here are examples of translations from Russian to Esperanto: I am, yes, yes, paper is a cigarette, an eye is an oculo, work is laborer, water is aquo, hi is saluto, earnest is serioso, exceptional, the only one in the world exclusive. And so on.

During its existence, Esperanto has not become widespread, but in almost every corner of the planet there is a stable group of Esperantists, united in a circle or a whole society, who actively communicate with each other and enthusiastically correspond with like-minded people in other countries. Most of all Esperantists in China and Japan, there they teach him right up to virtuosity, because they are the main wonks in the world. Therefore, Esperanto is not only not extinguished, as once Volapuk, but very viable. It produces newspapers and magazines, textbooks, dictionaries, scientific, popular and fiction, as well as poems and songs.

In Russia, the fate of Esperanto and Esperantists was ambiguous. The Bolshevik leaders of Lenin's time tried to put him in the service of the world revolution. It is known that, by order of the chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of Trotsky, the Red Army units, who were preparing in the Crimea in the 20 year for the march on Poland and further to Europe, taught Esperanto so that the fighters could at least somehow communicate with the Europeans ... Going forward, I will say that I do not find this order stupid, because I checked his idea through personal experience.

During the repression of 30-40-s, Esperantists were imprisoned, fearing that their correspondence with foreign friends could serve as spy and anti-Soviet goals. And in his work “Questions of Linguistics”, Stalin criticized the idea of ​​a world language, because the cultural and ethnic characteristics of each people will sooner or later turn the world language into dialects, peculiar only to these peoples and incomprehensible to foreigners. With this, I also agree on personal experience, which is ahead.

Outdated prohibitions and severity went away in the 80s, and the Esperantists of the Soviet Union and other socialist countries immediately became inactive. Their activity found a grateful response, it was immediately supported by the Komsomol, and people flocked to the Esperanto circles. Even in the Soviet Society of Friendship with the Peoples of Foreign Countries, which was headed by cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, an Esperanto branch was created. But Hungary just became the Mecca of Esperantists of the socialist countries, because there they were headed by cosmonaut Farkas, who learned Esperanto to argue by winning a box of beer. Hungarian Esperanto magazine Hungara Vivo (Hungarian Life) told about this.

By the way, it is quite real. Linguists linguists say: to learn a foreign language before fluency, you need to study every day for several hours for three years. Esperanto should also be taught in the same way, but for ... three months!

Whoever taught Esperanto in Volgograd circles in the 80s! There are young workers and students, and high school students and vocational schools, and housewives with retirees. All enthusiastically crammed, trained, organized social networking and quiz evenings, in which the favorite exclamation was "ne crocodilos!" ("not crocodile"), that is, forgetting not to go into the conversation in their native language. And as soon as the circle member began to communicate in Esperanto a little bit freely, he immediately entered into correspondence with foreign friends, in the circles they exchanged such addresses and read out the most interesting letters from abroad. The number of Esperantists in Volgograd and Volzhsky so increased that the World Esperanto Union in the summer of 86 and in the summer of 88 even held our international congresses, which were held in the Sputnik hotel (now the Business Center) opposite the variety theater and Volzhsky, in the palace of culture "October", and in the hall of the regional Palace of culture of trade unions held concerts for guests of the congress. By the way, at one of these congresses the Englishman tried to tell his anecdote in Esperanto, but no one understood him, like the words familiar and the phrases are the same, but the meaning falls apart, the anecdote was too English. So Stalin was right, however, the Esperantists never argued with this right ...

I came to the Esperanto circle in the winter of 1986, and by the summer, by the first congress, I was already fluent in speech. By the way, at this congress the old Volgograd Esperantist, who was repressed in 50 for his passion, was the guest of honor. At the congress I met the Romanian and Hungarian participants, it was in June. And in September, I went on a tour of Romania and Hungary. Here it was jolly! In Bucharest, an Esperanto student called a university teacher, and she instantly appeared in my hotel with students from the local Esperanto study group. They brought excellent cognac and gave me such a tour around the city, which one cannot buy for good money! In Romania, then the rules of Ceausescu, the country paid a huge external debt and lived in terrible poverty! There are emptiness in the bazaars and shops, police patrols everywhere with automatic rides on bicycles. I wanted to be photographed against the background of the palace, where the Central Committee of their Communist Party was, but we were immediately shucked out from there baleen Mordovorot in uniform. Television only showed 2 hours per day. news and folk music. In the evening, my guides brought me to the building of the University of Bucharest, where several gentlemen professors began to carefully ask me about my impressions of Romania ... I, inflamed with cognac and Soviet publicity, declared that they had a natural "campfire" ... And then they offered me to smuggle in illegally in the USSR, their letter to Gorbachev with a request to render comradely assistance to the Romanian people in the fight against the dictator Ceausescu (!). All the hops out of my head! Brothers, I say, yes, if there is a snitch among you, or just someone spills out, they'll take me to the border and solder 20 years of the Romanian prison, and in the Soviet Union no one will lift a finger in my defense! And they advise, hand over our letter to your embassy, ​​so that they will return it to you in Moscow, diplomatic mail, they say, do not inspect ... Yeah, I say, yes, our 24 will send you back an hour ago for such an initiative for life! My professors sighed with understanding, okay, they say, you do not need to send a letter, but when you return home, tell me what's going on ...

But in Budapest, Hungarian friends took me to a coffee shop and just fed me with elegant Viennese cakes, and then they took me to an Esperanto literature store, where I bought a sumptuous book published in Denmark: "Abotso de amo" (Alphabet of Love), something like world history of carnal love culture with such outspoken illustrations that I seriously feared that our then customs would have taken this book away from me at the entrance to the border. But everything worked out, and this book went on for a long time after the hands of the Volgograd Esperantists and their friends.

By the way, during this trip I spoke in Esperanto with hotel employees and waiters, and they understood me perfectly, and often even asked what city in Italy (?) I live in! Esperanto sounds similar to Italian, and the words in it are familiar to any European, so Trotsky’s order was quite rational, the Red Army men could communicate with the European proletariat ...

In 1989, I rested in Bulgaria at the resort "Sunny Beach". There he saw a large building with a luminous Esperanto sign. I went there, it turned out to be a multiplex restaurant, its menu was posted in many European languages, and in Esperanto too. In the evening I went there again, the halls were full of people, in one of them, a small but cozy one, I heard a familiar speech and greeted the audience. Immediately I was happily surrounded, seated, bombarded with questions, and most importantly, they began to regale with kebabschets, these are Bulgarian-style lyula-kebabs, and vodka, vodka, I'm from Russia! And they have vodka - grape tea, in their language - brandy, strong, it burns to the soul! In general, Esperanto-Slavic hospitality brought me to a complete blackout, but my friends cheerfully dragged my body to the hotel, where they left to fight the morning hangover and remember this wonderful evening.

Everything ended in 1991. Some were devoured by a concern for survival, others by personal material and career success. Esperanto movements were gone, again only the most devoted enthusiasts remained. Meanwhile, in my opinion, new, very practical areas of application have now opened up for Esperanto ... The Internet has entered our life, in all its spheres. And for him the language of international and technical communication, a kind of Esperanto, due to circumstances is English. This archaic language is grammatically difficult for quick and adequate understanding, it is firmly tied to the culture and way of thinking of the peoples for which it is native. At the same time, a real Esperanto is easy to learn, is easy to grammar, its alphabet does not need a specific keyboard and layout program. There are no exceptions in Esperanto, there are no words that change meaning in different contexts, this language is rationally formalized, like a sequential series of mathematical formulas. Because of this, it is almost impossible to convey feelings and shades. But for the transmission of brief, capacious, and most importantly, unambiguously accurate information that is required when working on the Internet, Esperanto is simply perfect. I think that Esperantists should try to draw the attention of the computer business tycoon, because if you make Esperanto the language of universal Internet communication, this will open up exciting new prospects in various areas of market relations. I see the practical implementation in the following way: on computer courses, everyone who wants to offer to teach Esperanto is also, at the same time creating Esperanto portals with a wide variety of information, forums and chat rooms to communicate in the worldwide network.

However, already now everyone who wants can type the word "esperanto" in any search engine of any country and start communicating with local Esperantoists on any topic.

So I remain an optimist, as an Esperantist should, for the very word Esperanto means, in Russian, "hoping."

Jees Reviewo, samideena! Goodbye, like-minded people!

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  1. +5
    25 June 2018 05: 50
    Esperanto Connoisseurs: Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria
    The 21st century ... it's time to explore a new language, "Albanian" or the language "padoncuff", which has flooded both the Internet and the speech of teenagers. for example: preved, rzhunimagu, krosafcheg, bear
    "," author, drink yadu "," hellish "and so on ... though foreigners do not understand, this" invention "is" scattered "... what
  2. +8
    25 June 2018 06: 11
    Article plus, and for the topic, and for the fact that not about the "right to arms." Yes, the language of Esperanto was an interesting undertaking, but do not consider it as a kind of chauvinism, the most filled and multifaceted language is Russian. If we talk about the international language, first, we need to think not only about simple pronunciation, but also understandable grammar, in which a letter corresponds to every sound of human speech. In Russian, this is possible, which is why, in the “Unusual Concert” of the Obraztsov Puppet Theater, the entertainer in every country, on the tour of the theater, spoke the language of the country of visit. Zinovy ​​Gerd simply read the cribs, where in Cyrillic, “in Russian,” phrases from a foreign language were written. In principle, this is not possible in English, moreover, even the Anglo-Saxons will not read their native dictionary correctly without phonetic transcriptions (which, logically, should be the basis of their grammar). Moreover, English has a greater tension of the vocal apparatus, difficult-to-pronounce sounds, close to underdeveloped, animals. It is surprising that this language, with its grammar, where the British, as if, copied the letters of the Romans, without understanding the essence, became international. The Russian language is the soul of Russia, we are Russian, as long as we have our language. As for Esperanto, as an international one, then, for example, there is already a language of scholars, it is Latin, whether one more similar equivalent is needed for communication, a question. For me, if the whole world spoke Russian, had a Russian soul, there would definitely not be wars, the whole history of Russia in the international arena is a complete alternative to Anglo-Saxon egoism and meanness.
    1. +4
      25 June 2018 12: 16
      I am also Russian, and it goes without saying. what is better for me than the Russian language and no.
      BUT, Sergey. the author not in vain mentions pro = way of thinking = inherent in any language.
      Every nation, every culture, really has its own attitude.
      And now, if in English or German, I understand the design - to the city (to town), to the field (on field) - i.e. prepositions in front .... then, for example, in Turkic, one of which I also taught and own a little, similar designs. in principle, impossible - a shaharga .... in the city, from the square (to leave. for example) - maidondan. The preposition of orientation is at the end of the word. It must be absorbed from childhood, or talk daily.
      And the selection of words, the structure of sentences, in the Russian language are significantly different from ANY non-Slavic.
      Although it is believed that the structure of the sentence is very rigid - subject, predicate, etc. .... in fact, in the Russian language there is such variability that we ourselves are able to precipitate, native speakers. What can we say about other logic ..... Tip - Hamish, kid?
      And take the "meowing" languages? Is every Russian able to masterfully meow? Yes, if after two or three hundred grams ...
      The undoubted advantage of the Russian language is Cyrillic! What we hear, what we read, then we speak - in one single letter. Although there are options .... variability in action.
      For example, in German, although they say. as it is written - and we read, nothing of the sort .... this combination -ie- alone can endure the brain .... Shriben, Shriiben, Liben, Lieben ... again it is necessary to absorb or to penetrate the spirit. And about all these combinations -sch, shch, sh .... and I will not speak.
      ...
      It turns out that it will have to be mastered - the Albanian bastard ..... for English scientists have established that the world's population is rapidly fooling.
      It's a pity. Just started to speak more or less German.
      1. +3
        25 June 2018 12: 39
        In Russian, a big plus is that he can have a huge range of meaning in the set of words and interjections in the lyrics, and become very brief and concise in a war. Whats up english ...
        Lack of English
        The history of the language: the ancestors of the current Englishmen are Germanic tribes of Angles, Saxons and Utes, who migrated from the mainland to the island and subjugated the local population. Therefore, the history of the English language begins with 450g. AD and is divided into three periods: Old English (450 — 1066), Middle English (1066 — 1500), new English (from 1500 to our time). That is, in fact, English is a derived language from Old German. The only question is that, as a rule, the new place of residence is not sought by those who are the color of society, but by seekers of easy money, i.e. invaders, gangsters and all rags. That is why the English language turned out not improved and enriched with variants of the German language, but its highly simplified version.
        Here we have collected the main shortcomings of the English language, which do not give him the right to be a major international in the long term.
        1. The presence of too many times - 12, it is completely incomprehensible why, if the British themselves use no more than 7-8. The difference in the times is insignificant, in fact, only complicates the language.
        2. The language is not intended to pronounce all the sounds used by mankind:
        • There are no hard and soft signs at all, although they occur in the pronunciation of some words.
        • English does not allow you to pronounce some standard letters of other foreign languages ​​and words based on them. It will take an Englishman a few days to pronounce the simplest sounds: “Yo”, “Zh”, “Y”. And no Englishman, in principle, will pronounce the word "Hedgehog"
        3. There is no consistent systemic correlation between the spelling of words and phonology, that is, without knowing in advance the traditional pronunciation, it is not always possible to correctly read the word "from the sheet."
        4. In the language, according to the rules, the presence of the subject and the predicate is obligatory. As a result, it is impossible to make sentences without them, and even more so one-syllable sentences like "Svetalo" or "It was getting dark".
        5. There is practically no change of language depending on the role of the word, including the case; case relationships are transmitted by the position of the words in the sentence and prepositional structures. As a result, in some interrogative sentences it is impossible to understand the meaning of the question until such time as the ALL TOTALLY sentence is said:
        • What does he sit ON?
        • What does he sit WITH? and it is especially difficult when the sentence is long.
        6. Frequent conversion - the identity of single-root words of different parts of speech, for example, in English, “flower”, “flower” and “blossom” is denoted by one word flower and the sentence “Flower blooms” will have to be written as “Flower flower flower”.
        7. There are some definite and indefinite articles, which, like the old Russian letter “yat”, practically do not carry a semantic load, but completely clog up the language.
        8. The letter is generally divorced from the language:
        • The letter "i" can be read in different words as "ay" - "Mickael" or as "i" - "Nick"
        • The letter “u” can be read in different words as “a” - “Duck”, like “u” - “Unit”, like “ё” - “urn”, or like “y” - “Circus”, although itself “ y" can also have "oo" - "book".
        • The letter "c" can be read in different words as "c" - "Cinema", as "c" - "Circus" and as "k" - "Cop", although the letters "k" themselves in English are more than enough: " c" "Cop", "k" "Key", "ck" "clock"
        • The letters "Sh", "I" and others, although they are present in the language, are absent in the letter
        • There is no difference between "ph" and "f" at all, however, the spelling is present and one and the other: "philosophy" and "fantom"
        • It is not clear why when writing proper names starting with the sound “X” it is necessary to add “k” before the word - the city of “Khimki” when writing is obtained by the city of “Khimki”. The famous English "J" can also be different: "John" or "Orange"
        • In order to make it more clear what is said above, let's give a simple example from the Russian language: in Russian, when a student asks “how is this word spelled”, the teacher very often answers “as it is heard, so it is written”, i.e. the vast majority of words in the Russian language are written exactly as we hear them in colloquial speech, which is certainly very convenient. But even if an absolutely illiterate person completely distorts the words in a letter and writes “Karova licks in the sun”, it will still be clear that he wanted to write “the cow lies in the sun”, because when reading an illiterately written phrase, it is easy to understand not only the general meaning of the phrase but each specific word. We all know the characters from the series "Our Russia" Ravshan and Dzhumshut. Anyone who has come across working Tajiks or Uzbeks knows what and how they write. Their "pussies" are a terrible puzzle, but quite unravelable. Now imagine what would happen if such a Tajik was asked to write something in English.
        https://www.newphilosophy.ru/materials/internatio
        nal-lang / nedostatki-angliyskogo-yazyka /
        Therefore, what language you speak, the more you think, and so will you. We got one of the most profound and expressive languages. Nevertheless, I like Italian and French, and the Germans and the Spaniards are not so bad.
  3. +1
    25 June 2018 07: 28
    The only more or less serious value of Esperanto on the horizon of our lives is to give a person a more confident start to learn languages ​​and show the possibility of their development to those who do not believe and despair. bad English is certainly fun, though not true. Well, about the life of Romania - it is undeniably informative and interesting.
  4. 0
    25 June 2018 11: 31
    AUTHOR ... learn the OLD SLAVIC LANGUAGE! WORLDWIDE LITERATURE - Old Slavonic language in 147 letters ... and then you will be rewarded and learn a lot!
    DO NOT LEARN YOU ARTIFICIAL Nonsense! for .. Old Slavonic rules the WORLD surrounding you!
    BACK TO READ BECOMING! About artificially created languages ​​.. WHEN 200 years ago they spoke the ONE STAROSLAVIAN whole world!
    1. +6
      25 June 2018 12: 03
      Is it possible to link to the studio? 147 letters - where from ?! Of the 43 letters, by the 12th century, some are becoming obsolete! In the first year we were normally occupied with Old Slavonic.
      Quote: Nitarius
      WHEN 200 years ago they spoke at the ONE OLD OLD SLAVIC world!
      - It turns out all sorts of Voltaire, Napoleon and Swedish Carla spoke the same in Old Slavonic? And then in a hurry, all written sources were taken and translated into hastily created languages?
      1. +4
        25 June 2018 12: 25
        This wind blows from any literature on Rodnoverie, the Church of the Orthodox Inglean Old Believers (it seems they were even banned), there they have a lot of all kinds of books. Hari arithmetic called this phenomenon now in science neopaganism. There are enough materials on torrents now.
        1. +2
          25 June 2018 13: 02
          I was flipping through a booklet of something like "Fundamentals of Orthodox arithmetic" (it seems that way, but I do not insist) - there was a feeling that the author was using very heavy preparations, well, or aliens were irradiating ... However, the link here: https: // studfiles. net / preview / 5411865 / page: 2 /
          1. 0
            25 June 2018 15: 51
            http://derzhavarus.ru/tema/uroki-asgarda/harijska
            ya-arithmetika
  5. +1
    25 June 2018 12: 31
    I had the opportunity to get acquainted with the works of Nikolai Vashkevich - about the systemic languages ​​of the brain, as well as Platon Lukashevich, about the initial basis of languages ​​on the foundation of Old Slavonic.
    Following the example of N. Vashkevich, he specifically tried to convert Russian words into Arabic, and Arabic into ours. It turned out something, then the complete nonsense. Since I am not an Arabist, after all, I have not gained any experience. His theory remained as a decoy for the future. Here I’ll retire in a year (main), plus plus lope there, “helmsmen” will count - I’ll study. For it’s just interesting.
    And with Lukashevich it’s still sadder. Although a harmonious theory, but so far gone from the current situation that at least "drain the water."
    I believe that the future of linguistics is still in the synthesis of the main languages ​​of the world, and not in the synthesis of an artificial language.
    I note, incidentally, that while driving around Europe and Asia, I noticed that Russian is becoming an increasingly common language. At least they begin to understand and respond. And what will happen after the 2018 World Cup?
  6. MP
    +1
    25 June 2018 17: 09
    Thanks, good article! There is also an idea to study Esperanto, the language is very interesting and the ideology of “equal language for all” itself also affects the strings of the soul.
  7. +1
    25 June 2018 17: 51
    The answer to the question is obvious: in what language is science and technology developing most, that language is international. Just in fact. Of course, life is more complicated than this scheme, so there are still a few “international” languages. Historically, this function was performed by other Greek, Latin, French, and finally English (more precisely, American). The Russian language performed this function within the framework of the world socialism system. The Russian "elite" did everything to make the Russian language die. Esperanto has no chance at all to become a language of international communication: there are no writers, philosophers, scientists using this artificial language.
  8. 0
    29 June 2018 22: 42
    Why is Esperanto-artificial cadaver needed when a couple of millennia was quite working and beautiful international language - Latin? On which all Europe had only recently communicated, Mikhailo Lomonosov in Latin corresponded with colleagues and even the first Russian-Chinese Nerchinsk treaty was drawn up on it.

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