Esperanto Connoisseurs: Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria
History this phenomenon is. At the end of the first half of the 19 century, among the then progressive people, humanists and enlighteners, the theory began to walk: if people of the entire planet had a language to communicate with each other that all nations knew and understood, their feuds would instantly cease and reign on earth peace, kindness, progress and other lepota. Then began the first experiments on the creation of such a language. Their fruit was something called “Volapuk”, an artificial language that secular girls and dandies of London and Paris began to learn with great fervor. An adventure novel was even written, in which an expedition got lost in the wilds of Siberia and, having lost hope of salvation, came across a huge stone with incomprehensible inscriptions, but one girl on the expedition was able to read them, and this text helped them find the right way. The inscriptions were made on Volapuk.
However, this fashion did not last long, Volapuk was forgotten, and the word itself in the social salons became in the mouths of note-takers to denote artificial absurdity, stupid fiction or trick with a claim of significance.
However, the very idea of creating a language of international communication did not die. And at the end of 19, the beginning of 20, a second attempt is made. Ludwig Zamenhof, a native of the then Russian city of Bialystok, a professor at Moscow University, a polyglot who perfectly knew many ancient and modern languages, creates the Esperanto language ... What can I say, the creation was beautiful and elegant. The language immediately admired the powerful minds. Leo Tolstoy immediately learned Esperanto. Maxim Gorky, Anatole France, Albert Einstein and many, many others followed.
Thanks to firm rules and the complete absence of exceptions, Esperanto's trammatics are very light, and words are created on the basis of ancient Greek, Latin and Sanskrit roots, at least a little, but familiar to every literate person. Here are examples of translations from Russian to Esperanto: I am, yes, yes, paper is a cigarette, an eye is an oculo, work is laborer, water is aquo, hi is saluto, earnest is serioso, exceptional, the only one in the world exclusive. And so on.
During its existence, Esperanto has not become widespread, but in almost every corner of the planet there is a stable group of Esperantists, united in a circle or a whole society, who actively communicate with each other and enthusiastically correspond with like-minded people in other countries. Most of all Esperantists in China and Japan, there they teach him right up to virtuosity, because they are the main wonks in the world. Therefore, Esperanto is not only not extinguished, as once Volapuk, but very viable. It produces newspapers and magazines, textbooks, dictionaries, scientific, popular and fiction, as well as poems and songs.
In Russia, the fate of Esperanto and Esperantists was ambiguous. The Bolshevik leaders of Lenin's time tried to put him in the service of the world revolution. It is known that, by order of the chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of Trotsky, the Red Army units, who were preparing in the Crimea in the 20 year for the march on Poland and further to Europe, taught Esperanto so that the fighters could at least somehow communicate with the Europeans ... Going forward, I will say that I do not find this order stupid, because I checked his idea through personal experience.
During the repression of 30-40-s, Esperantists were imprisoned, fearing that their correspondence with foreign friends could serve as spy and anti-Soviet goals. And in his work “Questions of Linguistics”, Stalin criticized the idea of a world language, because the cultural and ethnic characteristics of each people will sooner or later turn the world language into dialects, peculiar only to these peoples and incomprehensible to foreigners. With this, I also agree on personal experience, which is ahead.
Outdated prohibitions and severity went away in the 80s, and the Esperantists of the Soviet Union and other socialist countries immediately became inactive. Their activity found a grateful response, it was immediately supported by the Komsomol, and people flocked to the Esperanto circles. Even in the Soviet Society of Friendship with the Peoples of Foreign Countries, which was headed by cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, an Esperanto branch was created. But Hungary just became the Mecca of Esperantists of the socialist countries, because there they were headed by cosmonaut Farkas, who learned Esperanto to argue by winning a box of beer. Hungarian Esperanto magazine Hungara Vivo (Hungarian Life) told about this.
By the way, it is quite real. Linguists linguists say: to learn a foreign language before fluency, you need to study every day for several hours for three years. Esperanto should also be taught in the same way, but for ... three months!
Whoever taught Esperanto in Volgograd circles in the 80s! There are young workers and students, and high school students and vocational schools, and housewives with retirees. All enthusiastically crammed, trained, organized social networking and quiz evenings, in which the favorite exclamation was "ne crocodilos!" ("not crocodile"), that is, forgetting not to go into the conversation in their native language. And as soon as the circle member began to communicate in Esperanto a little bit freely, he immediately entered into correspondence with foreign friends, in the circles they exchanged such addresses and read out the most interesting letters from abroad. The number of Esperantists in Volgograd and Volzhsky so increased that the World Esperanto Union in the summer of 86 and in the summer of 88 even held our international congresses, which were held in the Sputnik hotel (now the Business Center) opposite the variety theater and Volzhsky, in the palace of culture "October", and in the hall of the regional Palace of culture of trade unions held concerts for guests of the congress. By the way, at one of these congresses the Englishman tried to tell his anecdote in Esperanto, but no one understood him, like the words familiar and the phrases are the same, but the meaning falls apart, the anecdote was too English. So Stalin was right, however, the Esperantists never argued with this right ...
I came to the Esperanto circle in the winter of 1986, and by the summer, by the first congress, I was already fluent in speech. By the way, at this congress the old Volgograd Esperantist, who was repressed in 50 for his passion, was the guest of honor. At the congress I met the Romanian and Hungarian participants, it was in June. And in September, I went on a tour of Romania and Hungary. Here it was jolly! In Bucharest, an Esperanto student called a university teacher, and she instantly appeared in my hotel with students from the local Esperanto study group. They brought excellent cognac and gave me such a tour around the city, which one cannot buy for good money! In Romania, then the rules of Ceausescu, the country paid a huge external debt and lived in terrible poverty! There are emptiness in the bazaars and shops, police patrols everywhere with automatic rides on bicycles. I wanted to be photographed against the background of the palace, where the Central Committee of their Communist Party was, but we were immediately shucked out from there baleen Mordovorot in uniform. Television only showed 2 hours per day. news and folk music. In the evening, my guides brought me to the building of the University of Bucharest, where several gentlemen professors began to carefully ask me about my impressions of Romania ... I, inflamed with cognac and Soviet publicity, declared that they had a natural "campfire" ... And then they offered me to smuggle in illegally in the USSR, their letter to Gorbachev with a request to render comradely assistance to the Romanian people in the fight against the dictator Ceausescu (!). All the hops out of my head! Brothers, I say, yes, if there is a snitch among you, or just someone spills out, they'll take me to the border and solder 20 years of the Romanian prison, and in the Soviet Union no one will lift a finger in my defense! And they advise, hand over our letter to your embassy, so that they will return it to you in Moscow, diplomatic mail, they say, do not inspect ... Yeah, I say, yes, our 24 will send you back an hour ago for such an initiative for life! My professors sighed with understanding, okay, they say, you do not need to send a letter, but when you return home, tell me what's going on ...
But in Budapest, Hungarian friends took me to a coffee shop and just fed me with elegant Viennese cakes, and then they took me to an Esperanto literature store, where I bought a sumptuous book published in Denmark: "Abotso de amo" (Alphabet of Love), something like world history of carnal love culture with such outspoken illustrations that I seriously feared that our then customs would have taken this book away from me at the entrance to the border. But everything worked out, and this book went on for a long time after the hands of the Volgograd Esperantists and their friends.
By the way, during this trip I spoke in Esperanto with hotel employees and waiters, and they understood me perfectly, and often even asked what city in Italy (?) I live in! Esperanto sounds similar to Italian, and the words in it are familiar to any European, so Trotsky’s order was quite rational, the Red Army men could communicate with the European proletariat ...
In 1989, I rested in Bulgaria at the resort "Sunny Beach". There he saw a large building with a luminous Esperanto sign. I went there, it turned out to be a multiplex restaurant, its menu was posted in many European languages, and in Esperanto too. In the evening I went there again, the halls were full of people, in one of them, a small but cozy one, I heard a familiar speech and greeted the audience. Immediately I was happily surrounded, seated, bombarded with questions, and most importantly, they began to regale with kebabschets, these are Bulgarian-style lyula-kebabs, and vodka, vodka, I'm from Russia! And they have vodka - grape tea, in their language - brandy, strong, it burns to the soul! In general, Esperanto-Slavic hospitality brought me to a complete blackout, but my friends cheerfully dragged my body to the hotel, where they left to fight the morning hangover and remember this wonderful evening.
Everything ended in 1991. Some were devoured by a concern for survival, others by personal material and career success. Esperanto movements were gone, again only the most devoted enthusiasts remained. Meanwhile, in my opinion, new, very practical areas of application have now opened up for Esperanto ... The Internet has entered our life, in all its spheres. And for him the language of international and technical communication, a kind of Esperanto, due to circumstances is English. This archaic language is grammatically difficult for quick and adequate understanding, it is firmly tied to the culture and way of thinking of the peoples for which it is native. At the same time, a real Esperanto is easy to learn, is easy to grammar, its alphabet does not need a specific keyboard and layout program. There are no exceptions in Esperanto, there are no words that change meaning in different contexts, this language is rationally formalized, like a sequential series of mathematical formulas. Because of this, it is almost impossible to convey feelings and shades. But for the transmission of brief, capacious, and most importantly, unambiguously accurate information that is required when working on the Internet, Esperanto is simply perfect. I think that Esperantists should try to draw the attention of the computer business tycoon, because if you make Esperanto the language of universal Internet communication, this will open up exciting new prospects in various areas of market relations. I see the practical implementation in the following way: on computer courses, everyone who wants to offer to teach Esperanto is also, at the same time creating Esperanto portals with a wide variety of information, forums and chat rooms to communicate in the worldwide network.
However, already now everyone who wants can type the word "esperanto" in any search engine of any country and start communicating with local Esperantoists on any topic.
So I remain an optimist, as an Esperantist should, for the very word Esperanto means, in Russian, "hoping."
Jees Reviewo, samideena! Goodbye, like-minded people!
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