Military Review

The last argument of the kings from Copenhagen

Today we will have a tour, and not just anywhere, but to the Danish Royal Arsenal Museum. Its other name is the Military Museum. stories и weapons, (dat. Tøjhusmuseet), and it is located next to the Christian Parliament building in the building of an arsenal from the time of Christian IV (1604 year), which is why it was so named. It must be emphasized: this is not just a museum, but a rich collection of military equipment, ammunition and all types of weapons, in which there is nothing, including the installation of the war in Afghanistan. But the most spectacular part of it, in my opinion, is the hall, which contains various artillery pieces. The hall is bright, well lit, so all the guns on display in it are convenient to review and take pictures. And - most importantly, there are a lot of all these guns in it, which allows us to visually trace the entire history of the development of artillery. Sometime with the light hand of Cardinal Richelieu, these words appeared on all French cannons. Well, let's look at these “arguments” from the museum of the descendants of the ancient Vikings ...

This is the Tøjhusmuseet building itself ...

The first guns of the XV century. Creating such a miracle of military thought was not easy at that time. First, it was necessary to forge iron strips of a wedge-shaped profile and carefully grind them one to another. Then they were red-hot and they shackled a pipe from them, connecting them together by means of forge welding. Secondly, it was necessary to make hoops with a diameter smaller than the barrel, heat them red-hot and put them on the barrel with tension. Separately, it was necessary to make a powder charging chamber, and not one, but the more, the better. Both of these parts had to be exactly one to the other, so that there was no gas breakthrough. The chamber was locked with a wedge. Since the powder looked like sticky flesh, it was quite difficult and dangerous to charge the chambers, but it allowed at least some rate of fire to be provided!

In the XVI century tools already learned to cast copper and even cast iron. Danish-Norwegian 6 pound ship guns.

But this is already 14-pound bronze implements of King Christian IV.

The last argument of the kings from Copenhagen

Casting untied the hands of masters, because they cast them in wax forms, and the guns turned into real works of art. Here, for example, a gun molded in 1564 by Matthias Benningcomb in Lübeck for the admiral ship Engle.

Cannon cast in 1687 in Copenhagen by Albert Beenningk (family contract, so to speak,) for Christian IV, King of Denmark and Norway.

Mortar 1692 of the year with the abbreviation of the manufacturing plant.

The guns are now sometimes specially cast to present as a gift. For example, the 27-pound bronze gun of the XVI century, a gift of Christian IV to the Duke of Oldenburg.

This is a rear view tool.

12-pound 1849 field gun of the year with a bronze barrel.

Guns in the XIX century served for a long time. Here is the Danish 24-pound field gun of the 1834 model of the year that participated in the 1864 war of the year.

Danish 12-pound fortress rifle M1862-1863.

Danish 30-pound coastal cannon M1865.

Danish 12-pound fortress rifle M1862-1876.

Danish 150-mm M1887-1924 fortress gun on the field gun carriage.

Danish 190-mm howitzer 1898 of fortress artillery.

Belgian gun 120-mm of the late XIX century.

As you can see, the bolt is already wedge.

Danish 90 mm M1876 field gun.

Danish serf 150-mm gun M1884.

Danish 75-mm field gun of the late 19th century

And, of course, Hotchkiss 37-mm revolving gun on the field gun carriage. Well, as without her ...

At one time, the Model Designer magazine published materials on the battleship Twelve Apostles, the most powerful 68-pound bomb weapons mounted on the lower decks of the ships Paris, Grand Duke Constantine, the Twelve Apostles and the role that they played in the battle of Sinop. But the same Danes at that time already had such, absolutely monstrous, 100-pound (45,4 kg) iron ship howitzers.

Danish rifle ship 84-pound guns with piston bolt.

It's the same: front view.

These “pigs” ...

Danish 150-mm experimental rifled howitzer.

Danish 1887 year of manufacture 170-mm cannon Friedrich Krupp. Without him, of course, there also could not have done ...

And this is its breech under a horizontal wedge-shaped gate.

The Danish 75-mm 1914 ship-firing gun of the year.

So she looks back.

Danish rapid-fire ship 37-mm gun with a shoulder rest 1886 g.

Danish rapid-fire ship 47-mm gun with a shoulder rest 1887 g.

And this is the Swedish-Danish 37-mm anti-tank gun 1938.

The famous French 75-mm field gun M1897 Putoto and Depot. All modern rapid-fire artillery began with her ...

View of her from behind. Needless to say, the gun is preserved in such a quality that even now, charge and shoot!

And this is for comparison the German 77-mm field gun 1896. Neither elegance nor elegance to you.

So she looked back. In principle, wow, but the rate of fire was still lower than that of the “French”, 10 versus 15. Due to the shorter stem, the range was also less.

But here on this design the Germans took revenge: 7,5-cm anti-tank gun M1940.

40 mm ship "pom-pom". The Danes in navy they were too!

Danish 20-mm anti-aircraft machine 1940 g.

The 40-mm Bofors 1936 anti-aircraft machine gun on the installation for onshore fortifications.

The famous German anti-aircraft gun "88" 1936.

The museum also has an impressive collection of mortars. Here is one of them. Mortar of Danish-Norwegian production 1600-1700

Well, and this is a unique exhibit at all - a stove in order to heat the cannonballs for firing at wooden ships. The kernels were laid on top and went down as they were heated, from where they were taken with special tongs. The core had to have a dark cherry color so as not to become too soft.

But this is a cart with the help of which the hot cores were delivered to the guns. In England, a very interesting Hornblower series was filmed about the career of an English naval officer of the era of Admiral Nelson and based on the facts of his own biography. So there in one of the series it is very realistic to show how the cores are heated and they shoot hot-tempered cores at ships. Only here the stove there is different. But anyway - I highly recommend this movie to watch!

Will be in Copenhagen, go to this museum necessarily. There are still many interesting things. It is a pity that behind the glass.

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  1. Basil50
    Basil50 30 June 2018 06: 26
    Very informative. Thanks to the author.
    But still, do not forget about how the Danes strengthened in the Baltic.
    Do not forget about how they during the WWII * saved * Jews, demanding payment for labor, and even provided loans to pay for salvation. Well, and * courage * with * resistance * about which they boldly spoke after 1945.
    By the way, belligerent statements began to sound again in Denmark. What is it for?
    1. igordok
      igordok 30 June 2018 07: 28
      Do not forget that as a neutral power in WWI, Denmark at the end of the war tore a small piece from Germany, and replenished its gold reserve.
      And about the article.
      But here on this design the Germans took revenge: 7,5-cm anti-tank gun M1940.

      The use of the familiar name Pak 40 is more relevant. If, in the Danish army, this weapon was under a different name, then this should be indicated.
      Thank you for the article. It is a pity that this museum is unlikely to be able to visit.
  2. Chertt
    Chertt 30 June 2018 07: 09
    Thank you for such reviews. When will I still find the opportunity to go. (yes and whether it will turn out at all, life is unpredictable). And if the article is written with knowledge and love, it’s as if he himself had visited
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 30 June 2018 07: 28
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich. An interesting tour of the unique museum and good photos.
  4. Curious
    Curious 30 June 2018 08: 51
    Let me make some clarifications.
    “The first tools of the XNUMXth century. To create such a miracle of military thought at that time was not easy. First, it was necessary to forge strips of wedge-shaped profile from iron and carefully polish them one to the other. Then they were red-hot and chained from them, connecting them together by "Secondly, it was necessary to make hoops with a diameter smaller than the barrel, heat them red and put on the barrel with an interference fit."
    The technology looked a bit different. Anyone familiar with the English language knows that the word “barrel” and the word “barrel” in English are “barrel”. This is no accident. Both the barrel and the forged barrel were made in the same way - by connecting the bands using metal hoops.
    Forged strips were fixed on a wooden core. Then, at a certain distance, like hoops on a barrel, heated iron rings were installed on them. When heated, the ring expands, cooling - returns to its original size, tightening the strip. Since there are many rings, the force with which the strips are pulled together is sufficient to provide the necessary strength. Further, the trunk thus assembled was heated white-hot and the strips were welded together due to the compressive force of the hoops and such a phenomenon as diffusion. Then the wooden mandrel is burned out and the trunk is ready.
    1. Snail N9
      Snail N9 30 June 2018 09: 26
      the trunk assembled in this way was incandescent and the strips were welded together

      Then the wooden mandrel is burned out and the trunk is ready.

      But what, when heating the barrel "to white" the wooden mandrel remained intact? Not burned out? wink
      1. Curious
        Curious 30 June 2018 14: 58
        I myself did not make trunks like that, but the practical experience of the metallurgist suggests that I did not burn. For burning a tree, in addition to temperature, oxygen is needed, the access of which in this case is limited.
        1. Snail N9
          Snail N9 30 June 2018 15: 34
          "Oxygen" say ..... how do you get charcoal?
          1. Curious
            Curious 30 June 2018 18: 39
            Charcoal is obtained by pyrolysis of wood, i.e. decomposition of wood when heated to 450 ° C without air access with the formation of gaseous and liquid (including wood tar) products, as well as solid residue - charcoal.
            But the blacksmith forge and the billet preparation are, however, not a retort for pyrolysis. The conditions are not ideal and time is short.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 June 2018 19: 24
          That's right. From children's experiences casting all kinds of garbage from lead. A sliver slipped into the melt does not burn, but only gets charred. Perhaps the mandrels did not burn out, but were knocked out, having previously tapped the barrel. After all, a certain percentage of air still got between wood and metal, respectively, the mandrel should slightly burn.
          1. Curious
            Curious 30 June 2018 19: 35
            Similarly, a scraper for downloading slag from a ladle, which is a birch chock.
  5. Snail N9
    Snail N9 30 June 2018 09: 02
    I was always surprised that in Russia, even in the central museums, poor collections of weapons and military equipment, Was at the Museum of Artillery and Engineering Troops in St. Petersburg, was not impressed at all, in comparison with the same Finnish museum in Hämeenlinna. The Naval Museum in St. Petersburg is also not particularly memorable - it is mostly saturated with ship models, in the same Finnish Turku, in the Maritime Museum, the exhibition is more interesting ...
    1. datur
      datur 30 June 2018 13: 37
      come to TULU there is a weapon museum. there you will find everything you want !!!! wink
      1. Snail N9
        Snail N9 30 June 2018 15: 37
        The Tula Museum of Riflemen is famous, its exhibitions used to travel to cities often .... I am more interested in artillery, naval, engineering-protective subjects, the history of military chemistry ...
  6. Brutan
    Brutan 30 June 2018 09: 34
    Richly Illustrated Article
    I like these reviews too
    Super, ATP
  7. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 30 June 2018 14: 25
    Himself a great lover of weapons museums. Thank you, Vyacheslav O., for a good article! hi
  8. Curious
    Curious 30 June 2018 15: 11
    "Casting untied the hands of the masters, because they were cast in wax forms, and the guns turned into real works of art."
    I will allow myself one more clarification. Guns were not cast on wax models. The gun cannot be cast according to the wax model. In the slow molding method, wax was used as an auxiliary material.
    The guns were cast according to the clay model on a wooden rod. A straw rope was originally wound on this rod, which was coated with clay. Using the template, the outer surface of the model was formed, the diameter of which was supposed to be 20-25 mm less than the outer diameter of the finished gun. When the clay dried, the last layer, consisting of wax and lard, was applied to the model, to which crushed coal was mixed for hardness. Ornaments (emblems, inscriptions, etc.) were made separately in gypsum core boxes and attached to the model's body.
    The production of the mold itself began with a brush applying a layer of lean clay mixed with coal and fibrous materials (straw, tow). The layer thickness was approximately 15 mm, and the number of such layers reached 25-30. then layers of oily clay were applied until the total thickness of the clay coating reached 120-150 mm, depending on the diameter of the implement. After this, transverse hoops were applied, and a series of longitudinal bars were placed on them. At the end of the coating and drying (the wax layer is melted), the wooden rod was removed. Next, a ceramic rod was inserted. They stuck a separately made form of the breech and started pouring.
    During the period of the French Revolution, when the Republicans needed a large amount of artillery to preserve the gains of the revolution, in France Gaspard Monge introduced a new method of manufacturing cannon trunks, which were cast in two flasks, laying inside their hollow bronze or cast-iron model.
  9. Conductor
    Conductor 30 June 2018 15: 24
    27 pound gift. just shine! and 37 mm with a shoulder rest, I still don’t understand how the recoil was extinguished
  10. Denimax
    Denimax 30 June 2018 17: 10
    I heard about hot kernels. Then I first saw the technology of heat. Only this spiral should be in the stove with a long pipe, otherwise a simple bonfire cannot be brought to a hot place. Then the ship will look like a steamer, and here you can get the idea for water tube boilers. Only later.
  11. Theodore
    Theodore 30 June 2018 17: 49
    In Kaunas, the military museum also has a rich collection of weapons! And guns, and muskets, and small arms of the 19-20th centuries! Only muskets are uncomfortable to take, the glass showcase makes glare.
  12. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 30 June 2018 18: 29
    Most often, all kinds of plywood carriages invented by the owner of the museum are enraged. For some reason, it is believed that it is enough to show the gun barrel. And how it was actually used is like a visitor’s fantasy problem.
    1. Conductor
      Conductor 30 June 2018 21: 30
      Probably in favor of the cartoon - Treasure Island, there, one. not a good uncle, from, the guns were poured in bursts, but baked on)))))))))
  13. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 1 July 2018 20: 14
    Another wonderful material, thanks to the respected Vyacheslav.
  14. aakvit
    aakvit 9 July 2018 13: 26
    To the author - respect, as always, however!
  15. aakvit
    aakvit 9 July 2018 13: 31
    By the way, he’s not an artilleryman, so the question is - what kind of pom-pom animal is this?