The most expensive helmets. Part twelve. Wendel helmets

So, we know that the “Wendel period” in stories Sweden (550 — 793) was the era of the completion of the German Iron Age in Scandinavia, or, so to speak, of the era of the great migration of peoples. The center of all religious and political life was the Old Uppsala district in Uppland, central eastern Sweden, where sacred groves and royal barrows were growing. And this was a period of rather peaceful development, when “the people of the North” preferred to trade with Central Europe, rather than fight with it. What did they export there? Fur, slaves and amber. In exchange, they received art objects and got acquainted with new technologies. In particular, the stirrups fell from Europe to Scandinavia.

The most expensive helmets. Part twelve. Wendel helmets

Wendel helmets. Medium - Wendel-14.

Archaeological excavations at Wendel and Walsgerde suggest that Uppland can be easily identified with the kingdom of Sveev, repeatedly described in the sagas. The findings suggest that the Swan kings had at their disposal well-armed squads, including cavalry, as indicated by stirrups found in the graves, and decorations for saddles of gilded bronze with inlays.

Helmet "Walsgard-8" had chain mail barmitsa around the perimeter, so it suggests that the chain mail in Scandinavia in the era of Vendel were known and even very well. (State Historical Museum, Stockholm)

The 6th century Gothic historian Jordan also wrote that the Svei had very good horses, with the exception of turing. Yes, and in the sagas, though later, the local kings fight on horseback and have at their disposal beautiful horses. By the way, Odin, the supreme god of the Scandinavians, rides on Sleipnir (translated as “sliding” or “lively, agile, nimble”) with an octopus horse, which emphasizes his swiftness.

Well, and any rider of that time, if he only had enough wealth for a horse, was usually enough for everything else. That is, the warriors-horsemen of Wendel time had helmets, chain mail, round shields with umbon, swords, the construction characteristic of the era of migration of peoples, and spears. And all this is found in the ship's burial, so that here archaeologists, one might say, was lucky. Moreover, they were especially lucky with helmets, because, unlike the “Viking Age”, they found so many that they were assigned serial numbers - “Wendel 1, 2, 3 ... 14 - that is, the common names of these helmets correspond to the numbers of those burials in which they were found.

"The burial of the noble Rus". Most likely the leaders were buried like this in the Vendelsky era. The Epoch Painting GI Semiradsky

Wendel-type helmets were most likely used throughout the Scandinavian region, but most of all they are found in the Uppland region and on the Gotland Islands. In Uppland, at least 12 helmets were found, of which 8 were subsequently reconstructed and published. These are the finds from the graves of Wendel and Walsgard, also found in other places. Consider them in more detail.

The earliest among all found is the “helmet from Torsbjörg”, which dates from the 3rd c. AD Only he was found not in the area of ​​Uppland, but in the Thorsbjerg swamp on the border between modern Denmark and Germany. The helmet of this frame type of cutouts for the eyes does not have, as it does not have a longitudinal ridge. The frame itself consists of a rather wide longitudinal strip that connects to the helmet's front and rear crowns, and a lattice of thin iron strips between them, fastened with rivets. All parts of this openwork design are decorated with ornaments and silver plated.

It is interesting that along with him there was a typical Roman silver mask with traces of gilding from “sports” helmet II - the beginning of the III century. But it was impossible to put on this helmet with this mask, it did not fit it, so it can be assumed that it was worn either separately, or it was worn with another helmet, and it got into the swamp as a gift to the gods according to the principle “take it we do not need.

Mask from the swamp in Torsbjörg. (Museum of the Gottorp Palace-Castle, Schleswig, Germany)

Side view. And ... it is clear why it is impossible to wear her with a regular helmet.

Since there are a lot of helmets found, the Swedish scientist G. Arvidsson managed to develop their classification, which everyone currently uses: the first letter A denotes helmets without a crest, the letter - helmets with a crest, the second digit 1 denotes plates used for additional protection - The cheek pads and the back piece, and the 2 figure - the presence of a chainmail barmica. Here are just a “helmet from Torsbjörg” completely falls out of this classification. However, it is not surprising. After all, he is the earliest of all.

Helmet "Wendel-14". (State Historical Museum, Stockholm)

Well, now let's look at the samples of Wandel helmets that have come down to us from burials in Wendel, Valsgard and in some other places. Here, for example, a helmet from the burial "Wendel-14". according to the classification, G. Arvidsson clearly belongs to the A1 group, that is, it is a helmet without a crest, but with a shoulder strap and a backrest. And this is the earliest find among all the burials with helmets. It dates from the time from 520 and before the beginning of the 7th century, that is, the 536 disaster of the year could have happened after this helmet was in the ground. It is made of iron, dome-shaped with shallow eye openings. It is very corroded, but it can be seen that its frame consists of a crown, longitudinal and transverse strips, and the space between them is filled with plates that go down from the longitudinal strip to the crown.

“Wendel-14” is the only Swedish helmet that has two cutouts on the cheeks: the top for the eyes and the bottom for the mouth. This form is unusual and not typical for Wandel and Anglo-Saxon helmets. In combination with a large noseplate, such cheek pads form a very effective face protection and at the same time breathing all this does not constrain. Something they resemble the Roman imperial helmets, but only remind, no more.

The helmet is decorated with characteristic bronze gilded brows with a dotted pattern and a stylized animal head represented by its top view, that is, it is not voluminous. Similar heads, but smaller in size, adorn the ends of the brows. The surface of the helmet is covered with bronze decorative plates. But there is no convex comb on it.

Helmet "Walsgard-5". (State Historical Museum, Stockholm)

This helmet, according to the classification of G. Arvidsson, belongs to the B1 group. It is also frame, while its frame consists of a crown, a wide longitudinal strip and side bands. But the space between them is very ingeniously filled: in front, with two sub-triangular plates and a straight plate curved in the shape of the head in the middle part, and a “braided line” of iron bands between them. That is, this helmet was “ventilated,” although, most likely, it was worn with a pillowcase of leather or fabric, the color of which was visible in the slots of the braid.

And this is his modern reconstruction. Well visible "braided" with holes. Impressive, isn't it?

The batsman of this helmet is unusual, but characteristic of many Wandel helmets - from metal strips, hinged to the bottom edge of the helmet. The face is protected by a simple half-mask, and there are no cutouts for the eyes. The eyebrows of the hatching do not have, but they also end with the heads of animals, curved so that their long jaws touch the upper edge of the eyebrows.

The comb of the helmet is high with a longitudinal "ridge", decorated on both sides with the heads of animals. The helmet body, except for the openwork areas, is covered with bronze plates. Dated helmet beginning of VII.

The helmet “Walsgard-6” belongs to the B2 group, and it is even more unusual in design than all the others. That is, it has a half mask and a frame of a standard rim, a longitudinal strip with a ridge and transverse stripes, only the method of filling the empty space between them is very different from other helmets. Apparently his master did so with a rich imagination, since he filled this space with an openwork design of three fairly narrow Y-shaped strips interconnected (in pairs of two large and four small and four openwork cross-shaped plates with a hole in the middle)!

To protect the neck and the bottom of the face was supposed to be a chain mail stanchion attached to the edge of the helmet and to the bottom of the half mask. The ridge has a longitudinal "ridge", which, like other helmets, is decorated at the ends with the heads of fantastic animals. The eyebrows are connected to it, the heads of animals on which are located opposite each other and rotated in profile. The frame and this helmet cover chased bronze plates.

"Helmet from Ultuna". The crown is clearly visible from basket-shaped metal bands intertwined with each other. (State Historical Museum, Stockholm)

“The Helmet of Ultuna” is so named because it was found in the city of Ulthuna, near Uppsala. This is the helmet of the B1 group. Weight - 1,8 kg, of which 452 g falls on the comb. The dome of the helmet is the same as that of many other helmets, in particular, “Walsgard-5” without eye openings and eyebrow ornaments. It is unusual that both halves on both sides of the ridge are made in the form of a lattice of iron bands located diagonally. The neck and the cheeks were to be closed by five iron bands suspended on hinges, of which only one was preserved. The D-shaped ridge in the cross section of a bronze tube with a longitudinal "ridge" is traditionally decorated with animal heads at both ends. It was noticed that such ridges were characteristic of Wandel helmets of the end of the 7th - the first half of the 8th centuries.

Modern reconstruction of the helmet "Valsgard-7".

Many helmets were found on the island of Gotland, and not only the helmets themselves, but also parts from them. For example, these are iron eyebrows from helmets, inlaid with silver with animal heads; bronze brows inlaid with grenades and zoomorphic ornamentation; as well as decorative bronze plates for helmets with embossed braided patterns. Moreover, it is interesting that “the helmet from Sutton-Hu,” although it has a different design, is decorated in exactly the same way as the Vendle's. All this suggests that the tradition of making helmets in England and Scandinavia were very similar, although not identical. That is, quite close trade and cultural contacts between Scandinavia and Britain at that time already existed, but the military was not until the end of the VIII century, since they are not reflected in any evidence. Most of the helmets are longer than wide, that is, they were made for dolichocephalus and it was they who, therefore, lived in Scandinavia in this era. As a result, it should also be noted that such helmets could serve as a good protection against a chopping sword. The presence of lattice holes is unlikely in this case, weakened their protective functions, but the spear blows to the owners of such helmets, most likely, should obviously be wary!

P.S. But this is a Wendel-type helmet, modeled on the “helmet of Ultuna”, and of others similar to it, since no two were alike in the burials. The material is cardboard and paper, and it is made for classes with children in the framework of the “knight’s shift” in one of our summer camps in Penza. The Penza construction company “Rostum” organizes such thematic changes, which not only builds houses, but also has its own Academy, where they work with children from one year to the next 17 years. And right now, she is conducting a historical-literary camp shift "Knights of the Middle Ages" in a picturesque forest near Penza, where I will conduct both theoretical and practical classes. Full immersion in the plot-role-playing game "Knights of the Middle Ages" through various activities: creative workshops, sports, musical watches, watching movies, quests, contests. The program includes the history of medieval chivalry, life, costumes, customs, traditions, heraldry, weapon knights. Living conditions are the most comfortable. Every day swimming pool.

At one of the next classes we will make knight helmets and this is a sample of one of them. I always believed that if you know something and know how, then you need to share it, and share first thing with the children. So I share!
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  1. +4
    29 June 2018 06: 13
    In the bottom photo - a cool little thing! In general, it is not difficult to reproduce in metal. And not very costly. Only nafig nobody needs, because a similar business in our country is in its infancy, and the Russian reenactors, they are such, reconstructed wholeheartedly, give them the authenticity of the production. Nice article, thanks!
    1. Cat
      29 June 2018 19: 09
      Great idea, dear Anton! If from a copper strip, then it will be even more popular, although more expensive.
      People are greedy for red metal !!!
      It’s necessary to “seize” something similar for yourself, as soon as there is time.
      1. +2
        29 June 2018 19: 42
        My friends, there are whole museums from such a “remake”. What is in Vyborg in the castle, what is in Polotsk. Tilki is one remake. request But .. looks impressive? fellow Expands people's ideas about history? good Do the hosts enjoy it? Yes Does it bring money? wink So - a good deed! drinks soldier
        1. Cat
          29 June 2018 21: 08
          Nikolay, is it really bad to try on chain mail, support a sword. A sword from the photo gallery from the museum is not given to every professor, but a replica is any whim for your money. So you are absolutely right - this area of ​​"historical reconstruction" is worth developing and covering. And not only that!
          An example from my experience.
          In the mid-80s, my father made me a machine gun from a tree for playing war games, but he cut his finger badly and said that he needed to make a weapon for himself. I don’t remember why his words sank into my soul, but I began to plan, saw and pound weapons from wood. Today, after three decades, I understand that it was squalor. But then - the German MP-38 scheme (with a magazine from below), the Italian - on the side, under the teaching staff, AK, shotgun pump-action shotguns, etc. In general, after two years, any plasmask and piece of iron were rejected in my little neighborhood; only wooden and my workmanship was taken into the game. I don’t remember how many “trunks” came out from under my hands, but for five dozen for sure.
          In those years, I had the dream of an "idiot" to make PCA. With a disk magazine, perfarin cover, etc. 10 times I tried, but ruined the workpiece. And from personally dried boards, three types of wood (beech, linden, oak) I made. I did not do anything more complicated either before or after. It was a masterpiece that I treasured more than life. In the second year of the institute, it so happened, I transported things from the "hostel" to the apartment. Hanged with trunks with its "masterpiece" around my neck, I look like an entrance door and out of the corner of my eye I notice a little peanut of about seven years old. To be honest, I still didn’t understand when, after about two hours, I found this little one in my apartment looking at my PCA lying on a carapace bed. For two hours of dragging on our hump, the three of us did not notice this “small fry” which apparently squeezed me into the elevator with my first walk, entered the apartment and stood there and looked. I don’t know what "pushed" me then either - the modesty with which the "miracle" looked at the PCA from the middle of the room, or - the sweating and the expectation that they noticed it and will now be kicked out, or maybe just a child’s doom. But I did what I had to do - having driven the “toad”, I simply gave the thing which I valued more than “peanut” more. I didn’t see him again, I think he was just trying not to show my eyes. I was afraid I would demand it back. After almost two decades, leaving the subway, I saw my PCA in the hands of a peanut! Who howled a beluga that the machine gun did not steal, but his uncle gave him with a guitar. Where uncle he doesn’t know "went to the subway." Mother the little one tugging a child by the whirlwinds threatened the last police and prison. It rolled over me, I went to the woman and said this is my machine gun. He took it from the hands of a peanut, with the usual movement removed a disk in which a place was machined for only one sleeve from the TT. With genuine surprise, he took out a Soviet paper ruble from the shell "his stash of almost 30 years ago." On which I wrote my last name and first name back in 89. I was even more surprised when, besides my last name, I saw five more, with a date in front of each. After I took out my work certificate and said compare. The woman was at a loss, I think she still did not understand why I could dispose of the toy. The most important thing was the eyes of the "peanut". To which I only managed to say take care of him.
          That day, I realized perhaps the main thing, maybe my toy, has done more for humanity than I have in my whole life! Four of its owners are worthy of being called a man, the fifth year in the second year learns to be a man!
          Regards, Sincerely Your Cat!
          1. +1
            3 July 2018 15: 27
            Thank! Sincerely
          2. +2
            4 July 2018 23: 54
            Vladislav .. I don’t visit the site every day, I just don’t have time - the end of the quarter .. Now I have found the time, 23.50. .. Shocked, to be honest .... Expensive, very expensive! soldier Want some advice? This is already a half-article about my favorite topic, which excites almost a year - creativity. Yes Write, I ask you! You gave so much material, feelings, feelings on inspiration that it is not necessary to write in the comments - it needs to be shown to people, you look, and the world will become better. soldier The world has become better. Thanks to one Kitty. Think over my words. I already ceased to be surprised that for some reason I was lucky with good, talented, extraordinary people in my environment, and new acquaintances .. Sincerely yours, Nikolai Mikado soldier
      2. +2
        29 June 2018 20: 31
        No, nafig, there is no copper, there is iron. "Coffins can’t; I sweep a lot."
  2. Ber
    29 June 2018 07: 35
    And this was a period of fairly peaceful development, when the "people of the North" preferred to trade with Central Europe rather than fight with it. What did they export there? Fur, slaves and amber. In exchange, they received art objects and got acquainted with new technologies.

    Before you can start reading, bam ... stand there, come on sorry, author, but how can you get slaves in a peaceful way for their peaceful sale in Europe? ((((What did they export there? Fur, slaves and amber.))))
    1. +3
      29 June 2018 07: 48
      I agree, it also cut the eye. On Wendel culture, there are a lot of questions.
    2. +4
      29 June 2018 08: 13
      Very easy. Slavery for debt was widespread. Then tribal squabbles - prisoners.
    3. +3
      29 June 2018 15: 03
      Quote: Ber
      But how can a peaceful way to get slaves for their peaceful sale in Europe? (

      To the military - only to grab them not in Central Europe: arrange a brawl or raid on the Sami / Finns / Nenets / Komi
    4. +1
      29 June 2018 15: 35
      Maybe they were propagated in captivity?
      1. Cat
        29 June 2018 19: 25
        In order to contain a slave. Moreover, from his work to make a profit. Minimum should be commodity-money relations, and above the level of "barter". This is one of the reasons why all historians say about the ancient Slavs that either they did not have slavery or were urgent. This also applied to the Finno-Ugric tribes on the territory of modern Russia.
        The slave must be fed, guarded, etc. So it’s much more profitable to include the latter in a limited way in your social environment. So that he himself was interested in feeding, guarding, etc. So prisoners in Siberia, it was decided to "marry" right up to the 17-18th century.
        By the way, in the same Scandinavia, slaves and masters were fed from the same table, but only a free man could take the oar. So if a slave was allowed to paddle on a dakkar, then he automatically became free.
        Here is such a perverted philosophy !!!
  3. +3
    29 June 2018 07: 57
    My favorite article series!
    There were good times: put on a helmet - and everything about you is clear))
    1. Cat
      29 June 2018 19: 33
      Different historians have long argued about how much a helmet cost in the Middle Ages!
      They converge in only one thing - expensive. An average of 5 to 10 cows !!! You can now go to the supermarket and orient us in price!
  4. +2
    29 June 2018 11: 55
    the classification that everyone is currently using: the first letter A means helmets without a crest, the letter means helmets with a crest,

    which letter?
    1. +2
      29 June 2018 13: 13
      B, of course - C!
  5. +3
    29 June 2018 14: 21
    Vyacheslav Olegovich. Have similar helmets been found on the way "From the Varangians to the Greeks"? In theory, it was precisely in the period that you described that this trade route was mastered.
    1. +3
      29 June 2018 16: 00
      The path was mastered later! Not in the Wendel era. No such helmets were found on it. Swords found in the graves. Even in the museum of Tatarstan are stored three swords of one another more beautiful, found there. About swords and about the Way will be separate! But when - I don’t know. Come on in.
      1. +2
        29 June 2018 19: 31
        in Staraya Ladoga there are artifacts of the "way from the Varangians to the Greeks." It’s only difficult to shoot - the guard! request
      2. Cat
        29 June 2018 19: 41
        Quote: kalibr
        The path was mastered later! Not in the Wendel era. No such helmets were found on it. Swords found in the graves. Even in the museum of Tatarstan are stored three swords of one another more beautiful, found there. About swords and about the Way will be separate! But when - I don’t know. Come on in.

        That Vyacheslav Olegovich is recruiting a “gang of historians of traditionalists” !!! The involvement of minors in criminal activity is punishable by criminal prosecution. You take away the last piece of bread from Fomenko and Nasonov. A-I-I-st!
        Sincerely, Kitty!
        1. +1
          29 June 2018 19: 44
          "gang of traditionalist historians"

          replenishment for her. The gang has already been recruited, it has a bunch of associate professors (even one corresponding member!), They roll Penza ufologists and pseudo-historians into the asphalt. soldier
          1. Cat
            29 June 2018 21: 58
            Everything is correct Nikolay, only ufologists-Bashkir !!!
            Penziskys died as a class in an unequal battle with Vyacheslav Olegovich!
  6. +1
    29 June 2018 19: 10
    "The Gothic historian of the VI century Jordan also wrote that the svejes had very good horses, except for the Thuringians."
    Why did you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, of the glorious Thuringians who lived between the Thuringian forest, the Harz and the Sala and Var interfluve, not only have they deprived the horses, have you also written down on them? This is how historical myths are born.
    Jordan in his Getik, describing the tribes of the island of Skandza writes:
    {21} per terrae marginem dicitur circuire, aliae vero ibi sunt gentes Screrefennae, que frumentorum non queritant victum, sed camibus ferarum atque ovis avium vivunt; ubi tanta paludibus fetura ponitur, ut et augmentum prestent generi et satietatem ad cupiam genti. alia vero gens ibi moratur Suehans, quae velud Thyringi equis utuntur eximiis, hi quoque sunt, qui in usibus Bomanornm sappherinas pelles commercio interveniente per alias innumeras {22} gentes transmittunt, famosi pellium decora numridi dimendi dimendi ydiridim, i diversarum turba nationum, Theustes, Vagoth, Bergio, Hallin, Liothida, quorum omnium sedes sub uno plani ac fertilis, et propterea inibi aliarum gentium incursionibus infestantur, post hos Ahelmil, Finnaithae, Fervir, Ganthigoth, acre hominumumus etum. dehinc Mixi, Evagre, Otingis. hi omnes excisis ... "
    "(21) There is still a tribe there - they are scratched; they do not require bread nutrition, but live by the meat of wild animals and bird eggs. So much living creature is born in the swamps that breed reproduction and complete saturation of people are possible. Another tribe living there, - suehans; they, like the Thuringians, hold excellent horses. It is they [suehans?] That are sent through trade through countless other tribes sapperin (22) pelts for the consumption of the Romans and therefore are famous for the magnificent blackness of these furs. This tribe, living in poverty, wears rich clothing. Then follows a whole crowd of different tribes: Tevstes, Vagot, Bergio, Hullin, Lyotida; the area they inhabit is a fertile plain, which is why they are attacked and raided by other tribes there. "
    By the way, since we are talking about Vikings, maybe we should write an article about their horses? And then the people will read about Sleipnir and think that they rode there on the Akhal-Teke people. And they have ponies by today's standards.
    1. +2
      29 June 2018 19: 14
      I read all this, do you think the Internet is the only way you can use it? But he did not consider it necessary to write about it. I have a very good historiography, so this is your option, and I give mine. Someone wants to go deep - let them go.
      1. +1
        29 June 2018 19: 17
        Can you give a link to your translation option? And the one who resettled the Turinogs.
        1. +1
          29 June 2018 19: 35
          and the Father came, and distributed, to all sisters - by earrings, to all brothers in the balls .... fellow Viktor Nikolaevich, why have I recently played a Darth Vader march in my head in connection with your arrival? laughing drinks
          And they have ponies by today's standards.

          ponies, like, and bloodthirsty japons were? what
          1. +4
            29 June 2018 20: 10
            Norwegian fjords (a breed of horses), which still live in Norway, have no more than 150 cm at the withers. According to English standards, ponies are 147,3 cm. So the horses of the Vikings and Samurai and Mongol batyrs were stunted.
    2. +5
      29 June 2018 20: 44
      Simply, Sleipnir was using the 8x8 formula as an armored personnel carrier, and oats were eating the same amount. So the Scandinavians had to be content with short undersized horses.
  7. +3
    29 June 2018 20: 25
    That's where you all were half a day ago, I really had a fight with Olgovich out of boredom.
    1. +4
      29 June 2018 20: 40
      Found with whom to swear. You would have gone to Moika Embankment, argued with the people over the fence over something. Pretty much the same thing.
      1. +3
        29 June 2018 20: 51
        The phrase was awesome, could not pass by, again - boring! Why emb. Sinks?
        1. +3
          29 June 2018 21: 21
          Who lives in St. Petersburg with us?
          1. +2
            29 June 2018 21: 27
            Perhaps you have mixed up the rivers? Can Buckle Quay?
            1. +2
              29 June 2018 21: 41
              sure mixed up. drinks Yes, and there are many more addresses like ..
              1. Cat
                29 June 2018 21: 51
                So where did Chizhik-Pyzhik live?
                Fontanka just rolled into the asphalt, and the sink? tongue
                By the way, since we are talking about Vikings, maybe we should write an article about their horses? And then the people will read about Sleipnir and think that they rode there on the Akhal-Teke people.

                That the "lads" relaxed ........! missed Oparyshev miss? Now, when he jumps out, as he jumps out, we don’t wave it off !!!
              2. +1
                29 June 2018 22: 53
                How can you know your hometown so badly?
                1. +3
                  30 June 2018 04: 23
                  True, "Buckle" is. As for the knowledge of the city, the urban environment is dynamic, respectively, the language of its inhabitants is plastic. And if the toponym Kamchatka is even more or less remembered, few people will say where Saigon was, what the Warm Pipe is and how Citizen was divided into the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. We love our city (someone's native, someone not), but not everyone should be Lions Lurie.
  8. +4
    29 June 2018 22: 52
    All friends! The internet said meow. On one device optionally, on the other - hardware. Bye!
  9. +1
    30 June 2018 01: 08
    Archaeological excavations in Wendel and Walsgerd suggest that Uppland can be identified with the kingdom of svejes, etc.

    Why did the author decide that all these helmets are Swedish ?! After all, the population of Sweden spoke and wrote Russian in the 17th century. And not only ordinary people spoke Russian, but also know, including kings. Even Wikipedia knows about it!
    November 24, 1697 in Stockholm, at the memorial ceremony on the occasion of the death of April 5 of the same year, the Swedish king Charles XI was solemnly delivered a deplorable speech and delivered in Russian! Subsequently, the speech was published and printed in Latin. Looks like the Swedish language was not invented at that time, since I had to write a speech on the death of the king in Russian! This astounding fact suggests one thing: the population and the top of then-Sweden were still Russian, but they began to switch from Cyrillic to Latin!
    % D1% 83_XI
    1. Cat
      30 June 2018 05: 40
      Mustache, the scribe crept unnoticed! More precisely, he insidiously waited when everyone lay down "buy-buy", made another throw "Swedes tse Russia"!
      To be honest, after reading your comment, I almost stumbled over my lower jaw. I think where did the Swedish foodball fans get the urge to dance hopak, sing Kalinka-raspberry and whip kvass. So after all, they are real “Ukrainians”, they even have state flags of the same colors with Ukraine. It’s a pity I didn’t guess from the Swedes to knock down the horned helmets, maybe there are forelocks, and we don’t know!
      Now seriously, the finds are tied to the area where they are found!
      Archaeological excavations in Wendel and Walsgerd suggest that Uppland can be identified with the kingdom of svey, repeatedly described in the sagas.

      If you find Google maps to help you next to Uppsula - Gorilovka or Petukhovka, then I will seriously think about the Slavic trace in the formation of the Swedish state. So far, all the finds have been found on the territory of modern Sweden, and not on settlements near Kryvorizhka.
      P.S. about "even Vicki knows" Are you serious?
      1. +3
        30 June 2018 08: 15
        Then some people on the site are trying to laugh with the Ukrainians, remembering something about the Black Sea. But Ukrainians are small children in comparison with the superethnos in terms of historical delirium.
        1. +2
          30 June 2018 19: 57
          But what about the names of many cities in Germany, the names of German? Berlin suburb of Rostock, for example, or the name of von Büloff? And there are a lot of such examples in Europe to the Elbe and even further ...
          1. Cat
            1 July 2018 07: 29
            Money for fish?
            German historians themselves do not hide the fact that Germany has grown Slavic lands!
            See Great Moravia, Charlemagne and his allies.
            Dark Osten, if not in the VIII century began.
            By the way, the outcome of the Western Slavs within the limits of the old Russian proto-state is not fully understood, but no less important than the Vikings in the formation of Russia!
            I do not even deny the role of the first Russian princes in the formation of the state of Sveisk, but to interfere in a heap ....
        2. 0
          3 July 2018 13: 25
          And don’t say, Viktor Nikolaevich! Now also Russian Sweden ... And so the land is unmeasured. But all is not enough. The mustache was ours.
          1. 0
            3 July 2018 13: 44
            "The mustache was ours ..."
            But the insidious backstage subjects ... They could not withstand this exposure in terms of the breadth of their souls and underwent ... That's what we need to work on. Above the anti-subjugator, and not over the "world-equivalent" weapons.
      2. +1
        30 June 2018 14: 39
        Quote: Kotischa
        If you find Google maps to help you next to Uppsula - Gorilovka or Petukhovka, then I will seriously think about the Slavic trace in the formation of the Swedish state.

        70 km south of Uppsala there is a town with the most Slavic or, more precisely, Russian name. This town is well known to you - it’s Glass, it was there that the Swedish king Charles XI was buried. Nowadays, it is called Stockholm, and in the 17th century it was the Glass-house or the Stock-glass, as the locals called it. Glass production is still developed in Stockholm.
        Stockholm's old town is called Gamla Stan. Stan is a Cossack Russian word!
        1. Cat
          1 July 2018 07: 30
          In Chukotka there is Lake Africa! What's next?
        2. 0
          1 July 2018 16: 09
          Stockholm - a combination of two words:
          "stock" is a fortress and "holm" is an island. An island with a fortress.
          No relation to glass.
          1. +1
            1 July 2018 16: 32
            Quote: voyaka uh
            Stockholm - a combination of two words:
            "stock" is a fortress and "holm" is an island. An island with a fortress.
            No relation to glass.

            Stockholm is the current name, and in 1697 the city was called Stockholm, but in the previous comment you are given a historical document with the name of the city. This is already after the 17th century. Stockholm (Glass) was renamed Stockholm.
            1. +1
              1 July 2018 22: 15
              Stockholm has been called so since the 12th century. So he is mentioned in the sagas. No one has ever renamed it.
              Maybe some Slavs and his name seemed like a "glass". And they recorded it. So what? Moscow in Hebrew sounds like Maskavua - "a permanent tax (customs duty). The jokers said that this town was on the border of the Khazaria, and there they took a tax from merchants. But this is a joke.
        3. +2
          1 July 2018 22: 23
          "The old city of Stockholm is called Gamla Stan. Stan is a Cossack Russian word!" ////
          And Gamla is the Hebrew word. The ancient city in the Golan. Ever since the time of King Solomon ...
          So, Stockholm is an ancient indigenous Jewish land. What does the Cossacks, Swedes and Slavs have to do with it? laughing
  10. +1
    1 July 2018 20: 16
    Beauties and not helmets! It is difficult to assume their value in that era, with a fairly low overall level of productive forces and a shortage of metals in general, and not just precious metals.

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