Early in the morning at forty-one
Despite the fact that World War II had other fronts - hostilities unfolded in North and East Africa, the Mediterranean, Southeast Asia and Oceania, it was the war of the Soviet Union against Nazi Germany that was crucial. The Soviet people took the brunt of Germany and its allies, and, unlike the United States, Great Britain and British dominions, the war was fought on the very territory of the Soviet state, not only soldiers and officers of the Red Army and Navy were killed fleet, but also millions of peaceful Soviet citizens.
Today, very few participants of the Great Patriotic War have survived - people who forged the Victory with their blood and then. For them, 9 May is a great holiday, but 22 June is a tragic day, reminiscent of the sacrifices that the Soviet people were forced to make in the name of victory over Germany. In memory of the Great Patriotic War 22 June, national flags are lowered throughout the Russian Federation, while television, radio and cultural and leisure institutions are trying to cancel all entertainment programs and events during the day. But the main thing is not the formal side of this tragic date, but the memory of the terrible war and the colossal losses suffered by the Soviet country, which it would be worth passing from generation to generation.
Hitler Germany attacked the Soviet Union at dawn 22 June 1941. German planes violated the airspace of the USSR, in response to that in 3: 06 22 June 1941, the head of the headquarters of the Black Sea Fleet Rear Admiral Ivan Eliseev ordered to open fire on them. Thus, the Rear Admiral gave the very first military order to repulse the Nazis during World War II. A minute later, the Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army General of the Army Georgy Zhukov was notified of the start of hostilities. On 4: 00, the Foreign Minister of the Third Reich, Joachim von Ribbentrop, handed a note to the Soviet Union’s Ambassador to Germany, Vladimir Dekanozov, about declaring war. At dawn 22 June 1941, German troops crossed the border of the Soviet Union, invading its territory.
There is a widespread view that Hitler Germany attacked the Soviet Union treacherously and in Moscow they allegedly did not expect German aggression against the USSR. Of course, one should not assume that the Soviet leaders, the command of the Red Army, the intelligence services were so naive and blind not to see the military preparations of Hitler's Germany and its satellites.
During the 1938-1940. Hitler’s Germany occupied most of the countries of Western Europe and many countries of Eastern Europe that were not its allies. With the exception of neutral Sweden and Switzerland and Great Britain fighting against Hitler, all other European countries were either captured by Hitler’s troops, or were among allies (Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Finland, Slovakia, Croatia) or sympathizers (Spain and Portugal ).
It is clear that since the end of the 1930s, Hitler’s Germany was viewed by Moscow as a potential adversary. Preparations for repelling Germany’s possible aggression were in full swing. So, in April - May 1941, the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR proceeded to the covert mobilization of military reserve. Officially, young men who had served in the army were called to training camps. In total, over 802 thousand people were called up for training camps, that is, 24% of the assigned personnel according to the mobilization plan.
Thanks to the mobilization of military service, the Soviet command was able to significantly increase the number of personnel of half of the divisions of the Red Army. Thus, the 21 divisions were enlarged to 14 thousand people, 72 divisions - to 12 thousand people, 6 divisions - to 11 thousand people. 13 May 1941, the cadets of military schools were released into the army ahead of time - this measure also spoke about the seriousness of the situation. Starting from the second half of May 1941, the command of the Red Army began the transfer of the Red Army divisions closer to the western borders of the country. The construction of highways was carried out at an accelerated pace, airdromes and other military installations in the western military districts, close to the state border, were strengthened and masked.
Residents of Soviet intelligence have reported on the upcoming Nazi-German attack on the Soviet Union in Moscow since the end of 1940. However, the Soviet leadership treated the scouts without proper attention, especially since the non-aggression treaty was concluded between Germany and the Soviet Union, and in addition, Moscow regularly received information about the impending landing of the Hitler army on the British Isles. Assuming that in the event of the start of a large-scale war with Great Britain, Germany would not attack the Soviet Union, the Soviet leadership did not believe in the possibility of starting a war precisely in the 1941 year.
Joseph Stalin did not even heed the report of the Soviet Foreign Intelligence Chief of the 1 Directorate of the USSR NKGB (NKVD) Pavel Fitin, who reported to the leader about a possible attack by Hitler Germany on 17 on June 1941. Iosif Vissarionovich recommended Fitin to send the “source” of information to a known address, having decided that the British special services wanted to poison the USSR with Germany with the help of disinformation. In a similar vein, Stalin reacted to the message of the Soviet military attache in Paris, Major General Ivan Susloparov, who reported that the Nazis should attack the Soviet Union 22 June 1941 of the year. As in the previous case, Stalin decided that he was dealing with misinformation, which the British purposefully launch.
However, in 23: 30 21 June 1941, the Soviet leadership decided to bring the troops of five border military districts to alert status. At the same time, the directive prescribed not to give in to any provocations, although it was emphasized that during 22-23 in June 1941, a sudden attack of German troops on the fronts of the Leningrad military, Baltic special military, Western special military and Odessa military forces was possible special military districts. At this time before the attack of Hitler's Germany on the Soviet Union were already a matter of hours. The directive came to the troops too late, when there was no time left for the actual bringing of units and subunits to alert status.
22 June in 12 hours of the day, the USSR People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov addressed the Soviet people, in which he reported on the German attack on the Soviet Union and the beginning of the war. June 23 was created by the High Command Headquarters. By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, with 23 in June 1941, a mobilization of military 14 ages (1905 — 1918 of birth) in 14 military districts from 17 of military districts existing at that time was declared. A little later, mobilization in the western regions of the USSR, and then in Moscow and the Moscow region, was also extended to military citizens of the USSR 1890-1904 of birth and recruits 1922-1923 of birth. In total, by the end of 1941, more than 14 million Soviet citizens had been mobilized.
Many citizens, without waiting for the summons of the military enlistment offices, came themselves, asked to go to the front voluntarily. Among the volunteers were women, young people under the draft age and, conversely, elderly people who were no longer subject to conscription. Soviet citizens of different ages and nationalities, different professions and different sexes stood up to defend their country. So, Soviet women made a huge contribution to the victory over Nazi Germany, among whom were home front workers, selfless nurses and nurses who helped wounded soldiers under enemy fire, and scouts and pilots of the famous aviation regiments.
As is known, the first months of the war were the hardest. The Red Army suffered huge losses, retreating under the onslaught of Hitler's troops. The enemy captured one Soviet city after another. It seemed that Nazi Germany would succeed in completely crushing the Soviet Union. By 1 December 1941, the territories of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus, Moldova, a significant part of Ukraine and the European part of the RSFSR were under the control of the Nazis and their allies. The losses of such important regions as Krivoy Rog iron ore and Donetsk coal basins were of the greatest importance for the Soviet country. In the hands of the enemy were the most important industrial and economic centers - Minsk, Kiev, Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk, Odessa. German and Finnish troops blocked Leningrad. Millions of Soviet citizens were in the occupied territories, where hundreds of thousands of people became victims of the genocide policy of the Soviet people, tens of thousands were taken into slavery in Germany.
The losses of the Wehrmacht by this time are estimated at 740 thousand people, including 230 thousand people killed. In the first months of the war, the Red Army suffered incomparably great losses, but the heroism of ordinary Soviet soldiers and officers who had fought the enemy to the very end was incredible. For example, by September 1941 of the NKVD of the USSR disbanded 58 border units due to the lack of personnel. The Soviet border guards who fought for life and for death fell to the death of the brave. In the occupied cities and towns, Soviet citizens created underground organizations, in the forests - partisan detachments. It was the colossal strain of the forces of the Soviet people that made it possible to thwart the Hitlerite plan "Barbarossa" to capture most of the territory of the Soviet Union at lightning speed.
Under Moscow and Leningrad, the Hitlerite attack was choked. And this was the beginning of the end of Hitler's Germany, since the Führer, realizing that Germany was losing the Soviet Union in manpower, relied specifically on a quick offensive and instantaneous defeat of the Soviet forces that failed to orient themselves. When the Wehrmacht was stopped at the end of 1941, near Moscow, many far-sighted generals in the German General Staff began talking about the fact that the war was lost to Germany. Although Hitlerism was defeated only after three and a half years, experienced commanders understood that as soon as the Russians managed to halt the rapid onset of Hitler’s armies, the latter would get bogged down in Russia and sooner or later the Red Army would take revenge and throw them out of the territory of the Soviet Union. However, hardly any of the German generals could have imagined that the Red Army would not only force the Wehrmacht to leave the territory of the USSR, but would also free all Eastern and Central Europe from Hitlerism, reach Berlin and simply destroy the Nazi regime at the root.
The Great Patriotic War, ending with the complete victory of the Soviet Union over Nazi Germany, predetermined the outcome of the Second World War and liberated the world from Nazism. Germany, which claimed world domination, was defeated, divided into spheres of influence between the allies. But the Great Patriotic War was of tremendous importance in the domestic political sense. Victory in the war allowed the Russian people again, for the first time in the post-revolutionary decades, to feel themselves a great people. This, by the way, was declared by Stalin himself.
Probably, there is no such family in modern Russia that would not be somehow connected with the Great Patriotic War. Participants in the war and its victims are among the relatives of almost every citizen of modern Russia. Having become a great test for our country, the Great Patriotic War, after almost seven and a half decades after its completion, retains its symbolic meaning. Victory in the war became a symbol of courage, courage and dedication of the Soviet people, of all the numerous nationalities that inhabited the Soviet Union at that time. On the Day of Memory and Grief - the Day of the start of the Great Patriotic War it remains only to remember with kind words those heroic people who fought to the last drop of blood for our native country, honor their memory, pay respect to those few who are alive and well so far. .
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