The award system of the Soviet Army is represented as of 1988 year. It differs from the previous ones only in that it includes awards that appeared after 1970, and the location of the awards was slightly changed (horizontally instead of oblique). In general, it has changed little since the days of the Great Patriotic War.
It should be noted:
1. In the USSR, only the insignia that was established by the Supreme Council (SC) of the USSR and which is awarded by the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces or orders of some ministries (MO, MIA, KGB), were assigned to the awards on behalf of the USSR Armed Forces.
2. Awards are divided into orders and medals. The Order is considered a higher award than a medal and the Order is awarded only by Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces on the basis of individual applications submitted to the awarding person (Prize List, Representation). Most medals are awarded by decree of the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces or by order of some ministries (MO, MIA, KGB) on the basis of lists submitted to the USSR Armed Forces.
3. Many orders can be awarded not only by people, but also by organizations, cities, regions, and republics.
Medals are awarded only to people. Citizenship of the person being awarded does not matter.
4. The statute of each award identifies feats or merit for which a person can be awarded one award or another, and many of the awards can be divided into military (combat) and civilian. The main criterion is a man accomplishing the feat or his merit. Although, in order to be eligible for awarding some awards, you must be a soldier, hold a certain position, have a certain rank, and be in military service in a certain period.
5. If the award has several degrees, then reward some of them only sequentially, starting with the lowest and no more than one award of each degree.
Awards that have two or three degrees are not awarded sequentially, but depending on the position held.
This primarily concerns the orders of Suvorov, Bogdan Khmelnitsky, Kutuzov.
If the award does not have a degree, then the same award can be awarded several times. This mainly applies to orders. Most medals can be awarded only once.
6. Orders are of two types - wearable on the block (1) and worn without a block (2). The medals all have pads (3).
The pad is a metal plate of pentagonal shape, covered with a cloth ribbon of colors assigned to this award. At the bottom of the pad there is a hole through which the ring is passed, to which the reward is suspended. On the reverse side of the pad has a pin for attaching the award to the clothes. Individual medals may have a different shape.
7. So-called awards can be worn instead of the awards themselves.
When to wear the awards themselves, and when to wear strips and whether to wear them at all, the awarded person decides on civilian clothes, and wearing on a military uniform is strictly regulated.
8. All rewards are distributed by their seniority. The seniority of an award is determined by its statute. The higher the deeds or merit of the reward, the higher reward he can be rewarded.
As of 1988, the seniority of awards was as follows (the oldest award is at the top of the list, the youngest at the bottom. Only some images are shown.):
1. The order of Lenin;
2. Order of the October Revolution;
3. Order of the Red Banner;
4. Order of Suvorov I degree
5. Order of Ushakov I degree;
6. Order of Kutuzov I degree;
7. Order of Nakhimov I degree;
8. Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky I degree;
9. Order of Suvorov, II degree;
10. Order Ushakov II degree;
11. Order of Kutuzov II degree;
12. Order of Nakhimov II degree;
13. Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky II degree;
14. Order of Suvorov III degree;
15. Order of Kutuzov III degree;
16. Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky III degree
17. Order of Alexander Nevsky;
18. Order of the Patriotic War, I degree
19. Order of the Patriotic War, II degree;
20. Order of the Red Banner of Labor;
21. Order of Friendship of Peoples;
22. Order of the Red Star;
23. Order "For Service to the Motherland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" I degree;
24. Order "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces 2SSR" II degree;
25. Order "For Service to the Motherland in the Armed Forces 2SSR" III degree;
26. Order of Honor;
27. Order “For personal courage”;
28. Order of Glory I degree;
29. Order of Glory II;
30. Order of Glory III;
31. Order of Labor Glory I degree
32. Order of Labor Glory II degree;
33. Order of Labor Glory III degree;
34. Medal of Honor";
35. Ushakov's Medal;
36. Medal "For Military Merit";
37. Medal of Nakhimov;
38. Medal "For Labor Valor";
39. Medal "For Labor Difference";
40. Medal "For Valiant Labor (For Military Valor). In commemoration of the 100 anniversary of the birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin";
41. Medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War" I degree;
42. Medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War" II degree;
43. Medal "For the difference in the protection of the state border of the USSR";
44. Medal "For distinction in military service" I degree;
45. Medal "For distinction in military service" II degree;
46. Medal "For Excellent Service for the Protection of Public Order";
47. Medal "For courage in the fire";
48. Medal "For the rescue of the drowning";
49. Medal "For the Defense of Leningrad";
50. Medal "For the Defense of Moscow";
51. Medal "For the Defense of Odessa";
52. Medal "For the Defense of Sevastopol";
53. Medal "For the Defense of Stalingrad";
54. Medal "For the Defense of Kiev";
55. Medal "For the Defense of the Caucasus";
56. Medal "For the Defense of the Soviet Arctic";
57. Medal "For the victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945.";
58. Medal “Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945”;
59. Medal “Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945”;
60. Medal “Forty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945”; 61.Medal "For the victory over Japan";
62. Medal "For the capture of Budapest";
63. Medal "For the capture of Koenigsberg";
64. Medal "For the capture of Vienna"
65. Medal "For the capture of Berlin";
66. Medal "For the liberation of Belgrade";
67. Medal "For the Liberation of Warsaw";
68. Medal "For the Liberation of Prague";
69. Medal "For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945";
70. Medal "Veteran Labor";
71. Medal "Veteran of the Armed Forces of the USSR";
72. Medal "For the strengthening of the military community";
73. Medal "For the restoration of enterprises of the iron and steel industry of the South";
74. Medal "For the restoration of the coal mines of Donbass";
75. Medal "For the development of virgin lands";
76. Medal "For the construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline";
77. Medal "For the transformation of the Nonchernozem region of the RSFSR";
78. Medal "For the exploitation of mineral resources and the development of the oil and gas complex in Western Siberia";
79. Medal "XX years of the Red Army";
80. Medal “30 years of the Soviet Army and Fleet";
81. Medal "40 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR";
82. Medal "50 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR";
83. Medal "60 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR";
84. Medal "70 years of the Armed Forces of the USSR";
85. Medal "50 years of the Soviet police";
86. Medal "In memory of Moscow's 800 anniversary";
87. Medal "In memory of the 250 anniversary of Leningrad";
88. Medal "In memory of Kiev's 1500 anniversary";
89. Medal "For impeccable service" I degree;
90. Medal "For impeccable service" II degree;
91. Medal "For impeccable service" III degree.
The issues of wearing awards, the procedure for placing them on military clothes were strictly regulated by Section V of the Rules for Wearing Military Uniforms by Servicemen of the Soviet Army and Navy, approved by Order of the USSR Ministry of Defense No. 250 of March 4. This section is called "Wearing orders, medals of the USSR, medal ribbons and ribbons of medals on the slats and other insignia on military uniforms".
The figure shows the placement of awards worn on pads on a double-breasted uniform (1) (generals and naval officers), on a single-breasted officer's uniform (2), on a soldier's uniform (3) and sailor uniform (4). Non-award signs are shown in gray.
Foreign awards are worn below the Soviet, which can be clearly seen on the double-breasted uniform (1). On the left side of the chest, those foreign awards are worn that have something like a pad or are hung on ribbons. There are no restrictions on wearing foreign awards. They can be worn even if the serviceman does not have a single Soviet award, or they do not meet Soviet standards. No permits for wearing foreign awards are required.
The figure shows the placement of awards on the right side of the chest. Breastplates, besides those listed above, are worn below orders, and if a soldier does not have such orders, then breastplates are worn at the place of orders. Foreign awards that do not have pads or ribbons are also worn on the right side of the chest below the Soviet orders, but above the breastplates.
The figure shows the placement of the slats on a double-breasted tunic (generals and naval officers) (1), on an officer’s jacket (2), on a sealed uniform jacket (3), on a sailor uniform (4) and on a closed everyday soldier uniform (5).
The Soviet award system was not without flaws:
- it was necessary to wear all awards that sometimes turned the order bearer into a real “iconostasis”;
- the establishment of medals that were unknown to whom and for what to award (800 years of Moscow, 250 years of Leningrad, 1500 years of Kiev, 100 years from the birth of Lenin);
-replacement by Khrushchev of awarding servicemen with service orders for the service "For Impeccable Service" medals, for which the country's top leaders expressed their disregard for heavy and dangerous military work.
The modern award system of Russia is a wild, illiterate mixture of converted awards from tsarist Russia with the Soviet award system. Absolutely ridiculous in the XXI century look on modern clothing, the Old Testament sash ribbons over the shoulder, the order on the chains and on the neck. They are puzzled by the hasty replacement of the red ribbon with the three-colored Hero star, hastily turned into the medal "For Courage" and the Order of Friendship. The award system of the new Russia turned out to be neither a successor of the old Russian premium traditions, nor a worthy successor of the Soviet traditions.
The award system of the most "democratic, most free" country in the world is more stringent to foreign awards.
The AR 670-1 Army Management has categorically determined which countries and which awards the American soldier is entitled to wear, and if he does not have American awards, he has no right to wear a single foreign award. Of course Soviet Union in this very small list of countries not specified.
And General Eisenhower put on the Soviet Order of "Victory" also had no right.
And the American pilots who overtook aircraft in the USSR, the American navy men of polar convoys also can not wear Soviet awards, even on civilian clothes.