Day dog handlers. How service dogs appeared in the Russian police
The Day of cynological divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia is among the youngest significant dates. The corresponding order was published by the RF Ministry of Interior 18 June 2004. The date of June 21 was chosen for a reason. On this very day in 1909, one hundred and nine years ago, the first in the Russian Empire special kennel of police detective dogs opened in St. Petersburg. Although detective dogs were used in individual police units before 1909, it was the opening of the kennel that could be considered the starting point stories centralization of the police canine service.
If we talk about the history of police cynology in our country, we can distinguish several of its main stages. The first stage is the beginning of the path of service dog breeding in its modern form, which falls on the second half of the XIX century. The second stage is the development of service dog breeding in 1909-1917. The third stage covers the pre-war period in the history of Soviet cynology, the fourth stage - the post-war period in the history of Soviet cynology. After the collapse of the USSR and large-scale political and social changes in the country, the fifth stage in the history of service dog breeding began.
Beginning in the second half of the 19th century, Russian troops in the Caucasus and later in Central Asia used dogs for guard duty. It was in Turkestan that dogs (Central Asian Shepherd Dogs) began to be used not only to guard the disposition of troops, but also to solve other problems, for example, for carrying ammunition. By the beginning of the Russian-Japanese war 1904-1905. dogs were already very widely used in the Russian army - both for delivering reports, and for searching and rescuing the wounded, and for guard duty. In terms of the use of service dogs, the police department lagged noticeably behind the army. Only in the early twentieth century, focusing on the advanced experience of European countries, the domestic police began to use special dogs - bloodhounds. To do this, emissaries of the Russian police departments went to the countries of Europe, primarily to Germany, Austria-Hungary and France - to learn from the experience and acquire several specially trained dogs.
One of the first pages in the history of police cynology in Russia was discovered in Kiev in 1905. 17 January 1905 at the Pechersk police station reported the murder of a woman. A policeman and a special agent, who walked with the dog Hex, moved to the crime scene. Two German shepherds, Hex and Ferry, were not so long ago brought from Germany for the needs of the Kiev city police department. Gekse has bypassed all those who gathered near the crime scene, but she was never able to identify anyone. Only at the police station did she confidently rush to one of the detainees who were brought to the police station. It was one of the first crimes solved with the help of a service dog.
In the year 1907 began in the police department, preparations began to create a special service that would be responsible for using dogs to solve crimes and search for criminals. Vasily Lebedev (1868-1930), who served as an official for special assignments in the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire, played a key role in the development of the national police cynology. Vasily Lebedev, before he came to the police, had been studying at the Kiev Junker School and six years of service as an officer in an infantry regiment. In 1893, Lebedev was appointed junior assistant bailiff, and after seven years, in 1900, he headed the detective police.
This professional detective case, Vasily Lebedev always sought to use the most innovative, as they would say now, technology and methods for investigating crimes. The use of service dogs for the needs of the police at that time was considered a very advanced activity. To familiarize himself with the experience of European police, Lebedev went on a special trip. In the Belgian city of Gent, Vasily Lebedev visited a unique institution for that time - a special police kennel, where there were at least forty dogs. The four-legged police assistants were trained by the investigative and guard service, they were trained to protect public order, including disperse demonstrations and other crowds of people with dubious goals, which was very important during that period of national history. Vladimir Lebedev purchased two eight-month-old puppies in Ghent.
11 January 1908 was established by the Russian Society for the Promotion of the Use of Dogs to the Police and Guard Service, which is part of the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire. The society published the magazine “Police and Guard Dog”, the issue of which was interrupted only with the beginning of the First World War. Thus, in 1907-1908. began the centralization of the police dog service. Inquiries about the number of dogs used and the presence of experienced staff were sent to the territorial divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. It turned out that service dogs in 1908 were used in the police of only three Russian cities - in Kiev, Yekaterinoslav and Maloyaroslavets (Kaluga province). But even these dogs practically did not carry out search and guard service, but underwent training.
The complexity of the training was aggravated by the lack of experience in dog breeding and dog training among police officers. Therefore, the management of the Police Department decided to acquire already trained police dogs abroad, so as not to waste time and money on training. Thanks to the acquisition of dogs abroad, they appeared in the police departments of a number of Russian cities. At the same time, the police officers who decided to become trainers of service dogs also received dog training.
At the beginning of 1909, the mayor of St. Petersburg, at the request of the Russian Society for the Promotion of the Use of Dogs to the Police and Guard Service, allocated a plot of land (5,5 tithes) for the construction of a special dog kennel. 21 June 1909, the inauguration and consecration of the first Russian Empire school - kennel of service dogs. Lectures on the basics of spying and training read at school, despite being busy at the main duty station, Vasily Lebedev himself. The cadets of the school were police officers and their four-legged pets. October 25 1909, the first graduation of the school - nursery.
The best student of the school was recognized as an ambush warder Vladimir Dmitriev from Moscow and his assistant - 11-month Doberman Pinscher Tref. Graduates of the school with their dogs went to serve in the police departments of the Russian Empire - in Minsk, Poltava, Tver, Vladikavkaz and other cities. During the first three years of operation, the school managed to train 300 animal trainers and more than 400 service dogs. By the way, Dobermann Tref of police officer Dmitriev, who was recognized as the best graduate of the school, over the years of his service in the police uncovered more than 1,500 crimes. For example, in January, 1910, Tref helped Dmitriev to uncover two thefts in the Nikolaevsky Orphan School for women in one day. There was lost a very large sum for those times - 400 rubles, which were kept by a guest of the school of treasurer Emelyanov. If Doberman Tref were not, then the crime would probably have remained unsolved. But the four-legged policeman confidently took the trail and soon the stolen money was found in the room where the warmer Zhukov lived.
The high-profile case of thefts at the Nikolaevsky College is only an episode in the record of Tref and his master, near-guard overseer Dmitriev. Soon, newspapers and magazines began to write about the “miraculous” sniffer dog and trainer Dmitriev, and the police departments of the Russian Empire began to invite them on business trips to help investigate local complex cases. For example, Dmitriev and Tref participated in the capture of a group of dangerous anarchist terrorists operating in the Bryansk and Oryol gubernias.
The success of service dog breeding led to the fact that in 1911, the police dogs served in the 48 provinces and 3 regions of Russia. In total, 367 police trainers and 629 dogs were employed in the police service. The most common breed was the shepherd dog - 341 dog, then the Doberman (the most famous and popular police dog in Europe) followed the prevalence - 243 dogs, and the Airedale Terrier closed the list - only 39 dogs.
By the beginning of World War I, service dogs had become an integral part of the police service. In addition to the search for criminals, dogs were used to patrol policemen at night, detain suspects, carry guard duty to protect important objects, escort and guard prisoners, and look for explosive devices. Gradually improved and training methods trainers and service dogs. In less than a decade, the Russian service dog breeding has made a huge leap forward. If at the beginning of the twentieth century there was no service dog breeding in the country per se, by 1913, Russian trainers from other European countries already came to the Russian Empire to learn about the experience. Our country has become one of the world centers of cynology, holding this position until the present day.
An even more rapid development of service dogs for the needs of criminal investigation and the protection of public order began after the October Revolution. In the first decades of the Soviet government, not only did the former methods of service dog breeding remain and developed, but further improvement of service in all directions took place.
At this stage in the development of domestic dog breeding, a dog handler Vsevolod Vasilyevich Yazykov played a very important role, having worked since March 1918 as head of the Petrograd kennel of bloodhound-search dogs. He developed the basic methods of training service dogs for the needs of the OGPU - the NKVD of the USSR. So, the techniques of a guard dog were created; bodyguard; service dog Mrs (mine search service); Service dog ZKS (protective guard duty); service dog of the investigative service for GUKRM (worker-peasant militia) and GUPVO (border troops). In 1921, V.V. Yazykov proposed to organize the Central Nursery - a school for service-searching dog breeding and similar schools - nurseries in the regions of the country. The leadership of the criminal investigation department of the country agreed with the arguments of Yazykov and soon he himself headed the Central Nursery. In the 1930-s in the Soviet Union, German Shepherd Dogs finally became entrenched as the main breed of service dogs used for the needs of the police service. Since that time, this breed has become the "face" of the domestic cynology.
During World War II, service dogs were widely used on the front - for delivering reports, demining, searching and evacuating the wounded, guarding prisoners and warehouses. No less important was the role of service dogs in the rear, where they had to assist the police and security agencies in the fight against criminal crime, spies and saboteurs. After the war, the development of service dog breeding in the interests of the Soviet police continued. Practically all territorial subdivisions of the internal affairs agencies, up to the district level, have got their own cynologists. At the same time, the system of training both the service dogs themselves and their instructors, people who were to lead the four-legged guards of order "into battle", was also improved.
Modern Russian police cynology directly inherits the traditions and methods that were formed in the post-war Soviet Union. At present, the training of cynologists for the needs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia is carried out in the Rostov school of service-searching dog breeding of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (Rostov-on-Don) and the Ufa school for the training of cynologists of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (Ufa, Bashkortostan). In addition, a special canine faculty operates in the Perm Military Institute of the National Guard, which trains officers - canine specialists with higher education. It is safe to call Russian educational institutions training dog handlers for the needs of the law enforcement service, unique, of great value for both cynology and national security in general.
On the Day of cynological divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, “Military Review” congratulates all specialists and veterans - dog trainers, all those who work and worked with service dogs or are in any way involved in this service, on their professional holiday. Happiness, health and peaceful service to you and your pets.
- P P 'SЊSЏ RџRѕR "RѕRЅSЃRєRёR№
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