Rifles by countries and continents. Part of 20. Spain: Women and Mauser
Mauser rifles of direct relevance to Spain (from right to left!): Mouser M1888, "Spanish Mauser" M1893; “Spanish Mauser” M1916 “first model”; "Spanish Mauser M1916" second model "; the German Mauser, supplied by Franco his German ally.
Well, now let's look at another important circumstance. There are small countries that have played stories big role. For example, Switzerland has become the birthplace of the infantry that crushed the knightly cavalry. But Spain also played a completely unique role in the proliferation of rifles with a sliding bolt, and a role so important that it is almost impossible to exaggerate. Well, when the numerous colonial possessions of Spain in America followed its example, and it came to buying rifles, then ... for the Mauser company they became a truly “gold mine”. Moreover, Spain’s close relations with these countries continued even after the majority of these countries gained independence.
Why, yes, because people are “big monkeys”. Spain adopted the Remington rifle with a crane bolt, and the countries of Central and South America also adopted it in imitation of their “mother country”. But then the story was repeated with a Mauser rifle, since Spain "set an example." In the previous materials of this series it was described in great detail how many rifles went into the countries of the Caribbean and South America. That is, the Mauser company, one might say, flourished precisely at the expense of all these countries, and then Czechoslovakia began to produce rifles for them in the same way!
The device is a Spanish Mauser M1893.
This Spanish influence has even spread to the United States - which Spain would never have expected, and did not want. Despite the fact that it was defeated during the Spanish-American war, the famous Spanish Mauser impressed the American soldiers who fought in Cuba so much that the United States quickly adopted its own Mauser - the 1903 model of the year. they then paid many decades to patent royalties to Mauser, thus replenishing the German treasury, and these payments continued even during the First World War, when Germany and the United States fought among themselves. For it says "fight - fight, and give money!"
For example, a Spanish silver coin, which is directly related to the history of Spanish weapons. It was the presence of colonies that allowed the Spaniards to buy the very best, the modern and the expensive. The two pillars on the coin were part of the Spanish royal coat of arms for a long time, but after the voyage of Columbus they began to symbolize two parts of Spain: Europe and America. Moreover, many historians even believe that these two pillars formed the basis of two vertical lines on the symbol of the US dollar ($).
8 Reals 1818 of the Year, silver of the 903 sample, weight - 27 grams, diameter - 38,5 mm. Mint of Mexico City. the rule of King Ferdinand VII. Minted in 1811 - 1821's.
Then, of course, she was impoverished, but not enough to buy the worst. And having conceived the next rearmament of its army, Spain began by acquiring the 1887 model of the year for testing, but it did not satisfy her. Model 1891 of the year under the cartridge 7,65x53 mm (similar to the Turkish model) was tested in the version of the carbine with a characteristic front sight. Then the model 1892 of the year was purchased (in the version of a rifle and a carbine), and that, in turn, is almost identical to the Argentine Mauser of the year 1891, only now it was acquired in a relatively small number. Although, as in a small? According to Spanish author Bernardo Barcelo Ruby, 10000 brand new Mauzer carbines, including the M1891 long rifles, were sent to Cuba during the Spanish-American war, and then captured by the Americans.
And finally, women with rifles: Republican Spaniard with a Mauser rifle and in mono overalls.
Then they purchased the M1893 model, which was named the "Spanish" Mauser (ie, the 1890 model, which is identical to the Turkish 1890 model), and entered service under the designation "Fusil Mauser Español Modelo 1892". But in this case, the example itself was important! Well, it got its name "Spanish" because of the new cartridge 7x57 mm, with which the M1893 model was widely recognized as the best military rifle of its time. It was originally produced by Ludwig Loewe and DWM, but then, starting in 1896, its production was transferred to the Spanish arsenal in Oviedo. A total of 1 of these rifles were produced! A cavalry carbine of the same caliber was put into service in 275, and from 1895 to 1896 by Ludwig Loewe & Co, by order of Spain, five thousand copies were produced. Later in 1915-1896. its production was carried out by the firm "Fabrica Nacional de Armas", where more than 1915 thousand of them were produced, or rather - 20 carbines!
Marked by Spanish Mauser rifles 1894 of the year. In this case, applied to the chamber of the M1891 cavalry carbine of the year. Production of Ludwig Loewe.
What makes the 1893 model of a “Spanish” Mauser so special? The fact is that this was the first Mouser with a magazine in which the cartridges were placed in a checkerboard pattern. For that time, it was a surprisingly comfortable and elegant design. These were the first 7x57 mm Mauser that could be seen in action as the main infantry weapon in a serious military conflict. And the world was quite impressed with what he saw!
Another beauty with Mauser!
The rifle showed itself so well in the Spanish-American war that the United States armed forces used captured Mausers after the cessation of hostilities in their army, using the details of broken rifles to correct the remaining ones. This repair program gave the US more 7000 rifles, which were then maintained as a strategic stock.
Here with the Mauser they are all: no wonder that there were not enough rifles on the front!
During the Spanish civil war, when the nationalists (who were mostly army officers) supplied their troops with weapons from their own arsenals, and also received it from their fascist allies in Germany and Italy, the Republicans had a hard time. That is, they also captured many government arsenals. But still, they constantly lacked weapons, which his merchants around the world used. Since all sales deals were a violation of the international embargo aimed at ending the conflict, the most surprising ways to circumvent it were undertaken. And the weapon was transported through the most exotic foreign ports, on the ships of Liberia and Panama, and the money for it was usually laundered in Finland, which brought her huge profits! However, it was also said that money does not smell, so what are we talking about ?!
And these residents of Barcelona, even mono decided not to wear. The main thing is to have a rifle and learn how to shoot from it!
As an example, consider one such deal, which included the delivery of Paraguayan Xauer 1927 model Republicans. January 15 1937, Erich Thorvald, a arms dealer in Paraguay working with the Spanish government, bought a large number of rifles left over from the recently ended Grand Chaco war. These weapons were sent to Buenos Aires, where they loaded aboard the ship Hercules, heading for the free city of Dantsing, controlled, however, by the administration of the League of Nations by the Polish administration, where they were transferred to another ship and sent to Helsinki. The accompanying documents claimed that all weapons were damaged and sent to Helsinki "for recovery" and possible return to Paraguay. But in fact, the rifles were transported to Tallinn in Estonia, where in September 1937 was once again loaded onto a ship going to Spain. This delivery included 7119 Paraguayan 7,65 caliber Mauser mm. In the spring of 1938, the nationalists were confused when they encountered so many rifles of this caliber at the front of the Republicans, but could not understand where they came from and, accordingly, complain about the violation of the embargo in print. And no one knew that they received these rifles from Paraguay through the mediation of Poland and Estonia.
They are trained in shooting from a short rifle М1916, “the first model”.
Here it should be added that Poland received a lot of all weapons as foreign aid after the First World War, and it had to put all these stocks somewhere. After all, by the end of the 1930s, Poland had established the release of its own Mauser, and the Spanish Civil War became just a gift of fate for her. Therefore, all Russian rifles of the 1891 model of the year, inherited from the Tsarist warehouses and also as trophies after the defeat of the unsuccessful “campaign against Warsaw” in 1920, were sold, of course, to the Republicans. There was another reason, which was very happy for both the Republicans, the Poles, and the leadership of the USSR. The caliber of all these rifles was 7,62-mm, so that they all could shoot our Soviet ammunition!
Snipers of the Republican army on the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War, September 11, 1936.
To be continued ...
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