Military Review

Minor Land Carriers. Unsung Heroes Part of 6

As before the formation of the bridgehead Malaya Zemlya, and after its occurrence, the main torpedo boats of the Black Sea fleet were the G-5, developed under the guidance of the famous aircraft designer Andrei Tupolev. Unfortunately, the G-5 are considered an ugly duckling and are the subject of all kinds of ridicule. Neither objective is taken into account historical the reasons, neither the lack of experience of the young Soviet state, nor the rapid development of technology abroad, which did not face civil war and isolation. It always reminded me of mocking a man who had broken arms, legs, ribs, but is still waiting for a sprint run from him.

The design of the first Soviet TC was entrusted to TsAGI. The fleet demanded only torpedo armament and staggering speed, while the range of action, etc., was of little interest to the command. A part of the future "mosquito fleet" was supposed to be loaded onto large ships, which would simply release their piranhas to the hunt at the right time. Under the leadership of Tupolev, an experimental ANT-3 “Firstborn” was created, which, in tests in 1927, showed the speed of 56 nodes that impressed customers. After some improvements, the ANT-4 was born. He had time to launch the series, but 450-mm torpedoes did not suit the customer. Therefore, ANT-5 with 533-mm torpedo armament soon appeared. He became the father of the serial G-5.

Loading crews on boats in Novorossiysk

The G-5 was a planing boat with a duralumin hull divided into 5 compartments. Equipped with two boats aviation engines of either foreign or domestic production, allowing at a critical time to develop a speed of 51 knots for a short time. In the center of the boat was the wheelhouse, which, after the first tests, was made closed. The crew consisted of 6 people, dressed like pilots in leather uniforms, flight helmets and goggles - speed, wild wind and spray made themselves felt.

The main armament were two torpedoes in the flute torpedo tubes, which were located after cutting. It was also possible to place in them both depth charges BB-1 (BM-1) and sea mines, the number of which depended on the type of mines. But during the fighting at the Malaya Zemlya bridgehead for the gutters preferred a different method of application.

Also initially, on the G-5, they installed two paired DA machine guns (an aviation version of the DP) or one ShKAS - both of them for the 7,62 rifle cartridge. Naturally, against sea and air targets, these machine guns were ineffective. But after the start of the war, much more powerful DShK machine guns began to be installed on boats.

Minor Land Carriers. Unsung Heroes Part of 6

Feed TK. Clearly visible torpedoes in grooves.

By the beginning of the war G-5 already outdated. But the very method of applying a torpedo attack from a groove apparatus seemed archaic, if it did not smell like an attempt at suicide. The attack was to be carried out only at certain speeds, so that the torpedo would not turn the torpedo boat itself. This imposed additional restrictions on the application under certain weather conditions. Seaworthiness and cruising range were generally extremely low.

So, in June, the 43 th torpedo boats ТКА-46 and ТКА-66 at dawn after a night raid off the coast of Anapa returned to the base. Suddenly flown north-ost, instantly raising a wave of 1,5 meters, lowered the speed of boats below the minimum. In the daylight, they became easy prey for aviation. Fighters of the Gelendzhik airfield could not take to the air to the rescue due to low clouds. The NP of our troops remained only with fierce anger and helplessness to observe how two tiny TKs, firing the entire ammunition and fighting the rolling waves, were riddled by the Germans, caught fire and exploded.

However, with all its flaws, the G-5 were overwhelmingly the most massive TK of our fleet. In the Novorossiysk region, the 1-I and 2-I brigade of torpedo boats operated. The 1 Brigade was officially formed in June 1940 of the year and carried out patrol service off the coast of Sevastopol. Despite the fact that the composition of the boats of the brigade was not uniform, the core was the TC G-5. For the courage and bravery of the crews in the 44 brigade will be awarded the honorary title of "Sevastopol."

Boats G-5 in a single system from the Little Earth

The 2 TK brigade was also formed in 1940, but in September. The 2-I BTKA was also mainly equipped with the G-5, but was based in Ochakov. After fierce battles and the tragic loss of the Crimea, the brigade eventually became subordinate to the Novorossiysk naval base. For the heroism shown in the battles near Malaya Zemlya, the 2-I BTKA began to be called “Novorossiysk” with honor from the 1943 year. She bore the brunt of escorts to Myskhako convoys.

Naturally, each of these brigades, which showed not only courage, but also ingenuity, being armed with obsolete TK, is worth a separate mention, but not within the framework of this cycle. But what did the torpedoes on the Black Sea encounter, given the low seaworthiness and autonomy of the TK G-5 (the boats didn’t have a galley, but even a latrine), and also what are the peculiarities of combat operations in the Little Earth region?

First, in the framework of the cycle “Sea carriers”, the question immediately arises - were the G-5 involved directly in the landing operations and supply of bridgeheads? Of course, yes. Despite the disgusting habitability and low carrying capacity, these TCs had an undoubted advantage - an unsurpassed speed. Taking advantage of this, the sailors realized that at certain speeds they could pass the minefield either completely without breaks, or leave the fountains of water far behind the stern. Therefore, there is practically no TC in the area of ​​Novorossiysk, which hit a mine.

For logging TC detachment of paratroopers

Thus, for the safe landing of a group of fighters with TK torpedoes were removed. The paratroopers of the 20 man, wrapped in canvas under the top of the crown, climbed into the freed canals - traveling by boat on the Black Sea in those conditions is still a pleasure. The boat began its rapid acceleration, literally flying over the water area. The last 200-400 meters to the shore of the TK ran either by inertia with the engine off, or by turning on the reverse, so that the “mooring” went more smoothly. Also delivered and cargo, and sabotage groups. In addition, it is worth noting, when part of Novorossiysk in the autumn of 1942 was abandoned, evacuating the detached troops of the still-defensive soldiers took just G-5.

But this trick was quickly bought by the Nazis. And the losses were so heavy that the boatmen were called suicide bombers. Over half of the TK at the time of the final assault on Novorossiysk were destroyed. Because the mines didn’t really scare the torpedoes, and on a fine day the aircraft didn’t create problems, our sailors died from the German artillery. Most often during the direct landing or landing on the coast of the TK, the Hitlerite artillerymen covered with fire the whole square in which the boats were located, since high-speed G-5 were not such an easy target.

In addition to all these very specific tasks for the torpedo boat, the G-5, of course, was set to guard convoys and not only. So on the supply line of the bridgehead and NBMB from Sochi-Tuapse to Gelendzhik, besides the famous sea (small) hunters, numerous shopping centers also worked. They carried out preventive bombing in order to prevent enemy submarines from attacking our convoys.

Also, when Hitler's submariners got into the habit of firing on our ground vehicles from deck guns, which were running close to the sea, the brisk G-5, taking advantage of speed, simply dispersed the enemy submarines with the fire of the DShK and the very threat of a torpedo attack. Arrogant representatives of the kriegsmarine did not want to get a torpedo from an outdated tiny boat at all.

Combat use gave impetus to the modification of the existing in the ranks of the G-5. The use of boats in the supply and protection of communications bridgehead "Small Earth", also influenced the rethinking of the use and development of the TC of this type. Pure landing craft appeared with torpedoes removed and various devices to alleviate the landing conditions - they were recruits, saboteurs and scouts. Part of the TK was converted into artillery boats with the designation AKA-5. Their machine-gun armament increased, and installations for firing the famous PCs were mounted directly on the wheelhouse or in front of it. Boats repeatedly made successful raids in the area of ​​Anapa - there was a German airfield, from which the Nazis inflicted air strikes on our parts, as well as the place of temporary parking of the BDB and shnellbots.

The TCs themselves were also exploited to mine enemy naval communications. So, the crews of the 2-nd BTM NBMB not only made artillery and torpedo attacks on the port of the same Anapa, which was in the hands of the enemy, but also regularly conducted mine setups at the exit from the occupied port. After such performances, a day later, other our planes, which made reconnaissance flights over the coast of the Caucasus and Taman, respectively over Anapa, sometimes recorded freshly drowned BDB and enemy Schnellboots in the area of ​​our mine settings.

Despite all these facts, as well as participation in the landing in the port of Novorossiysk just before the storming of the city, many authors sneezed the G-5 in vain. In my humble opinion, unfair. The work done by the G-5 is difficult to overestimate, and without them it would be much more difficult for the Black Sea people. And it is completely unfair to consider the data of the TC as a mistake of Tupolev, who strictly followed the performance characteristics stated by the customer. Yes, G-5 were not so nautical and autonomous, could not make long raids, as the German "Schnellboats", but they were not designed for this. Especially since they were the first Soviet TK, which, unlike conventional wisdom, wrote quite a few heroic pages in the annals of our fleet.

To be continued ...
Articles from this series:
Minor Land Carriers. Unsung Heroes Part of 1
Minor Land Carriers. Unsung Heroes Part of 2
Minor Land Carriers. Unsung Heroes Part of 3
Minor Land Carriers. Unsung Heroes Part of 4
Minor Land Carriers. Unsung Heroes Part of 5

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  1. Vard
    Vard 18 June 2018 06: 01
    I saw torpedo boat attacks in the cinema ... There is nothing to compare with ... This is something beyond courage ...
  2. Adjutant
    Adjutant 18 June 2018 06: 08
    Yes, that was the case. Interesting
    And the last episode of the G-5 seems to have occurred during the Korean War
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 18 June 2018 20: 49
      I wonder which boats were used by Vietnam during the "incident in the Gulf of Tonkin", which marked the beginning of the Vietnam War. what probably newer.
      The author is Wind (I don’t know the first name, although it would not hurt! soldier ), thanks for the wonderful cycle, expanding our knowledge about all the "subtleties" of the struggle on the Black Sea! I bow to you! Yes I think many bow down .. hi
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 18 June 2018 22: 33
        Rozin Alexander.
        DRV Navy in battles with the US Navy.
        Part 1.
        1964 - Provocations and lies, the US Navy inciting conflict against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
        Navy DRV by 1964
        November 22, 1961 received 12 torpedo boats pr.123K, (according to the western classification R-4, 22 / 25t., 18,7h3,4h1m., 2 diesel engines, 2000hp, 42uz. Armament 2 TA, 2 - 12,7mm machine guns, crew 11 people) - “TK-287”, “TK-294”, “TK-296”, “TK-297”, “TK-298”, “TK-299”, “TK-317”, “TK- 319 ”,“ TK-320 ”,“ TK-552 ”,“ TK-553 ”,“ TK-556 ”. They became part of 140 formations (later changed to 135) were distributed - 1 division - T-313, T-316, T-319, 2 divisions T-323, T-326, T-329, 3 divisions T-333, T-336, T-339, 4 divisions T-343, T-346, T-349.

        According to other sources, the armament consisted of 1 coaxial 14,5-mm 2M-5 machine gun with a 138-barrel long barrel, which was located in the stern of the boat.
        Crew: 7 people (1 officer)
        The construction was carried out at the factory number 831 in the city of Feodosia. The lead boat entered service in 1951.
        In total, boats of the 123K project were built from 1951 to 1955 - 205 units.
        There is such a boat in PETROGRAD -

        Torpedo boat TKA-23 Ave. 123K, a monument in St. Petersburg.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 19 June 2018 00: 19
          the same in Kronstadt, if not mistaken. what Alex, I bow! drinks
  3. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 18 June 2018 08: 25
    What was what they fought. Their 51 G-5 nodes were shown only in the calm sea. The heroism of katernikov is beyond the limits.
    1. Vladimir 5
      Vladimir 5 18 June 2018 22: 39
      Everything hinders a bad dancer. G-5 glider boats had the main advantage - speed (aircraft engines) and easily walked away from the German "boat boats", not to mention others. The fact that the leadership of the Black Sea Fleet was a complete failure and mediocrity (they managed to stoke their submarines and stoke their ships with their submarines, not to mention the Sevastopol tragedy, such feats of the Black Sea Fleet leadership, are the combat successes of the Black Sea Fleet, respectively. Stormy weather is the same for everyone. In war there was enough heroism at all, especially the naval landing (under the leadership of the same specialists of the Navy, Kerch and other landing) ... It was not in vain that the Germans not only said: the strength of the Russian soldier is leveled by the weakness of the Russian command ...
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 18 June 2018 22: 47
        All naval powers abandoned glider boats by the middle of the 30's. They had extremely low seaworthiness. And we all riveted G-5, because before the boat D-3 and the Komsomolets project 123 still had to think of.
        [/ quote] easily departed from the German "snailboats" [quote]
        A reference to the battles between boats is possible?
        1. Vladimir 5
          Vladimir 5 19 June 2018 16: 33
          There are several memories of how to flee. And in one with the tragicomedy, the G-5 fluttered the motor and the boat began to catch up, the mechanic fiddled and pulled out a piece of the forgotten rag, and the engine worked to the full and left. Later, the commander, a young lieutenant, said that he was prepared to shoot himself if the Germans catch up (Baltic Fleet Baltic Fleet). The truthful memories and information of the people began to decrease, regrettably ...
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 19 June 2018 21: 46
            In the literary work of the writer L. Platov, The Secret Fairway, a number of combat episodes were taken from real battles of katernikov on the Northern Fleet and transferred to the KBF. In particular, the episode with the sinking of a German ship using subversive cartridges, the use of depth charges to damage damaged vehicles, etc. I was surprised to read about these events in the memoirs of Platonov, chief of staff of the SF. But I didn’t see anywhere about G-5 fights with snorkeling.
    2. urman
      urman 18 August 2018 15: 01
      Now I’m watching from the shore of Su Psekha, a suburb of Anapa. boats of new Russians.
      With all sorts of Honda there, on the transom, it’s not bad, well, if you look from the shore
      then stand still.
      And the calculations by the German artillerymen were not simpletons, but the MEN got it.
      Horror !!!!!
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 18 June 2018 08: 48
    entered many heroic pages in the annals of our fleet.
    ... Bright pages. Thank you, we are waiting for the continuation.
  5. BAI
    BAI 18 June 2018 10: 56
    Pikul or Pokrovsky have such an episode - they wanted to deprive boatmen of privileges and a commission arrived at the base of torpedo boats. This commission was "rolled" on boats with little excitement, but at top speed. The issue of benefits was no longer raised.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 18 June 2018 20: 50
      this is Pokrovsky Yes It seems that the story is called “Boats”. I could be wrong! hi drinks
    2. urman
      urman 18 August 2018 15: 24
      Everything is as usual, nothing changes in this world.
      Memoirs of an Afghan officer, the commission arrived a large expense of BC.
      A ride on the road, previously, pseudo ambushes spread, shot
      The commission is in a coma, the order must have received, the question has been removed.
      Staff they are - staff!