Military Review

Stories about weapons. SU-100 outside and inside


The SU-100 anti-tank self-propelled artillery mount was created on the basis of the medium tank T-34-85 design office of Uralmashzavod in late 1943 - early 1944 and was a further development of the SU-85. By that time, it had already become clear that the 85-mm SU-85 gun was not a worthy rival in the fight against German heavy tanks.

Stories about weapons. SU-100 outside and inside
SU-100 and SU-85. The external difference in the commander’s cupola

The serial production of the SU-100 was launched at Uralmashzavod in August 1944 of the year and continued until the beginning of the 1948 year. In addition, in 1951-1956, the production of self-propelled guns under license was carried out in Czechoslovakia. In total in the USSR and Czechoslovakia 4976 SU-100 was released.

The first combat use of the SU-100 took place in January of the 1945 year in Hungary, and later on the SU-100 was used in a number of operations of the Great Patriotic and Soviet-Japanese War, but in general their combat use was limited. Just "did not have time to go to war", as the same EC-3.

After the war, the SU-100 was repeatedly modernized and remained in service with the Soviet Army for several decades. SU-100 was also supplied to the allies of the USSR and participated in a number of post-war local conflicts, including the most actively during the Arab-Israeli wars.

History self-propelled guns could be somewhat different, by the way. When in the 1943 year a GKO order was issued on the early creation of more effective anti-tank weapons, Uralmashzavod was, among a number of other SAUs based on T-34, the installation of the 122-mm D-25 gun in the somewhat modified SU-85 case.

The project was abandoned, and not only because of the mass of the machine that has increased by almost 3 tons. Frankly weak was the T-34 chassis. We decided to leave the chassis, but look towards the projects with a smaller caliber cannon and an increased conning tower.

As a result, a new combat vehicle was created on the basis of the units of the T-34-85 tank and SAU SU-85. The engine, transmission and chassis remained completely the same. Since the D-10С (self-propelled) mounted gun was heavier than the 85-mm gun, we had to increase the suspension of the front rollers by increasing the diameter of the springs from 30 to 34 mm.

The body of the SU-85 has undergone few, but very important changes: frontal armor increased from 45 to 75 mm, introduced a commander's turret and viewing devices such as MK-IV, copied from English samples, installed two fans for intensive cleaning of the fighting compartment from the powder gases instead one.

The gun ammunition consisted of 33 shots placed on racks in the rear (8) and from the left side (17) of the fighting compartment, as well as on the floor to the right of the gun (8).

The range of ammunition for the D-10C turned out to be extremely diverse:

UBR-412 - unitary cartridge with an armor-piercing tracer sharp-headed projectile BR-412 and fuse MD-8.
UBR-412B - unitary cartridge with an armor-piercing tracer blind-headed projectile BR-412B and fuse MD-8.
UO-412 is a unitary cartridge with an O-412 fragmentation grenade and an RGM fuse.
УОФ-412 - unitary cartridge with high-explosive fragmentation grenade OF-412 and fuse RGM.
УОФ-412У - unitary cartridge with a high-explosive fragmentation grenade OF-412 with a reduced charge and fuse RGM.
UD-412 - unitary smoke shot with weight 30,1 kg with fuses РГМ, РГМ-6, В-429.
UD-412U - unitary smoke shot with a mass of 30,1 kg with a B-429 fuse.
UBR-421D - unitary cartridge with an armor-piercing tracer with a ballistic armor-piercing tip BR-412D.
UBK9 - unitary cartridge with a cumulative projectile BK5M.
Unitary cartridge with armor-piercing sabot projectile.

The last three types of shells appeared in the Su-100 ammunition only after the war ended, so that after 1945, the standard equipment included 16 high-explosive fragmentation, 10 armor-piercing and 7 cumulative shots.

Here it is quite possible to speculate that the SU-100 was more a universal assault weapon than a specialized anti-tank tool, if we proceed from the layout of ammunition.

Additionally, two 7,62-mm PPSh submachine gun with 1420 rounds of ammunition (20 disks), 4 anti-tank grenades and 24 hand grenades F-1 fit in the fighting compartment.

For setting the smoke screen on the battlefield at the stern of the machine, two smoke bollies of MDSh were installed, the ignition of which was performed by the loader by turning on two toggle switches on the MDS panel mounted on the motor partition.

Observation devices were few, but very well placed on the body of self-propelled guns. The driver in the stowed position drove the car with an open hatch, and in the battle used optical viewing instruments with armor covers.

In the commander's turret, located on the starboard side, there were five viewing targets with bulletproof glass. On the roof was mounted surveillance device MK-4.

TTX SU-100

Crew, prs: 4
Combat weight, t: 31,6
Length, m: 9,45
Width, m: 3
Height, m: 2,24

Armament: X-NUMX mm D-100 gun
Ammunition: 33 shot

Engine: B-2-34M power 520 hp
Maximum speed km / h: 50
Power reserve, km: 310

Reservations, mm:
gun mask - 110
forehead felling - 75
body shell - 45
hull board - 45
Hull Feed - 40
bottom - 15
roof - 20

Department of Management was located in the bow of the ACS. It housed the driver's seat, the gearbox linkage, the levers and pedals of the control drives, instrumentation, two compressed air cylinders, front fuel tanks, part of the ammunition kit and spare parts, TPU apparatus.

The fighting compartment was located in the middle part of the corps behind the control compartment. It housed weapons with sights, the main part of the ammunition, a radio station, two TPU vehicles and part of spare parts. To the right of the gun was the seat of the commander, behind him - the loader's seat, to the left of the gun - the gunner's seat. In the roof of the fighting compartment under two armored caps, two exhaust fans were attached.

SU-100, without a doubt, is the most successful and most powerful Soviet anti-tank ACS of the period of the Great Patriotic War. Being on 15 tons is lighter than the Yagdpanther German self-propelled guns identical to those of the layout and designation, the SU-100 had similar armor protection and better mobility.

The initial speed of an armor-piercing projectile 88-mm German cannon Cancer 43 / 3 with a barrel length 71 caliber was 1000 m / s. Her ammunition (57 shots) was more than the D-10C. The use by the Germans of the PzGr 39 / 43 armor-piercing projectile with armor-piercing and ballistic tips provided the “Yagdpanthers” cannon with better armor penetration at long distances. We have a similar projectile, the BR-XNUMHD, appeared only after the war.

Unlike the German SAU, in the ammunition SU-100 there were no sabot and cumulative projectiles. The high-explosive action of the 100-mm high-explosive fragmentation projectile was naturally higher than that of the 88-mm. In general, these two best self-propelled averages of the Second World War did not have each other tangible advantages. Well, quantitatively, “Jagdpanther” was losing outright.

But the comparison of these outstanding machines is the subject of a separate article.
Photos used:
Roman Skomorokhov, Roman Krivov
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  1. BAI
    BAI 19 June 2018 17: 17
    Somehow it happened that they were too often misused. In Hungary - like tanks, then in urban battles (it should be noted here that a long gun made it difficult to maneuver on city streets). And with proper use: the SU-100 battery against the royal tigers - a score of 3: 0 in favor of the Dryers, without loss on their part.
    The report on the fighting in defensive battles near Budapest noted that self-propelled guns SU-100, with slightly larger dimensions, have a significant advantage over the SU-85 in terms of fire power. Although the rate of fire of the D-10S in combat conditions was 3-4 rounds per minute (5-6 at the D-5C-85 gun), the mass of the shot noticeably compensated for this lag. It was also noted that “the frontal part of the SU-100 is invulnerable for light and medium artillery, for heavy tanks and artillery of 88-mm caliber, the frontal armor is insufficient, very fragile”. Of the drawbacks, complaints were addressed to the tight operation of the gun guidance mechanisms and the great vulnerability of sights. In addition, there was a desire to equip the SU-100 machine guns, as was done on heavy ISU-152. The final conclusion indicated that 100-mm self-propelled guns are “the most effective means of fighting the enemy’s heavy tanks”.
  2. Sharky
    Sharky 19 June 2018 17: 41
    Thank you for the article.
    Not everyone has the opportunity to visit the inside of a combat vehicle. And the fact that in some places rust has come out (bugs) is not a problem. Not aesthetically pleasing, but does not affect anything. I’m declaring this as a sailor. After all, steamers always rust, rust climbs out, looks more ugly, however, the ship is working. Much depends on the thickness of the metal.

    Our smokehouse, which for many years has been standing on the deck in the open air, unpainted, but perfectly fulfills its function. good
    1. Sharky
      Sharky 19 June 2018 17: 47
      View of the lower part:
  3. demiurg
    demiurg 19 June 2018 17: 55
    Su-100 can not be considered an assault gun. D-10 is designed to destroy tanks. It can be used as an assault gun, but not necessary. By the end of the war, ISU122 / 152 was enough. Although the ISU-122 is more anti-tank.

    It is a pity, of course, that the SU-85 did not immediately begin to be made with reinforced VLD. Or maybe it was possible to strengthen the VLD on the T-34 with the same suspension modernization? Even an additional 20-30mm would dramatically increase the survivability of the tank.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 19 June 2018 23: 13
      SU-85M -
      The first SU-85M was made in July 1944, and in August it completely replaced the SU-85 on the assembly lines of Uralmashzavod. The release of the SU-85M continued until November of that year, for three months - in parallel with the SU-100, which were not operational at that time due to the lack of armor-piercing shells; In total, 315 self-propelled guns of this type were produced. SU-85M took part in the battles of the Great Patriotic War, but any details of their combat use are still unknown.

      The frontal part of the hull consisted of two plates connected by a wedge: the upper, 75 mm thick, located at an angle of 50 ° to the vertical, and the 45 mm lower, which had an inclination of 55 °. The plates were interconnected through a cast beam. The sides of the hull were made of 45-mm armor plates and were vertical in the lower part, while the upper part in the area of ​​the engine-transmission compartment was inclined at 40 °, while in the area of ​​the fighting compartment the plates that formed the cutting sides had an inclination of only 20 ° . A cylindrical commander’s cupola, also made of 45-mm armor plates, was mounted in a cutout in the right side plate of the cabin. The hull feed was formed by the upper and lower 45-mm slabs, which were inclined at 48 ° and 45 °, respectively, while the 45 mm felling was vertical. The bottom and roof of the hull and wheelhouse, as well as the fenders, were made of 20 mm armor plates. The gun mask consisted of cast movable and fixed parts of complex shape and had a thickness of up to 110 mm in the frontal part.
      1. demiurg
        demiurg 20 June 2018 04: 37
        The SU-85M appeared almost at the same time as the SU-100, due to the absence of AP shells.
        I'm talking about something else. On the SU-100 they found the opportunity to strengthen the suspension for additional reservation of the forehead. Again, the VLD tracks had been transported for 43 years already. Was it really impossible to immediately strengthen the suspension for additional booking of the VLD? A twenty-millimeter sheet on the VLD would weigh a little more than a ton, a lead of more than 90 mm, pack 40 could be left out of the way.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 20 June 2018 08: 14
          These questions will forever remain unanswered! Designers and customers of the SU-85 have long rested ...
          But most likely this was done due to the tight deadlines allotted for the design of the machine!
          GKO Decree No. 3187 of April 15, 1943 required a significant increase in tank weapons in order to counter German heavy tanks and self-propelled guns, as well as the creation of highly effective specialized armored self-propelled tank destroyers. These self-propelled guns, according to the requirements of the GAU, should have been able to penetrate normal armor 90-120 mm thick at a distance of 500-1000 m.
          GKO Decree No. 3289ss on May 5, 1943 established a tight deadline for the manufacture of such self-propelled guns, the co-contractors being defined as follows: TsAKB — design the artillery part of the 85-mm self-propelled gun, NKV plant No. 9, make three prototypes of the gun, and Uralmashzavod manufacture the self-propelled guns themselves and mount weapons inside the fighting compartment.
          The plans of Uralmashzavod, to meet deadlines, provided for the manufacture of an 85-mm self-propelled guns based on the SU-122M armored hull, for which in early May the TsAKB sent drawings of the combat compartment of this self-propelled guns. However, the TsAKB behaved more than strange. Ten days late, working drawings of the 85-mm S-31 tank gun with trunnions and without a gimbal frame were sent to Uralmashzavod. Even with the naked eye, it was clear that the specified gun could not be installed in the fighting compartment of the SU-122M, but the main thing was that this gun could not be mass-produced at plant No. 9 due to the lack of necessary equipment.
          To meet the deadline, the Uralmashzavod design bureau turned to the design bureau of the artillery plant No. 9 with a request to develop an 85-mm gun for artillery self-propelled guns. F.F. Petrov readily responded to this request and soon offered a preliminary design of the 85-mm gun D-5S85, made on the basis of a revised design of the U-9 gun developed by V.E. Sidorenko and AB Usenko 1941-1942 By May 20, the project was adjusted at the Uralmashzavod Design Bureau and submitted for approval by the NKV Technical Department.
          Only on May 23, 1943, the TsAKB, busy arranging it in a new place, sent a new draft of the 85-mm gun with the S-18 index. However, for some reason, this version of the gun was again tank rather than self-propelled.

          There just wasn’t too much time! We took the hull from the SU-122 and installed an 85mm gun!
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 20 June 2018 09: 48
          Quote: demiurg
          On the SU-100 they found the opportunity to strengthen the suspension for additional reservation of the forehead. Again, the VLD tracks had been transported for 43 years already. Was it really impossible to immediately strengthen the suspension for additional booking of the VLD? A twenty-millimeter sheet on the VLD would weigh a little more than a ton, a lead of more than 90 mm, pack 40 could be left out of the way.

          The question is different - was this thickened armor plate in 1943 in the required quantities? As the uv. M. Svirin, somewhere until 1944, armor rolling thicker than 45 mm was a huge deficit. Due to its absence, by the way, the first draft of the “mold” of 60 mm armor was hacked.
          ... by the end of the summer of 1942, by means of strict standardization, a reduction in the nomenclature of rolled products and 45% control of manufactured products, the situation with the 60-mm armored plate improved. But the XNUMX mm sheet from which it was proposed to stamp tower domes was still not enough.
          © M.Svirin
          Also, the lack of thick armored vehicles led to the widespread use of cast armor in the IS design.
          1. demiurg
            demiurg 20 June 2018 12: 48
            You can weld the sheet on top of the main armor. .
            If you weight the forehead of the T-34 by 3 tons like the SU-100, you could scald it with a 40mm sheet. Or two for twenty. And drive along the battlefield carriers Aht-Aht with pissed rags. 120mm reduced armor.
            1. EvilLion
              EvilLion 22 June 2018 01: 10
              aht-aht has a good normalization, and the subcalibers and 200 punched.
        3. hohol95
          hohol95 20 June 2018 10: 12
          The test results of the shelling of the German heavy tank Pz.Kpfw.Tiger Ausf.E at the end of April 1943 had the effect of an exploding bomb on Soviet tank construction. The 76-mm F-34 gun could not penetrate a German tank even on board, and from a minimum distance. As for the M-30 howitzer, none of the 15 shots from it led to a credible defeat. But the 85-mm 52-K anti-aircraft gun proved to be very good. She successfully pierced the Tiger in frontal projection at a distance of 1000 meters.

          Immediately after receiving the results of the shelling tests, work began on designing the installation of such a weapon in a machine based on SU-122. But to be more precise - at that time the work that had already begun was only officially approved, because on April 12, the Artillery Committee of the Main Artillery Directorate of the Red Army (GAU KA) developed preliminary tactical and technical requirements for the “85 mm self-propelled gun“ tank destroyer ”. The beginning of work was directly linked to the appearance of the Wehrmacht “Tiger” in service. The main goals for the promising vehicle were heavy German tanks with an armor thickness of 90–120 mm, which the 85-mm gun had to confidently hit at a distance of 500–1000 meters. According to the requirements, the gun was planned to be installed on the SU-35M (SU-122M) chassis, the mass of which was required to be reduced by 1–1,5 tons. The required ammunition for the 85 mm cannon was 60 rounds, both horizontal and vertical stacking was permitted. Interestingly, captured German tanks Pz.Kpfw.III and Pz.Kpfw.IV. were indicated as an alternative chassis.

          On March 6, 1943, tactical and technical requirements were compiled at the GAU KA for the design and manufacture of a prototype of an 85-mm tank gun, which became the heiress of the ZIS-25. It was this system that was taken as the basis for the design of the 85 mm self-propelled gun. In addition to the TsAKB, on April 14, 1943, a letter from the TTT to the 85 mm self-propelled gun was sent to Sverdlovsk to the director of plant No. 9 L.R. Honor, as well as the director of the Ural Heavy Engineering Plant (UZTM) B.G. Murzukov. Design Bureau No. 9 was engaged in the gun part, and UZTM - the chassis.
          The deadline for the production of preliminary designs for both the Central Design Bureau and the Design Bureau of Plant No. 9 was determined on May 5. As of April 29, the TsAKB was already completing a preliminary draft. By the same date, plant number 9 did not even officially accept the order. However, from a telephone conversation it became known that the plant number 9 has already begun to design the system. Thus, by the time of signing on May 5, 1943, the decision of the State Defense Committee (GKO) No. 3289 “On Strengthening the Artillery Arms of Tanks and Self-Propelled Installations”, Soviet designers already had a certain amount of groundwork on this topic.
  4. igordok
    igordok 19 June 2018 18: 18

  5. igordok
    igordok 19 June 2018 18: 30
    SU-100, in the role of SU-85, is very revealing in the chic film "In the war, as in the war"
    1. sabakina
      sabakina 19 June 2018 20: 42
      That's right. The eternal movie!

  6. polpot
    polpot 19 June 2018 18: 52
    Great car, a 100% tank destroyer, sorry too late.
  7. prodi
    prodi 19 June 2018 19: 06
    well, yes, I would like to look at the "srach" between these machines
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 18 August 2018 19: 24
      Quote: prodi
      well, yes, I would like to look at the "srach" between these machines

      Do you mean Su-100 vs Yagdpanthers? so the whole thing will be in competent tactics and in the crew’s training + the Germans have the advantage in the form of sabers and cumulators + the best optical guidance system, and the Soviet self-propelled guns have the best mobility.
  8. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 19 June 2018 19: 19
    When an order was issued by the GKO on the early creation of more effective anti-tank weapons, in Uralmashzavod there was, among several other self-propelled guns based on the T-1943, the project for the installation of a 34-mm D-122 gun in a slightly modified SU-25 body.
    The project was abandoned, and not only because of the mass of the machine that has increased by almost 3 tons. Frankly weak was the T-34 chassis. We decided to leave the chassis, but look towards the projects with a smaller caliber cannon and an increased conning tower.

    SU-122P (D-25S based on the T-34) made in metal. The reason is simple - the 100 mm gun initially did not have an armor-piercing projectile. And as a safety net, in case the industry traditionally breaks all the deadlines, they made this self-propelled guns.
    But the industry could not break the deadline - and in November 1944, the 100 mm BBS was in the series. And since the D-25S was in short supply, the ISU was given priority, and the 122-mm self-propelled guns based on the ST were pushed into the long box.
  9. Ivan Vasev
    Ivan Vasev 19 June 2018 20: 16

    Tower IS-2.
    1. Cananecat
      Cananecat 20 June 2018 09: 15
      Do not fall to the office laughing
  10. Grim Reaper
    Grim Reaper 19 June 2018 22: 04
    Roman, thanks!
    I hope that your articles will not be limited to the times of the USSR (well, if possible) winked
  11. Alf
    Alf 19 June 2018 22: 36
    The SU-100, without a doubt, is the most successful and most powerful Soviet anti-tank self-propelled gun

    Not certainly in that way.
    SU-100 is a tank destroyer, not an anti-tank self-propelled gun. The difference between these types in the thickness of the armor. A tank destroyer is Nashorn, a powerful weapon with thin armor.
    And the power of V-2 on the SU-100 is not 520, but 500 mares.
    1. VictorZhivilov
      VictorZhivilov 21 June 2018 10: 19
      A tank destroyer is Nashorn, a powerful weapon with thin armor.

      Yes, the Rashhorn had a thin skin. lol
      rn / 13259-photo.html
  12. svp67
    svp67 20 June 2018 05: 48
    Judging by the presence of a power supply from the radio station R-123 and TPU R-124, then this machine went through modernization after the war.
  13. VictorZhivilov
    VictorZhivilov 21 June 2018 10: 14
    Thanks for the review article! Once again you are convinced that the T-34/85 was very much lacking 100 mm guns. smile
  14. glum
    glum 21 June 2018 17: 22
    long time ago I read the self-propelled gun’s memoirs, so he wrote that the first self-propelled guns had roofs and the rear part seemed to be covered with tarpaulin and initially didn’t like it very much, but then they found their zest in it, at night a beautiful view of the starry sky opened, it was enough only tarpaulin recline. I just don’t remember whether it is SU-85 or another one. Maybe the author knows?
    1. Forever so
      Forever so 21 June 2018 23: 11
      At SU 76 there was no roof))
    2. Alf
      Alf 23 June 2018 16: 19
      Quote: Glum
      but then they found their zest in it, at night a beautiful view of the starry sky opened,

      Our tank crews had nothing more to do than to admire the stars at night. Charge, refuel, check the materiel, just sleep well, no, we will admire the stars, otherwise summer nights are so short. Have you admired the stars a lot in the army?
      Quote: Glum
      long time ago I read the self-propelled gun’s memoirs, so he wrote that the first SAU had roofs and the back part seemed to be covered with tarpaulin, and initially it didn’t really like it,

      But this self-propelled gunner did not know that the absence of a roof has a very beneficial effect on the absence of powder gases in the fighting compartment after a shot? And the fact that the SU-76, being an infantry support vehicle, was it very convenient to receive target designation from the infantry?
      1. glum
        glum 23 June 2018 16: 45
        I'm not saying that it was like that, I just remembered from what I read, maybe the author decided to embellish about the stars, and about whether he knew how he had beneficial effects, I would say that I knew, because he was just the commander of a self-propelled gun, and did not like those who came from a tank to a self-propelled gun and used to be in full armor, rather than circumcised.
        1. Alf
          Alf 23 June 2018 17: 22
          So let him tell the truth, and not tell tales.
  15. Forever so
    Forever so 21 June 2018 23: 10
    We had in Kashtak in training a couple of hundred parts. But to drive on it did not happen. And so the machine is okay))