Larisa Reisner: a heroine or an adventurer? Part of 2
Close cooperation and close communication with Trotsky in the battles on the Kazan sector of the Eastern Front helped Raskolnikov to advance in service. In the fall of 1918, he was appointed a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic. However, the former midshipman did not have as many military victories as he would have liked.
At the end of December of that year, on the orders of Trotsky, he embarked on an extremely risky campaign of a group of two red destroyers Spartak and Avtroil under his command on the Estonian Revel. But to carry out a daring raid failed. Faced with superior British forces fleet, both ships, along with crews, were captured by former Allies.
Larisa Reisner, who held the post of Commissioner of the Marine General Staff at that time, with her usual energy and perseverance attracted the fleet management to develop a plan for the detachment of sailors in Revel to force the release of prisoners by force. Moreover, she achieved the approval of this plan by the military leadership of the Republic. But just before the start of the operation, it was reported that all the prisoners had been transferred to the Brixton prison in London. Raskolnikov, along with other prisoners, was only released after 5 months. At the end of May, the 1919 of the year was exchanged either for 17, or for the 19 captured British officers (the information is different).
However, after such a military failure Raskolnikov remained afloat. Upon his return, he was in June 1919 appointed commander of the first Astrakhan-Caspian flotilla. A month and a half later, the former midshipman already commanded a united Volga-Caspian military flotilla (VKVF).
Together with him, the military way of the flotilla passed Larissa. She was appointed in June 1919 for the position of the head of the cultural enlightenment department in the newly formed political department of the flotilla. It was a rather complex and diverse area of military-political work. The department included a theatrical-musical part, a school-lecture part, as well as a library, club, sports business and the editors. From the 2 anniversary of the October Revolution, Voenmore Magazine began to appear, becoming the press organ of the political department of the flotilla. The husband and father, who headed the flotilla political department in September 1919, helped.
The sailors of the flotilla participated in the defense of Tsaritsyn, they conducted active hostilities in the Caspian. Larisa Mikhailovna participated in the combat campaigns of the ships of the flotilla, usually on the captain's bridge. In addition to participating in battles and sending her articles from the front to the newspaper, she wrote to the magazine "Voenmor". Faced with the fact that part of the military did not know how to read and write, she resolutely took up the elimination of illiteracy. Raskolnikov issued an order for the WCF from September 28 1919 of the year number 870 to combat illiteracy. The text of the document was short, but expressive. “An illiterate, illiterate and unwilling to learn,” the order noted, “there is the same enemy of Soviet power as the worst counterrevolutionary and saboteur, and he should have no place in our ranks.” And the work began to boil!
Larisa Mikhailovna had time to be everywhere: in battle, at a rally, in class with the illiterate. Her image was recreated in his play “Optimistic Tragedy” by a former flotilla warrior and then by the famous playwright Vsevolod Vishnevsky. Of course, the literary commissioner was a little like the original. Larisa never wore a commissar leather jacket. She preferred, according to the recollections of her colleagues, either a black navy overcoat or, more often, elegant, tastefully selected dresses and other items of female wardrobe. And, of course, from the Mauser, she did not kill sailors who "wanted to try a commissioner's body." She simply did not allow even hints of such situations.
Larisa Reisner described many of her experiences during the war and personal impressions of participation in battles on water and on land in her front-line publications in the newspaper Izvestia, which later appeared in the book Front. With battles the flotilla reached Baku. Then, in the Iranian port of Enzeli, the ships of the Caspian fleet hijacked by the White Guards were collected. In the summer of 1920, the fighting ended. Order of the RVS of the Republic of 7 June 1920 of the year "For the liberation of the Caspian Sea from the White Guard gangs and the British invaders" Raskolnikov was awarded the second Order of the Red Banner. And the flotilla personnel received thanks and a bonus - the monthly salary of salaries. From June 1920, Fedor Fedorovich was appointed commander of the Baltic Fleet. She and Larisa, who had been assigned to the political department of the fleet, went to Petrograd.
Life on contrasts
Larisa Reisner lived without thinking and not fearing gossip in society. She considered herself above all discussion behind her back. And she chose an interesting and comfortable social circle. She was equally easy to communicate with famous poets, important bosses, simple sailors and red commanders. She had an amazing quality to immediately become hers for the people with whom fate brought her together.
At the same time, according to the memories of Lev Nikulin, who knew her more than 10 for years, “she knew how to stand up for herself, to respond to sharpness with sharpness, even more than sharpness”. Participating in battles on the ships of the flotilla, she kept cool in the most dangerous situations. She sat quietly somewhere on the deck, without interfering with the crew of the ship and calmly referring to the informal vocabulary of the warriors in the heat of battle.
In her amazing way coexist desire for luxurious life and the ability to survive in difficult life situations. Returning in June 1920 to a half-starved Petrograd, she began to annoy those around her with her idle look and expensive outfits. As the spouse of the commander of the Baltic Fleet, she began to arrange magnificent receptions in the Admiralty. Driving around the city in the car of the Naval Staff. Riding with Blok through the city at night. According to rumors, even the bathrooms of champagne took.
She had never been Bolshevik modesty before. She loved, according to the memoirs of the military, to delve into the closets of abandoned estates. The flotilla commander Raskolnikov and his senior flag-secretary Reisner were located on the former imperial yacht "Mezhen". They used royal utensils, organized smart feasts there, and even lived in war at their own pleasure. Larissa, without hesitating, tried on the outfits of the executed Empress.
For herself, she even came up with a special formula of life and behavior that would justify in advance all her immodest things and impartial acts. And she explained her permissiveness to the fact that by the will of fate she was close to the top of the new government. “We are building a new state. People need us. She said. “Our activity is constructive, and therefore it would be a hypocrisy to deny ourselves that which always goes to the people in power.” Therefore, when in the hungry Kronstadt the Red Warriors ate soup of herring tails, in the apartment of the former minister of the sea, Larisa Reisner met the guests at a sumptuously served table, at which young people in marine uniforms served.
But at the same time, she could work for hours on the communist subbotnik. And then in a ragged calico dress, wipe your face with a wet hand and laugh with everyone with a loud and happy voice. She could disguise herself as a peasant, in dirty clothes walking on puddles on foot, performing a secret mission. Or, neglecting the mortal danger, rush into the thick of the battlefield to cheer up other fighters. She was such in life. This was remembered by her contemporaries.
She did not even think about the political consequences of her actions. For example, as the gossip in the party circles of those years, she once asked her husband to take her to a meeting of the Council of People's Commissars, of which Raskolnikov was a member. At the same time she dressed up as for a holiday. She was defiantly beautiful, elegant, fragrant with expensive perfume. The outfit was completed with fashionable high red shoes at the time. Against the background of men in shabby military uniforms and worn suits, she looked like a brilliant aristocrat. Lenin repeatedly squinted at her, gradually becoming annoyed, then demanded that all outsiders be removed from the meeting room. After that, the leader gave a dressing to the remaining commissars. Henceforth, it was forbidden to let outsiders to meetings of the Council of People's Commissars. Raskolnikov did not suffer, but, as they say, the impression of his frivolous act remained.
Afghan period another life
In January, 1921, Raskolnikov, after a difficult conversation with Lenin, resigned from all posts and, together with Larisa, went on vacation to the Black Sea. Ahead of them waited complete uncertainty. Rescued a chance meeting with Deputy Foreign Minister L. Karakhan. At that time there was a shortage of personnel in the People's Commissariat. He suggested that Raskolnikov go to the Plenipotentiary of the RSFSR to Afghanistan. Time to rest flew by. And in Kronstadt an insurrection of the sailors of the Baltic Fleet broke out at that time. After 3 of the day after the suppression of the armed speeches of the military at the meeting of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (b), it was decided to send the former commander of the Baltic Fleet the ambassador of Soviet Russia to Afghanistan. It was opal. Larisa went with her husband to the "honorary exile". The path was not close - it took almost 2 a month to get to Kabul.
Perhaps there was also an intrigue with Trotsky. His interest was to “get rid of Larissa, to whom he cooled as swiftly as he fell in love with. ... Larry was still interested in Trotsky. ” And since the autumn of 1920, the chairman of the RVS of the Republic has already been passionate about another woman. Now it was an English aristocratic (cousin of the British War Minister Churchill) Claire Sheridan. Possessing various talents, she was at that time working on Lenin’s bust, who perceived her simply as a sculptor. And Trotsky and Claire, who posed for his bust, had a serious relationship that went beyond a simple love affair.
Meanwhile, the Raskolnikovs' rebel couple energetically took up a new business. The former midshipman mastered diplomatic polite. And Larisa began to send essays about Afghan life in Soviet newspapers. In addition, she quickly found a common language with his wife and mother of the Afghan ruler, Emir Amanullah Khan. However, the well-fed and calm ambassadorial life soon bore the former commissar. A year later, she, together with Fedor, began in letters to ask Trotsky for help in returning to his homeland. In response, he sent long, kind letters, but they did not say a word about their requests.
And then there was bad luck with a new translator arriving at the embassy. All further events are covered with mystery and understatement. The translator turned out to be a former naval officer who once served with them in the flotilla. The personality of S. Kolbasyev was bright and extraordinary. Marine writer, poet, friend of Gumilyov, naval officer, a connoisseur of radio department and a jazz lover, who also owned six foreign languages. His mother was friendly with the family of Reisner. In general, all one to one. They talked about his longtime close relationship with Larissa, although he came to Kabul with his wife.
And suddenly a grand scandal broke out between the translator and the ambassador himself. Raskolnikov gave his subordinate a “deadly” description, for some reason he recalled “humilism” and demanded a response from the embassy. The formal reason is a dispute with the ambassador in the presence of foreigners. However, it did not look so straightforward. According to some facts, Kolbasyev was a resident of military intelligence in Kabul under the “roof” of the embassy. Formally, he did not obey the ambassador for his service. In addition, Larisa’s younger brother recommended him to work in Kabul. Igor Reisner, as you know, was studying at the eastern branch of the Red Army Military Academy at that time. This unit was preparing military intelligence. Kolbasyev was recalled from Afghanistan and sent to the embassy in Finland. There, due to the betrayal of the liaison from the Comintern, he had a spy scandal that affected his career.
It is not known what actually happened in the Raskolnikov-Reisner-Kolbasiev triangle, but it was at that time that she suddenly wrote that eastern women "manage to sin by being stuck between two pages of the Koran." She wrote it more about herself, only she was “stuck” between very different pages. In October 1922, she writes to parents about the gossip about her and Raskolnikov, informs that soon she will “not be in Kabul”. For some reason, pity her husband. “I hope that you will not ascribe any more fantastic lies to me,” she wrote, “and he is absolutely not based on anything unreasonable ferocity and abominations.” And in the spring of 1923, she runs from Kabul to Russia and demands a divorce from Raskolnikov.
Again risking life in intelligence
Reisner returned to Moscow and finally broke up with Raskolnikov. Unexpectedly for all, she, together with the famous Bolshevik K. Radek (Sobelson), who became her civil husband for all, set off in the autumn of 1923, to “make a revolution” in Germany. Friends and acquaintances considered it to be inexplicable with a low, ugly Radek. Even Pushkin's words from “Ruslan and Lyudmila” were altered on this score: “Larisa Karla is a little alive / She puts a bag behind the saddle”. However, if we accept one of the versions, then it was a secret operation of the Soviet intelligence, in which Larisa participated. And married Radek was her “roof,” because he had good connections, knew the situation very well and had to become one of the leaders of the revolution in Germany. At that time, her brother Igor, as we remember, was a military intelligence officer, was also there. Such a view immediately changes the situation. It becomes clear why on dates with Larisa Radek came with a young daughter. There is an understanding of why Larissa, in her letters home from Germany, writes about her longing and total loneliness. Consolation was her book Hamburg on the Barricades.
During this trip, Larisa visited Olga Chekhov in Berlin. It was then, according to some researchers, that Chekhova began work on Soviet intelligence. And when the revolutionary project failed and the uprising in Hamburg was put down, Larisa immediately broke up with Radek. But in the service, most likely, she remained. Otherwise, why did she need the permission of the OGPU for the Browning pistol No. XXUMX? Reisner traveled to Germany again in 635481 of the year. Under the pretext of treatment for malaria, which "hooked" at the front. Quite possibly risk-prone and ready for a dangerous adventure, Larisa Reisner contributed to the Comintern's secret operations and intelligence. Although intelligence was intelligence, nothing human was alien to her ... Radek was very much killed when she died.
All the men who became close to her, even for a short time, did not die by their own death. Whether this was a fatal coincidence or whether Larisa was carrying such a deadly and destructive power in herself remains a mystery. Opened the sad list of genius Nikolai Gumilev. Her first love and, apparently, her first man was shot by security officers at the end of August 1921, as a conspirator. In September 1991, he was fully rehabilitated for lack of corpus delicti. Then this list was added to Karl Radek and Sergey Kolbasyev in 1937, Fedor Raskolnikov in 1939, and Lev Trotsky in 1940.
During her lifetime, she was often called the Valkyrie of the Revolution. This name was borne by the warrior maiden from the Scandinavian myths, who collected the killed brave men on the battlefield. She had a chance to survive only the death of Gumilyov - her first maiden love. According to the official version, she died on February 9 1926 in the arms of her mother from typhoid fever after a five-week struggle with the disease in the Kremlin hospital. A glass of raw milk led to a tragic demise. There were also versions of poisoning. Her mother and father passed away.
How would the life of Larisa Reisner end if fate would have kept her even further? Most likely, even more tragedy, she survived until the beginning of mass terror in 1937-1938. All her former marriage. ties and hobbies did not give her the slightest chance to live to old age. And on the pages of past times, it is quite possible that even her name would not have remained. And today, her image, slightly worn by time and tarnished as a result of the devotion to glasnost of new facts about her life and work, still remains in stories as the only female commissar in the navy.
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