Guards lieutenant of the army of ancient Egypt. Part of 3. Peacetime life
In peacetime, troops were stationed in fortresses, making up their garrisons, in fortified camps, in cities and the residences of kings — as many texts indicated (for example, in the city of Ha'Uar, before the Egyptian historian Manetho was, there were 240 thousand troops Anastasia III (4 - 6) talks about the location of troops in the border fortifications, etc.).
Wherever possible, the troops were located in barracks specially built for them - and it was observed that, in order to preserve discipline and internal order, separate units were located together - under the command of their commanders (Brugsh. East. Trans., Vlast., 234-235; Erm. Aeg. U. Aeg. Leb II. S. 708; Chabas, Vog. Dun. Eg. P. 63-65, Masp. Hist. Anc. 1895, P. 212).
Egyptian warriors of the epochs of the Libyan, Cushitian and Saissian dynasties of the 946-525. BC er
royal guard of shardan
Food and salary. Military warehouses and workshops
The question of food supply in peacetime was, of course, a matter of great importance.
With the strict organization of the internal state structure that has been established in Egypt since the times of the Middle Kingdom, it was possible to achieve an orderly system of allowances for the armed forces. The population, including the rich and noble people, carried a full-fledged compulsory service - which went for various state needs and for the maintenance of the armed forces.
The inscription of the Una dignitary (Old Kingdom, ca. 3200 BC) records the care of the troops, indicating that the Egyptians were not exempt from service according to the army (“It was necessary to take bread and goats in every village” Erm. Aeg. u aeg. Leb. II, S. 689).
Manetho said that the king, arriving at the camp at the city of Haar-Uar (the beginning of the New Kingdom), observed, among other things, the distribution of wages and food to the troops - and this confirms the important role the authorities gave to this issue (Brugsh. East. . Trans. Power., 239).
Food and salary were given out to every soldier in his arms - but how great that both were, we unfortunately do not know. The composition of the food was quite diverse; The supplies issued to the troops consisted of different sorts of bread, meat and wine (Pap. Anastasi I (XVII, 2 - XVIII, 2) says that when departing for one expedition of a detachment to 4000, the person did not have the following amount of provisions: 300 baskets of one sort bread, 1400 pieces of other varieties, live cattle of different breeds - 120 heads, as well as wine - 30 jugs. Chabas. Voy. d'un eg. p. 52; Masp. Hist. anc. 1895, II, p. 220) .
Food supplies were concentrated in special stores and warehouses - and then they were given out to the troops. Such warehouses existed for armaments and equipment (Instructions on food stores and military warehouses, where various armaments were stored for equipment, are on wall paintings in Medinet-Abu and other places (Rosselini Monumenti storici, CXXV and T. V, p 19 - 23), Brugsch, East .U. Lane Power 113; Pap. Anastasi I (XII 2 - XVIII3).
These shops and warehouses were under the jurisdiction of special officials subordinate to the regional governor, and the allowance of troops from them was carried out both in peacetime and during mobilization, before the army went abroad (Masp. Hist. Anc. 1895, II, p. 220 ).
There were special workshops for the manufacture of weapons and equipment — both chariots and siege vehicles were made in special establishments. Many monuments have preserved images of such workshops, while others mention such industries. So, on one of the tombstones of the Louvre Museum, found by Mariette, is depicted armory onion dressing workshop: an owner named Iofer - Sachau sits on a stool and finally finishes the already bent bow; 2 ready-made bows with a stretched bowstring lie on the floor right there; and of the two workers depicted, one is working on a tree for a bow, and the other is preparing to paint a finished tool - but without a bowstring; behind are materials and tools. Stella belongs to the era of the XVIII dynasty (c. 1700 BC) (Moret. Une fabr. D'arcs (Rev. arch. 1899. I, pp 231–239; Also Pap. Anastasi I (XXVI, 3 8) and Wilk. Anc. Eg. 1, 374, 377, 378).
The importance and necessity of strict discipline in a well-organized army was undoubtedly recognized in Egypt at all times. Naturally, only a strictly disciplined mass could produce such buildings as the pyramids or the tombs of the kings in the Theban necropolis. And the main labor was the people, who were supposed to supply a certain number of workers from each village for a certain period of time - after which others came to replace them. Engineers, architects and craftsmen were only leaders and instructors, but, at the same time, they were bosses over the workers. Thus, the Egyptian people from a young age accustomed to discipline - and therefore it was already in this respect, an excellent contingent to replenish the troops.
The inscriptions confirm how seriously the Egyptians looked at the question of discipline. Thus, one of the nomarchs of the epoch of the times of tsar Usurtusen I (XII., Ca. 2433 BC), describing his march, specifically noted the discipline and order among the troops, twice mentioning the absence of at least one case of desertion (Masp Hist. Anc. 1876, p. 121. LD II, 122.).
And discipline violations were so rare and were considered such serious misconduct that they caused not only an appropriate punishment, but also royal anger and. In the description of the battle under Megiddo during the Syrian campaign of Tuthmosis III (XVIII din. Approx. 1481 BC), it is told about such royal anger caused by the fact that Egyptian troops, carried away by an easy victory, did not persevere with the enemy battles, attacking carts - as a result, a significant mass of enemy troops escaped captivity (Inscription of the Karnak Temple, Brugsch, East. Eg. Trans. Power. 302 f., Bissing, Taf. v., Karn, Masp. La camp de Mageddo).
Egyptian infantry of the field army of the XVIII dynasty:
1. Nubian archer
2. XVIII dynasty shield spear
3. Warrior armed with a two-handed ax
4. Pharaoh's Guardsman
5. Lightly armed warrior
Продолжение следует ...
- Oleynikov Alexey
- Guards lieutenant of the army of ancient Egypt. Part of 1. About sources
Guards lieutenant of the army of ancient Egypt. Part of 2. The history of the development of the armed forces. Manning
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