June 1 - Northern Fleet Day
The first attempts to develop the North by the fleet were made at the end of the 17th century, but there was no permanent connection of ships in the region at that time. In the spring of 1733, the Arkhangelsk military port was established with a permanent squadron - this was the first full-time unit of the Russian fleet in the White Sea. The sailors of the Arkhangelsk squadron guarded the Russian coast of the White and Barents Sea and repeatedly participated in the battles. So, in 1741-43, during the war with Sweden, ships from Arkhangelsk reinforced the Baltic Fleet. Other crews at this time fought with the enemy privateers and defended sea shipping.
During the Napoleonic Wars, the Arkhangelsk squadron continued to defend the northern borders and protect merchant ships, and in addition, contributed to the victory over the enemy. Once again, the North Sea seamen had to fight the enemy during the Crimean War, when a coalition of Western countries attempted to seize the northern regions of Russia.
In 1862, the Arkhangelsk military port was closed, and only at the beginning of the 20th century began the restoration of the full presence of the fleet in the North. In the summer of 1916, a flotilla of the Arctic Ocean was formed, which was to protect the sea communications. Flotilla ships were based in Arkhangelsk, Romanov-on-Murman, Aleksandrovsk and Yokange.
During the Civil War, the flotilla of the Arctic Ocean suffered serious losses, and its remnants were transformed into the White Sea military flotilla of the Red Army. After a few months, the flotilla turned into the Northern Fleet Naval Forces, which existed until the end of 1922. For several years, the Soviet North was left without serious protection.
1 June 1933 was created by the Northern Navy, and from this begins the modern history of the Russian Northern Fleet. During this period, the Navy actively developed, built new ships, bases and shipyards. As a result of this construction of 11 in May of 1937, the Northern Fleet was transformed into the Northern Fleet. The construction and strengthening of the fleet continued and did not stop.
In 1939, the Northern Fleet of the USSR Navy took part in the war for the first time. One of the main results of the fleet was the seizure of the ports of Petsamo and Liinakhamari, as a result of which the threat to the Soviet coast was reduced, and Finland lost access to the most important sea routes.
By the beginning of World War II, the Northern Fleet had become a serious force capable of responding to any threats. Until the very end of the war, ships and submarines of the fleet constantly served in an extremely complex theater of operations, contributing to the overall victory. The fleet was engaged in covering the ground forces from naval assault forces, defended maritime cargo transportation, and also violated enemy communications. The most important part of his combat work was the posting of numerous sea convoys.
During the war years, the Northern Fleet increased its number and increased its combat capabilities. Fleet forces destroyed more than 600 ships, ships, and enemy transports, as well as about 1300 enemy aircraft. Losses of the enemy from coastal troops and seamen on land fronts are incalculable. More than 1600 convoys were conducted along the routes of the Arctic Ocean and its seas. In 1965, for the exploits during the Great Patriotic War, the Northern Fleet was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.
In the postwar period, the Northern Fleet took a leading position and became the first to master the latest technology and weapons. For the first time in the world, the Northern Fleet launched a ballistic missile from a submarine, received the first domestic nuclear submarine and first mastered a number of ships of new classes. For several decades, the Northern Fleet has become one of the most powerful forces in the oceans.
Now the Red Banner Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy is the basis of the Joint Strategic Command "North" and is responsible for the security of the country's northern borders. At his disposal are powerful and modern surface fleets, submarines, coastal forces and the naval aviation. The fleet meets the next anniversary of its foundation as a serious force that makes a major contribution to the country's defense.
The editorial staff of the Military Review congratulates the Red Banner Northern Fleet, its personnel and veterans on the holiday!
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