It is with the personality of William Randolph Hurst that the appearance of such terms as the "yellow press" and "public relations" is associated. At one time, William Hurst, the former son of the millionaire George Hurst, decided to try his hand at the newspaper business and by the 1940s had created an entire empire, which included 25 daily and 24 weekly newspapers, 12 radio stations, 2 agencies News, the Cosmopolitan film studio and a number of other organizations. It is clear that the abduction of a girl brought by such a granddaughter by her own granddaughter could not but excite the whole of America. Who could need a nineteen-year-old Patty?
The full name of the kidnapped girl is Patricia Hirst. She was born 20 in February 1954 of the year in the family of Randolph Hirst - the eldest son of the famous media mogul. Randolph had five daughters, Patricia had a third. She spent her childhood in the elite suburb of San Francisco. Private school, home education, arranged youth - the life of Patricia in a favorable direction was different from most of her peers.
Stephen and Patricia
By her nineteen years she studied in the second year of the faculty stories Arts at the University of Berkeley. Patricia lived with her boyfriend Stephen, who was a graduate student at the same university and worked as a teacher. In the summer of 1974, the young people were about to get married. Unlike many of her peers, Patricia Hirst was not interested in the countercultural movements and radical politics that were fashionable at that time among young people, but was an ordinary domestic girl whose interests were all about learning and personal life. Who could have guessed that the fate of the granddaughter of the most famous media magnate would be so paradoxical?
The police, arriving at the scene of Patricia’s abduction, immediately interviewed the neighbors. They confirmed that the half-naked girl was really dragged out of the house and placed in the trunk of a Chevrolet car. Soon the car was found abandoned. Apparently, the gangsters just transferred to another car and disappeared. In the agonizing wait two days have passed. And only on the third day, the radio studio in Berkeley received a “communique” - a typewritten letter in which Randolph Hirst, the girl’s father, was called “the enemy of the people”, and poor Patty the “important prisoner of war”. The authors of the letter warned that if the authorities tried to free a hostage or arrest any of her kidnappers, the girl would be immediately executed. For the release of the girl, the criminals demanded ... no, not to give them a large sum of money, but to provide 70 dollars with food aid to every indigent California citizen, and pay for the mass circulation of propaganda literature. If the Hirst family went to satisfy the kidnappers, it would cost the media magnate 400 million dollars. Under the letter there was a signature - “The Symbionist Liberation Army”.
This strange name was already familiar to operatives from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The kidnappers were not trivial criminals: under the name of CAO, one of the most dangerous left-wing radical organizations in the United States acted. The beginning of the 1970-ies was a period of maximum recovery of left-wing terrorism around the world - from Spain to Japan, from Germany to Argentina. The USA was no exception. Enormous social inequality and persistent racial discrimination provided a fertile ground for the flourishing of left-wing radical movements. African Americans still felt hurt, and leftists who opposed the American state machine viewed the inequality of white and black Americans as one of the main reasons for their actions against the government.
The thirty-year-old African-American Donald David Defreez, who now called himself none other than “Field Marshal Chinke,” was the exact opposite of Patricia Hirst. A native of Cleveland in Ohio, Donald Defries, at the age of fourteen, ran away from a house where he lived badly because of his father’s beatings. Dropping out of school in ninth grade, Defriz interrupted by odd jobs and soon went to prison for stealing from a parking lot. After his release, he married Gloria Thomas, who had three children, and moved to California. He was detained several times by the police for transportation weapons, for shooting in the basement of the house from a pistol, and in 1969 year - for the abduction of the synagogue caretaker.
17 November 1969, Defreeze was injured during an exchange of fire with police near a bank in Los Angeles. He was arrested and put in prison, where, while imprisoned, Defris joined the Black Cultural Association. That was his acquaintance with the African-American and left-wing radicals, but soon Defries broke away from the Black Cultural Association, deciding to create his own group. His closest associates were two white Americans - Willy Wolfe and Russ Little. This is how SLA - Symbionese Liberation Army appeared.
Unlike many other leftist organizations, which at least could be classified according to ideological affiliation as Maoist, anarchist, or Hevarist, SLA was a formation with a completely eclectic and vague ideology. The name "symbionist" came from the word "symbiosis", which Defries called harmonious coexistence of people of all races and nationalities. A seven-headed cobra was depicted on the banner of the Symbionist Liberation Army. Each of the heads represented umoja (unity), kujichagulia (self-determination), ujima (teamwork and responsibility), ujamaa (cooperative economy), nia (aspiration), kuumba (creativity) and imani (faith). These words in Swahili were used in the organization’s lexicon in solidarity with the world national liberation movement and the anti-racist movement of African Americans.
Defrize himself made himself field marshal and took the nickname "Chinki" - in honor of the leader of the slave uprising on the Spanish slave-trading ship "Amistad". In addition, Defriz took the surname “Mtume”, borrowed from the African language Swahili. In December, 1972, Defreez was transferred to Soledad prison in California, and on March 5, 1973, he escaped from prison, hiding with his friends. Interestingly, Defreeze was the only African-American in the Symbionist Liberation Army. The rest of the people who joined the CAO were white Americans of left-wing views, and it was hardly possible to characterize them as staunch leftists — rather, they were just street criminals and people from the countercultural environment who were dissatisfied with the actions of the police and the policies of the American authorities.
6 November 1973 in Oakland, California, two SAO members killed school inspector Marcus Foster and severely injured his deputy, Robert Blackburn. Interestingly, the bullets used to kill Foster were filled with cyanide. The reason for the murder of Foster was the proposed last plan for the introduction of identity cards in schools of Auckland. 10 January 1974 for the murder of Foster two members of the CAO, Russell Little, nicknamed Osceola and Joseph Remiro, nicknamed Bo, were arrested. Joseph Remiro, a 26-year-old Vietnam war veteran who served in the 101 Airborne Division, after demobilization joined the radical left movement and became involved in the work of the Black Cultural Association.
A month after the murder of Foster, Patricia Hirst was abducted. Initially, the group planned to exchange Hirst for Russell Little and Joseph Remiro, but then decided to put forward other demands. For the first two months (57 days), the girl was held in a closet the size of 2 meters by 63 centimeters, beaten and raped.
Meanwhile, police and members of the Hurst family were deciding how to rescue Patricia from captivity. When the surname Hurst nevertheless arranged the distribution of food packages in the amount of 4 million dollars, the Symbianist Liberation Army issued an appeal in which the 19-year-old Patty stated that she refused to return to her family and joined the Symbianist Liberation Army. America was in shock. The granddaughter of the well-known billionaire William Hurst, the daughter of the oligarch Randolph Hurst - and joins the left-wing terrorists? The news seemed like a silly joke.
In the SAO, Patricia Hirst was called “Tanya” - in honor of Tamara (Tani) Bunke, who lost her companion to Ernesto Che Guevara. Already on 15 on April 1974, two months after the abduction, Patricia "Tanya" Hirst took part in her first "revolutionary action" - as part of a group of members of the CAO robbed Hibernia Bank in San Francisco. The participation of Patti, armed with a carbine, in a bank robbery was recorded by surveillance cameras. But the authorities and relatives refused to believe in the "rebirth" of the girl. 22 April 1974, the FBI launched a flyer on the bank robbers Donald Defries, Patricia Soltisic, Nancy Perry and Camilla Hall. The fourth girl in the "five" of robbers, Patricia Hirst, was designated in the leaflet as an "important witness."
17 May 1974 Los Angeles police surrounded the house where Donald Defries and five other CAO militants were. On the demand for surrender, the symbionists responded with automatic fire. During the shootout, the house caught fire. Defrize, not wanting to burn alive, shot himself. Along with him were killed 23-year-old Willy Wolfe nicknamed "Kakho", 25-year-old Angela Atwood nicknamed "General Gelina", 29-year-old Patricia Soltisic nicknamed "Zoya", 29-year-old Kamilla "Glie" challa-hail challa. Nancy Perry, nicknamed "Fahiz."
After the death of Defreeze, the Symbionist army was led by William Harris, who, due to the increase, renamed himself from “General Tyco” to “Field Marshal Tyko”. Despite the tragic death of Defriz and five other comrades, the symbionists continued to rob banks in which Patricia Hurst participated. More than a year she spent in the gang. During a bank robbery in a suburb of Sacramento, one of the visitors was fatally injured.
September 18 As a result of a successful FBI round-up, a whole series of CAO members were arrested. Among those arrested were William Harris - "Field Marshal Tyko", his wife Emily Harris, the artist Wendy Yoshimura and Patricia Hirst herself. 1975 March, 11, the famous trial began at which Patty was accused. While the investigation was going on, Patricia told about the horrors she had to endure during the abduction. Her lawyers focused on the fact that Patricia had no other choice - either to join the gang, or the symbionists would have killed her. Psychiatric examination showed that the girl had experienced post-traumatic mental disorder. However, the prosecution insisted that the girl joined the gang of her own free will and did not take into account that her will was simply broken in two months of beatings and rape. 1976 March 20, Patricia Hirst was sentenced to seven years in prison. But behind bars, Patricia spent far less than seven years. Already in January 1976, President Jimmy Carter reduced the sentence to Patricia Hirst and she was released from prison.
After being released, Patricia married former police officer and bodyguard Bernard Shaw and settled in a suburb of New York. Her testimony formed the basis of three trials in the case of crimes committed by symbionists. Patricia has two daughters - model and actress Lidia Marie Hearst-Show and Gillian Hurst-Show. Now Patricia Hearst 64 of the Year. 20 January 2001, by decree of US President Bill Clinton, she was completely pardoned.
As for the other former symbionists, their fate was less fortunate. Someone died, someone was repeatedly brought to justice. Among the exceptions is Wendy Masako Yoshimura (born 1943), who lives in Auckland and is a well-known artist, who runs her own painting studio. Jim Kilgore was on the run from 1975 to 2002, managing to become a professor of history at the University of Cape Town in South Africa. He was arrested only in 2002, and in 2009, he was released, becoming the last of the liberated members of the CAO.
Currently, only one 70-year-old Joseph Remiro remains behind bars, serving a life sentence in San Quentin prison. He was denied the request for release on parole three times. Meanwhile, US human rights activists say that if it were not for the “cosmic” ties of the Hirst family at the highest level, then Patricia could well, at best, sit out her seven-year term “from call to call”, and at worst get more sentence.