Military Review

Guards lieutenant of the army of ancient Egypt. Part of 1. About sources

66
In our library there is, without exaggeration, a unique book - the author of which is the lieutenant of the Life Guards Pavlovsky Regiment E. A. Posypkin. The publication by the chief officer of the Russian army of fundamental historical work confirms the words of eyewitnesses of the era (in particular A. I. Denikin and B. M. Shaposhikov) about the high military-theoretical level of the development of a significant mass of Russian officers — especially those who graduated from specialized training institutions such as the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff.


Lieutenant E. A. Posypkin analyzes the military art of ancient Egypt - and in the relationship of its elements. The work is based on a rich set of sources - among which are materials and documents of various eras, which we will cite in the text. Spelling save those years. There are no illustrations (there are only maps) - but we will fill this question by drawing on illustrations from other publications, primarily from the professional studies of Osprey Publishers. Perhaps some of the provisions of the text are outdated, but for the most part they are very good and extremely interesting - and we hope they will be interesting to a wide circle of readers.

Guards lieutenant of the army of ancient Egypt. Part of 1. About sources


So, go on a journey through the pages stories Ancient Egypt.

Sources of

When using sources, both original Egyptian and later studies, especially classical authors, E. A. Posypkin set himself the main objective of studying the factual side of the questions (periodization into several kingdoms with transitional or dark eras between them is known) that is told by the ancient Egyptians themselves - through their numerous monuments, as well as what is reliably established by modern science. The sources for this work were, firstly, Egyptian monuments, consisting in numerous inscriptions and paintings on the walls of temples, on individual stellae, in tombs and papyrus, giving a lot of valuable information and, finally, in cannons, in military utensils and in the remains of various military buildings that have survived to the present. Secondly, the writings of modern scholars - Egyptologists, who are also sources, such as the publication of various texts and manuals. Although they are rarely devoted specifically to military issues and, moreover, almost no one with military education can be found among their authors - and therefore, bowing to the scientific authority of such luminaries of science as Brugsch, A. Yerman, G. Maspero and many others. et al., in matters of purely military matters, the author allows himself to state his opinion (but often citing the G. Maspero essay “Histoire ancienne des peuples de l Orient classique” by 1876, but corrected by 1895,). And finally, thirdly, the writings of classical authors, which are useful in the sense of various indirect and additional indications of people who have seen with their own eyes the last glimpses of the life of a once mighty state. But these writings should be used with great caution: for example, one of the most important of these writers, Herodotus, was in Egypt around 450 B.R., during the reign of Artaxerxes I and the administration of Egypt, satrap Pausiris, i.e. relative calm, which happened between the constant uprisings (Brugsh. East. Eg. Per. Vlast. S. 721, approx. 2.). These revolts, of course, were suppressed, the country was subjected to destruction, losing its originality more and more - and this is why Herodotus could not see the real, powerful kingdom of the pharaohs; he only saw the agony of a state organism that had lived for several thousand years.

If we add to this that the priests, who were his guides to this mysterious country for the Greeks, belonged to the lowest servants of the temples, and therefore did not possess any historical knowledge (compare even the order of the reigns of kings according to Herodotus and monuments), and Herodotus if he was not sufficiently familiar with the Egyptian language, then we will see that information gathered from this ancient scholar must be taken only after rigorous assessment and comparison with what the numerous monuments scattered about throughout the Nile Valley, and often far beyond.



So, the most important source is that which reached us from the Egyptians themselves. Even art monuments are important militarily. Egyptian art was a complete art, real: it noticed everything and was interested in everything, and therefore it did not remain indifferent to military glory. Infused with monarchical principles in the best sense of the word, it did not neglect the little people and the little things of everyday life (O. Perrot. Hist. De l'art; IP 38.).

That is why the monuments, which with remarkable fidelity and detail painted all aspects of life even in trifles, are also important for the study of military art - since they do not possess, perhaps, that fullness of instructions that we can learn from the special inscriptions and papyrus that have come down to us , they, instead, give a lively coloring to written information, complementing it with their picturesque and many small details, at least, for example, of military life, which we would not have known without them.



The view of the war, which since ancient times was established in Egyptian society, is remarkable. So, in one of the papyris of the time of Amenemhet I, (XII din., Ca. 2500 BC, R. X. Die Aegyptolegie. H. Brugsch. 1891.), The king says that with him: “we stopped seeing constant battles, then as before (Time of Troubles between VI and XII d. D.) they fought like a bull, who does not remember and does not know the past, ”that the king gave“ the opportunity for everyone to live in peace, both scholars and poor; made it possible to cultivate the land and spread joy everywhere "(Masp. Hist. anc. 1877, r. 102).

These words clearly say that the Egyptians were aware of the fact that war itself is a disaster and recognized it as an inevitable, and sometimes as a necessary, evil in public life, and in the very military power of their state they saw a pledge of peace necessary for the welfare of the country .

In general, the ancient Egyptians were by nature a peaceful people. So Strabo says that in its inaccessible geographical position and because the country produced enough of everything for its people, Egypt was a peaceful state. It was necessary only to restrain the predatory raids of various nomads. All this, of course, refers to the era before the so-called Ancient Kingdom, when the opponents of the Egyptians were not serious enemies (nomadic peoples). Warriors with similar peoples, of course, could not develop militancy (Erm. Aeg. U. Aeg. Leb., II, s. 686).

The new kingdom, in contrast to previous epochs, was distinguished by a strongly militant spirit, for which there were historical reasons.

The war for the overthrow of the yoke Hyksos greatly increased the belligerent spirit of the people and, after driving them out, to meet offended pride, offended by the rule of the Semites, Egypt itself begins to undertake campaigns in Asia; The development of state life caused communion with neighboring nations, which also could not always remain peaceful - all this brought about a significant development of military art and historically develop offensive trends in military affairs.

And the enemies of Egypt themselves have changed: instead of the semi-wild nomads, the Hyksos first appeared, fully assimilating the Egyptian culture, then the Syrian peoples, the Hittites, and finally the Assyrians. It also gave a strong impetus to the development of military art.

The warriors of the Hyksos period:


Big chariot.


Spearman


Archer.

In the eyes of the government, marches to enemy lands became extremely important; in the reign of each king, they were numbered in state chronicles, and their description was inscribed on the walls of temples and other monuments (Erm. Aeg. u. aeg. Leb., II, ss 694, 695; LD III, 65).



His research lieutenant chronologically limited the conquest of Egypt by the Persians in 527 to R. X. From that time, the once powerful kingdom of the pharaohs turned into a Persian province ruled by satrap, and Egypt lost a significant part of its identity. True, Egypt once again became independent after that - but not for long, and in the first half of 4 c. BC R. X. entered the world Macedonian monarchy.

The Ptolemaic dynasty, established after the great conqueror Alexander the Great, was Greek, which introduced Greek morals, customs and art to this country - this is why, after the conquest of Egypt, Cambyses almost ends its existence and original Egyptian martial art (Masp. Hist. Ans. 1876, p. 528 - 530).



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  1. Cat
    Cat 30 May 2018 05: 02
    +10
    I read it in one go!
    Alex, thank you very much!
    1. cost
      cost 30 May 2018 20: 53
      +1
      Great article. To title it only: not. ".... Guard Lieutenant ...", ".... and Lieutenant Guard .....". All the same, Military Review
      1. Some kind of compote
        Some kind of compote 30 May 2018 21: 10
        +18
        To title it only: not. ".... Guard lieutenant ...", ".... and lieutenant guard

        Then, to be exact at all (especially ALL-SUCH Military Review)
        It’s not a lieutenant of the Guard (although this is much closer to the truth) and not a lieutenant of the Guard (especially not),
        а
        Lieutenant of the Life Guards (exactly, with capital letters) Pavlovsky His Imperial Majesty Sovereign Emperor Nicholas II Regiment. And only so.
        1. cost
          cost 1 June 2018 00: 19
          +1
          And here it is! Mr. expert laughing , and the Life Guards Pavlovsky Regiment lieutenant such and such. Picture to help you

          I explain the meaning of my first comment - the guards of lieutenants in RIA did not exist Yes from the word - at all
          1. Some kind of compote
            Some kind of compote 1 June 2018 10: 18
            +16
            Zdraste
            So you confirm my words with this picture. Themselves wrote above:
            not. ".... Guard Lieutenant ...", ".... and Lieutenant Guard

            To which I answered you (paragraph above). Attention.
            Lieutenant of the Life Guards Pavlovsky His Imperial Majesty Sovereign Emperor Nicholas II Regiment

            Well, you bring the title of the book, where it says "Life Guards Pavlovsky Regiment Lieutenant."
            1. Some kind of compote
              Some kind of compote 1 June 2018 10: 20
              +16
              that is, not a lieutenant of the guard
              and the lieutenant of the Life Guards Pavlovsky Regiment, Mr. Expert
            2. cost
              cost 1 June 2018 10: 40
              +1
              I will try to explain in a more intelligible way. In RIA, it was customary to introduce first regiment then rank then last name, and lastly postFor example, the famous V. Sokolov officially signed documents like this - the Kizlyar-Grebensky regiment, Esaul Sokolov, commander of 3 hundreds of SEIVK, and did not paint the titles and chiefs of the Grebensky regiment, which were half a page, not to mention his own imperial convoy.
              Yes, however, all this is in the public domain: the same procedure for submission to the RIA, "Regulations on the Service." and many other interesting things
              1. Some kind of compote
                Some kind of compote 1 June 2018 14: 17
                +16
                I know all this.
                Although in ordinary documents they changed places - I personally saw them in documents.
                That’s why he wrote that the lieutenant of the Life Guards is so far or l-guards. a certain regiment the lieutenant is closer to the truth than the guard lieutenant or lieutenant of the guard
                1. cost
                  cost 1 June 2018 15: 16
                  +3
                  offer a draw
                  1. Some kind of compote
                    Some kind of compote 1 June 2018 17: 44
                    +16
                    Agree good drinks
                    Draw)
                    1. cost
                      cost 1 June 2018 17: 49
                      +2
                      Some Compote (Bride who):I agree good drinks
                      Draw):

                      drinks good
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 30 May 2018 22: 35
      0
      and what did the Egyptians shave if they weren’t in those days?
      1. cost
        cost 1 June 2018 04: 26
        +2
        Timur hi
        The time of shaving for men is unknown, although images of beardless men on the walls of caves make it possible to attribute the beginning of this custom to prehistoric times. It is known that the ancient Egyptians shaved both face and head several thousand years ago already during the first dynasties. It is believed that the reason for shaving was the purely practical requirements of hand-to-hand combat: hair provided the opponent with a convenient grip for cutting the throat. Aesthetic considerations hardly played any role, especially given the almost complete absence of mirrors in early civilizations
        fig. 1.The most ancient razors found by archaeologists in Knossos in Crete are bronze machines with an oxidian blade.

        Ris2Ancient Roman shavers were bronze

        Ris3... And in Russia .. In Russia, too, shaved .. The oldest razor in Russia was found in the archaeological site "Gnezdovsky mounds." She is also bronze
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. cost
            cost 1 June 2018 04: 44
            +2
            Hi Kolya hi
            So they also shaved without soap. Their shaving creams consisted of ... arsenic, slaked lime and starch. They were crushed with water or fat; this consistency softened the hair a little and shortened life a little. ...
            1. Dezinto
              Dezinto 1 June 2018 04: 50
              +2
              Good night Dmitry hi

              arsenic, slaked lime and starch. They were crushed with water or fat,


              Wow. ! Horror probably tweaks.

              But the question of the mirror remains. Which is just to the touch. ?

              Just an ax with water and lime to the touch?

              I’m even ready to conduct an experiment, the other day I’ll go to nature and there will be an ax and lime ... will I try this, and how is it !? ... winked

              As a result, unsubscribe ... if I survive! .... lol
              1. cost
                cost 1 June 2018 04: 58
                +2
                Tacitus writes that there was tension with mirrors in Rome. A silver polished disc was not affordable for everyone. A mortgage then did not give out
                Although, in my opinion, they could stupidly look into a bucket of water
                1. Dezinto
                  Dezinto 1 June 2018 05: 01
                  +2
                  could stupidly and see in a bucket of water


                  Well, I’ll try it like that ..... in principle, it’s possible if the water calms down and becomes even ... it will come off like a mirror .... request
                  And if the ax is good to grind, and dilute soot with water in a bowl, then theoretically it’s quite normal for shaving to work.
                  smile
                  1. cost
                    cost 1 June 2018 05: 13
                    +2
                    Don’t even try. In my cadet years, I encountered such a problem in military practice. There was no mirror, but we had to shave. They brought several buckets of water into the tent, collected dust from it, and wait for the ripples to calm down. The foreman of the company went into the tent - from surprise, he almost choked. Well, you and archimedes say. You, why shave each other zapadlo?
                    1. Dezinto
                      Dezinto 1 June 2018 05: 17
                      +2
                      Well, you and archimedes say. You, why shave each other zapadlo?

                      But really.!
                      Archimedes! ....))
                      And what could be so? And here we are racking our brains! )))



                      Well, in part. But you are in the field, alone in the tent ..... so the question is open ..... although if you are in the field in the tent alone, then why shave is asked? Probably a bunch of other things missing .....
        2. Bar1
          Bar1 1 June 2018 06: 07
          0
          Quote: Rich
          Fig. 1. The most ancient razors found by archaeologists in Knossos in Crete are bronze machines with an oxidian blade.


          shaving with a shard of glass is a vivisection.

          Quote: Rich
          Figure 2: Ancient Roman shavers were bronze.

          Fig.3 ... And in Russia .. In Russia, too, shaved .. The oldest razor in Russia was found in the archaeological site "Gnezdovsky mounds." She is also bronze


          and on this knife says that this is a razor?
          There are no bronze blades, now and then they also had to be steel or there couldn’t be clean people, because bronze is not steel and cannot have such properties to keep sharpening even for one shave.
  2. Adjutant
    Adjutant 30 May 2018 06: 47
    +8
    Yes, rare material
    The ancient Egyptian army through the eyes of not only the historian, but also the military
    Very informative and, most importantly, useful and visual.
  3. XII legion
    XII legion 30 May 2018 07: 50
    +21
    Civilization, without exaggeration, is unique and legendary.
    How, for example, could Egyptian priests predict the spill of the Nile up to a day? But how could they know that our planet is round and moves along a certain trajectory, when thousands of years later (in the Middle Ages) they considered it flat and standing on elephants and whales)?
    And Egypt had the world's first experience in building state armed forces, moreover, regular ones. And it will be extremely interesting to read about him. good
    1. tlauicol
      tlauicol 30 May 2018 09: 33
      0

      Ancient Egypt The earth is flat, the sky is a solid dome that rests on this plane, and the ship of the sun god (from sunrise to sunset) moves across the sky.
      predict the spill of the Nile with an accuracy of a day, they also could not
      1. XII legion
        XII legion 30 May 2018 12: 01
        +17
        Yes, somehow imagine, predicted. And the Earth knew that it was round. Just look at the textbooks of cultural studies.
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 30 May 2018 12: 29
          0
          Quote: XII legion
          Yes, somehow imagine, predicted. And the Earth knew that it was round. Just look at the textbooks of cultural studies.

          let's take a look!? I brought a picture of what the land was considered by other Egyptians, at least to the Hellenes - the turn is yours. and about the movement in orbit, do not forget to prove
          1. XII legion
            XII legion 30 May 2018 12: 38
            +16
            Of course, let's take a look. And you can bring any kind of pictures, anyone will draw them using Photoshop.
            In my culturology, it is written in black and white that the Greek caste in Egypt was so strong that including solved important economic tasks (calculated the spill of the Nile, fertilizing the soil of the valley) and the movement of celestial bodies, and also knew that the earth was round.
            What name of a culturologist will be authoritative enough for you?
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol 30 May 2018 12: 49
              0
              let me pamper: what is "my culturology"? Sorry, I do not know the author-authority
              1. XII legion
                XII legion 30 May 2018 13: 22
                +16
                This is the author of a textbook on the History of World Culture, which is the reference book of your interlocutor.
                Or do you think that when I say that the Egyptian priests knew about the rotation of celestial bodies and that the earth was round, I was driving a blizzard? Firstly, it’s not brought up like that - to deliberately deceive the interlocutor, even though personally not familiar. and, secondly, I'm used to the fact that every word is at least something, but reinforced. Otherwise, how?
                1. tlauicol
                  tlauicol 30 May 2018 15: 23
                  0

                  not only about the rotation of celestial bodies (not a secret even for a Cro-Magnon), but also about the movement of the round Earth along a certain trajectory (see your comment 7:50)
                  1. XII legion
                    XII legion 30 May 2018 15: 58
                    +16
                    Culturology
                    History of world culture
                    Edited by Professor A.N. Markova
                    Second edition,
                    revised and supplemented
                    UNITY
                    Moscow • 2000
                    Reviewers:
                    Department of Philosophy, Religion and Religious Studies
                    Faculty of Philosophy, Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov
                    and Dr. Philos. sciences prof. N.N. Nikitina
                    Quote
                    The Egyptians learned to accurately determine the timing of sowing, ripening and harvesting grain. They created an accurate calendar, built on observation of the celestial bodies. The whole year consisted of 365 days, it was divided into three seasons, each season had four months. The Egyptians also created accurate catalogs of stars and maps of the starry sky. In II millennium BC e. it has been suggested that the corresponding constellations are in the sky and during the day, they are invisible only because the sun appears in the sky. Around the same time, the oldest watches in human history were invented - water and small pocket and neck-mounted sundials.

                    As for the astronomical calculations of the priests and the assumptions that the earth is spherical - I will also find it and will write in the near future
                    1. tlauicol
                      tlauicol 30 May 2018 16: 39
                      0
                      don’t bother, waste your time - the Egyptians did not know that the round Earth moves in space.
                      As for the Nile spills, accurate to the day, determined by the rise of Sirius - the same way it can be argued that the potato blooms on June 22, and in the upper reaches of the river on this day the rainy season begins. Corporal clearance they had + - two weeks. not to mention the fact that between Thebes, for example, and Memphis, a huge distance, and the spill took place at different times, and is not stable on a particular day - it depended on too many factors
                      1. XII legion
                        XII legion 30 May 2018 18: 52
                        +16
                        Still, I’m bothering, because the Egyptians not only created (for the first time in history) exact catalogs of stars and maps of the starry sky (and this is impossible without establishing the sizes and at least approximate sizes of the trajectories of the stars), but their priests also calculated the approximate volume of our ball. It is necessary to raise special literature.
          2. Warrior-80
            Warrior-80 30 May 2018 15: 03
            0
            But they calculated how many days a year and could predict a solar eclipse
    2. sxfRipper
      sxfRipper 30 May 2018 10: 45
      0
      How, for example, could Egyptian priests predict the spill of the Nile up to a day?
      Elementary Watson!
      Life in the Nile Valley depended entirely on the river. Predicting a new Nile spill was extremely important. Priests, determining the water level in the river, noticed that the beginning of the spill coincides with the appearance in the sky of a very bright star - Sirius. She appeared in the east just before sunrise. It also turned out that these two events coincide with the third - the summer solstice.

      https://www.yandex.ru/search/?lr=213&clid=940
      3 & oprnd = 3083393432 & text =% 20p prediction
      angry% 20nil
  4. Curious
    Curious 30 May 2018 09: 27
    +2
    A few words about the author of the book.

    Pasypkin Evgeny Aleksandrovich - 1875, St. Petersburg. - 1941, Zemun (Serbia).
    Hereditary military. Father - Russian military engineer, Major General Pasypkin Alexander Mikhailovich, grandfather architect and builder, Major General Pasypkin Mikhail Alexandrovich.
    He graduated from the Alexander Cadet Corps (1892), the Konstantinovsky Military School (1894), served in the Life Guards. Pavlovsky regiment, lieutenant (1900), colonel (1916), historian, prose writer, author of the book “The Military Art of Ancient Egypt” (1901), a participant in the White Movement, emigrated, published a “historical and occult novel from the time of Ancient Egypt” “Light the winner ”(1925), died in Zemun (Serbia).
    Niece - Maria Dmitrievna Svishchevskaya - civil engineer, candidate of technical sciences.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 30 May 2018 20: 11
      +1
      I am terribly sorry, Viktor Nikolaevich, but where is the Academy of the General Staff on this list, attributed by the author to the original source?
      1. Curious
        Curious 30 May 2018 20: 56
        +1
        The author simply failed to build a sentence. As I understand it, it meant that the officers who graduated from the Academy of the General Staff had a special level of training, regardless of the source.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 May 2018 23: 48
          0
          Probably. But, we are responsible for what we published. I can forgive everything: spelling, punctuation, taftology ... But semantic and stylistic mistakes - fire! This makes the product meaningless, turning the text into polystyrene. Just now, if you remember, I was butting with Shpakovsky about Columbus and caravels.
      2. Some kind of compote
        Some kind of compote 30 May 2018 21: 04
        +17
        Mail for the honor to stand up for my friend Viktor Nikolaevich)
        Why did 3x3zsave get it - that Pasypkin graduated from the General Staff Academy and is this attributed to him?
        At the beginning of the article, it is only said that the publication by the person involved in the article of such books indicates
        about the high military-theoretical level of development of a significant mass of Russian officers — especially those who graduated from specialized educational institutions, such as the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff.
        .
        But where does it say that it was Pasypkin who graduated from the Academy?
        It's just that if such people shone, then imagine - what are the academics?
        1. Curious
          Curious 30 May 2018 21: 35
          +2
          Thank you, of course, but nobody seems to have encroached on me.
          1. Some kind of compote
            Some kind of compote 30 May 2018 22: 15
            +17
            but nobody seems to have encroached on me.

            And thank God! But a good word I hope anyone is pleased.
            However, you are right - you need to spend less time on the type of discussion. It is as if to nothing
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 30 May 2018 23: 38
              +1
              Yes, I'm generally here for a jester, I cling to the words and banter everyone in a row, regardless of regalia and proximity to the strengths of this site. But love and smart, little devil! Want to wrestle?
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 May 2018 23: 24
          +1
          3x3zsave, in turn, has its own history of dialogues with Viktor Nikolaevich, but, due to natural modesty and respect for experience and knowledge, he would consider it an honor that Viktor Nikolaevich consider him a friend.
          Dear Kompot, catch the difference?
          1. Some kind of compote
            Some kind of compote 31 May 2018 08: 09
            +16
            I'm not stuffing friends with anyone.
            Catch the difference?
            And a couple of words about the fact that blurted out above. Pasypkin’s work has unmatched value, and polystyrene is, so to speak, the “comments” of such abbreviations of numbers and letters.
  5. Deniska999
    Deniska999 30 May 2018 10: 18
    +3
    He is 117 years old, during which time more complete and detailed studies have probably appeared.
    1. XII legion
      XII legion 30 May 2018 12: 06
      +18
      Surely - not for sure.
      Firstly, the development of later ones is a big question. Moreover, later studies are usually based on previous ones.
      Secondly, the work is unique both in information and in the approach of the author. Some information is simply unique. I hope in the future this will be visible to everyone who is interested in Egyptology. And the look of a military man is worth a lot.
    2. kalibr
      kalibr 30 May 2018 12: 34
      +3
      Of course, we found a lot of new things. But the main texts ... they were already then. Bas-reliefs have not gone away since Champollion.
  6. sxfRipper
    sxfRipper 30 May 2018 10: 45
    +4
    To the author - A WONDERFUL and thanks! I look forward to continuing.
  7. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 30 May 2018 12: 08
    +16
    Excellent!
    Impatiently soldier
    waiting for continuation good
  8. kalibr
    kalibr 30 May 2018 12: 32
    +2
    These articles should be respected!
    1. XII legion
      XII legion 30 May 2018 12: 39
      +16
      But why only to such?
      There are other series of equally worthy materials.
      1. Some kind of compote
        Some kind of compote 30 May 2018 19: 07
        +17
        I especially liked (if we talk about a series of edged weapons)
        Varangian Guard of Byzantium ed. Veche. This work of A.V. Oleinikov not only survived 2 reprints (2015. and 2017), which is very rare for our time.
        And, like Posypkin’s work, it was built on a rich source base (Byzantine, Scandinavian, European and Armenian), and on works as old (eg Byzantinae hist. Script. P.1648 .; Vasilievsky V. G. Varyago-Russian squad in Constantinople Collected Works, T. I. St. Petersburg, 1908.), as well as by contemporary authors (e.g. Speidel MP Riding for Caesar: The Roman emperors horse quards. Cambridge, 1994 .; A. Mokhov, Military Transformations in the Byzantine Empire in the second half of the X-beginning of the XI centuries // News of the Ural State University. 2004. No. 31; Guillau A. Byzantine Civilization. Yekaterinburg, 2005; Rojas GAF “The English exodus to Ionia”: The identity of the anglo-saxon varangians in the service of Alexios Comnenos I (1081-1118). Marymount University, 2012.).
        So super!
        IN steers!
  9. Monarchist
    Monarchist 30 May 2018 18: 38
    0
    Quote: Warrior-80
    But they calculated how many days a year and could predict a solar eclipse

    About the fact that they subtracted how many days on the calendar and with an error of up to. THREE DAYS I have heard before, but to predict the renunciation of the eclipse is news to me
  10. Monarchist
    Monarchist 30 May 2018 18: 46
    +2
    Quote: Curious
    A few words about the author of the book.

    Pasypkin Evgeny Aleksandrovich - 1875, St. Petersburg. - 1941, Zemun (Serbia).
    Hereditary military. Father - Russian military engineer, Major General Pasypkin Alexander Mikhailovich, grandfather architect and builder, Major General Pasypkin Mikhail Alexandrovich.
    He graduated from the Alexander Cadet Corps (1892), the Konstantinovsky Military School (1894), served in the Life Guards. Pavlovsky regiment, lieutenant (1900), colonel (1916), historian, prose writer, author of the book “The Military Art of Ancient Egypt” (1901), a participant in the White Movement, emigrated, published a “historical and occult novel from the time of Ancient Egypt” “Light the winner ”(1925), died in Zemun (Serbia).
    Niece - Maria Dmitrievna Svishchevskaya - civil engineer, candidate of technical sciences.

    A dynasty of people who considered the development of science in the name of the Motherland their goal in life
  11. Monarchist
    Monarchist 30 May 2018 19: 26
    +1
    Kamrad Adjutant correctly said: "it is very informative and, most importantly, useful and clear." We are all used to the fact that Egypt is the tombs and pharaohs, the pharaohs waged frequent wars, but how was the Egyptian structure arranged, and look at the Egyptian army through the eyes of a military man?
    Friends, we are all used to reading: in such a command in a shaggy century, a battle or other was lost or lost, and who trained those commanders in what schools? We all know what the army is and we know the army is closely connected with science. So I thought now: how did they prepare and who prepared them?
    Given that with education it was tightly involuntarily remembered by their priests. Not without them.
    1. XII legion
      XII legion 30 May 2018 22: 12
      +16
      their priests remembered. Not without them.

      Of course it didn’t work
      but it was in Egypt that the officer corps was formed, which was being prepared in special institutions
  12. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 30 May 2018 21: 31
    +3
    Great stuff! And what a thorough study of maps!
  13. tlauicol
    tlauicol 31 May 2018 04: 22
    0
    XII legion,
    XII legion,
    here is a man, and, - claims about the movement of the round Earth in orbit, and he himself stubbornly cites the movement of the stars as evidence. Well, the Egyptians did not know about the Earth’s movement, what are you stuffing me with horoscopes !?
    1. XII legion
      XII legion 31 May 2018 08: 05
      +16
      Professor Markova writes that the Egyptians knew about the movement of the celestial bodies, that they created accurate catalogs of stars and maps of the starry sky and suggested that the constellations are in the sky day and night.
      I have no desire to stuff you, for God's sake
      1. XII legion
        XII legion 31 May 2018 08: 22
        +16
        The Soviet scientist N.P. Grushinsky, characterizing astronomical experiments (of the priests) (and the pyramids were also used for this), I quote
        Even 3 thousand years ago, Egyptian priests, very knowledgeable in astronomy, knew what the shape of the Earth was.
        .
        T. about. the views of the Greek Eratosthenes, too, were not based on an empty place.
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 31 May 2018 09: 30
          0
          Oh gods of Egypt! Will you show me that the earth is moving in orbit, as claimed or not? Or do we get to Copernicus?
          The land of the Egyptians is motionless. Dot. They did not predict spills with an accuracy of a day!
          1. XII legion
            XII legion 31 May 2018 09: 41
            +15
            I don’t have to show you anything.
            I wrote that
            Egyptians learned accurately determine the timing of sowing, ripening and harvesting grain. They created an accurate calendar, built on observation of celestial bodies. The whole year consisted of 365 days, it was divided into three seasons, each season had four months. The Egyptians also created accurate catalogs of stars and maps of the starry sky.

            that is, they predicted the spills of the Nile, without which
            timing of sowing, ripening and harvesting grain
            it is impossible to establish, because Neil stood in the fields for six months, and working on which was possible only after he left.
            И
            they knew what the shape of the earth was
            - i.e. spherical.
            The author of the first points is Professor A.N. Markov; the author of the second is the Soviet scientist P. I. Grushinsky.
            And who are you, you can find out? Maybe the star of the level of these specialists?
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol 31 May 2018 09: 47
              0
              Read your comment yesterday at 7:50
              1. XII legion
                XII legion 31 May 2018 10: 17
                +16
                Yes, I wrote that it is round (which is also confirmed by Grushinsky), but the sphere should move, isn’t it? But the fact that it moves in a certain orbit is that you attributed to me.
                On the other hand - isn't it your statement - that
                The earth is flat, the sky is a solid dome that rests on this plane
                although the priests knew that it was round.
                I. Finally, what about my question?
                And who are you, you can find out? Maybe the star of the level of these specialists?
                1. tlauicol
                  tlauicol 31 May 2018 12: 56
                  0
                  “And how could they know that our planet is round and moving along a certain trajectory” - I attributed this to you?
                  “Firstly, it’s not brought up that way - to deliberately deceive the interlocutor, even though not personally familiar. And secondly, I’m used to that every word is supported by something, but how else?” - Is that also?
                  As for Grushinsky, he writes without bothering himself with evidence. request However, he speaks of 1 thousand BC. (I immediately pointed out the form of the land "the Egyptians did not know at least until the Hellenes"). The calendar has existed for more than 3 thousand years before that - and all this time (and maybe further) they considered the earth flat. Well, about its movement it’s absolutely, excuse me ... "the sphere should move" - ​​it’s ridiculous good You want too much from a civilization that just got out of the Stone Age. science was still in its infancy
                  1. XII legion
                    XII legion 31 May 2018 14: 47
                    +15
                    "And how could they know that our planet is round and moves along a certain path"

                    Ask this question to P. I. Grushinsky, a leader of SOVIET science, and not to halam-balam. You didn’t find where he bothers himself with evidence, but he clearly states.
                    That is why it is true that
                    so not brought up - in order to deliberately deceive the interlocutor, although personally not familiar. and, secondly, I'm used to the fact that every word is at least something, but reinforced. Otherwise, how?

                    The calendar has existed for more than 3 thousand years before that - and all this time (and maybe further)
                    But it was the Egyptians who knew that it had 365 days.
                    And about that
                    The Egyptians learned to accurately determine the timing of sowing, ripening and harvesting grain. They created an accurate calendar, built on observation of the celestial bodies. The whole year consisted of 365 days, it was divided into three seasons, each season had four months. The Egyptians also created accurate catalogs of stars and maps of the starry sky.
                    - questions to Professor Makarova and to Moscow State University, which was a reviewer of her work. As you understand, far from a professor.
                    Finally this
                    You want too much from a civilization that just got out of the Stone Age. science was still in its infancy
                    and takes the minds of scientists. Indeed - what is the source of such a sharp and almost instantaneous surge of knowledge in this region? As if someone endowed with information and technology. Indeed, it is worth considering.