India is finalizing the space shuttle for the Chandrayan II moon mission. And what about Russia?

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The Indian press published material that Indian designers are engaged in the development of promising spacecraft that could be used in the implementation of interplanetary missions. In the edition The Times of India an article is published, which describes the development of "light ships". Their distinctive feature is that they should have the maximum possible, on the basis of the parameters, the craving, and that they will not take on large volumes of payload.

It is reported that such spacecraft can become effective when performing relatively short-term missions - for example, to the Moon or Mars. It was noted that promising spacecraft could become a kind of shuttle trams when communicating with the Chandrayan-II automatic interplanetary station. Earlier it was reported that the launch of Chandrayaan-II is scheduled for October this year.



It is noteworthy that initially this project was conceived as Russian-Indian, but then, as was the recent practice in Moscow and New Delhi, the paths of developers diverged, and India decided to focus on the project alone.

India is finalizing the space shuttle for the Chandrayan II moon mission. And what about Russia?


According to the Chandrayan-II program, it is planned that the system will have a descent module with a “Lunokhod / Mars Rover”. The descent vehicle must be separated from the orbital module at an altitude of about 100 km above the lunar surface.

From a message in an Indian newspaper:
The new spacecraft is not just a project of an “airplane” whose goal is to develop light ships using laser engines for an interplanetary mission. With the help of such light ships equipped with a high-speed laser engine, you can go to Mars as part of a short-term mission.


It is noted that in addition to power plants, life support systems for the crew of the ship are being developed. In particular, we are talking about the system of air circulation, as well as the oxygen supply system.

From the material:
In addition to the advanced cryogenic engine, a semi-cryogenic engine will be developed for 30 months for the improved GSLV-MK III mission, which will be used to launch satellites (shuttles) of class up to 5,5 tons.


Technological details of the laser power plant on board the moon shuttle is not given.

Characteristic Indian video about the project - link.

It is noted that the implementation of the program uses highly environmentally friendly materials and substances. In particular, we are talking about the "green" type of fuel, which should replace its toxic version when used in new type engines.

Recall that Roskosmos has repeatedly declared its interest in the development of the lunar program, including manned flights. No specific results have been heard so far.
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84 comments
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  1. +2
    25 May 2018 09: 54
    The Indians have recently begun to talk more and more often about Russia's non-fulfillment of obligations and deadlines.
    1. +14
      25 May 2018 10: 00
      For starters, they would have made a plane on their own, lunatics. Judging by their attitude to technology, kamikazes would board the shuttle, or they would offer elderly people instead of euthanasia.
      1. +7
        25 May 2018 10: 05
        Tryndet language do not toss the bags. wink
        Hindus are famous space explorers. laughing
        1. +1
          25 May 2018 10: 10
          What, too, I won’t understand, do they want to shoot a movie on the moon Bolivudsky? Cheaper barrel with gunpowder laughing
        2. +1
          25 May 2018 10: 27
          Known Hindus .. Damn conquerors ..
          Quote: For example
          Tryndet language do not toss the bags. wink
          Hindus are famous space explorers. laughing
        3. +4
          25 May 2018 10: 47
          Quote: For example
          Hindus are famous space explorers.

          Right When they launch their shuttle with laser engines and cryogenic, as well as semi-cryogenic power plants, they will have to solemnly meet them on the moon with the cries of "Baref Dzes, dear Chandrayan"
          It seems to me that after the change of power in sunny Armenia, part of its engineering and creative elite found its second home in no less sunny India. And the Indian Interplanetary Chess Congress is just around the corner.
      2. +11
        25 May 2018 10: 05
        And with Us, the Head of the Federation of Batutists - he headed Roscosmos! tongue
        1. +4
          25 May 2018 11: 14
          Quote: Hunter 2
          Head of the Federation of Batutists - headed by Roskosmos!

          And he does not know how to dance: "Jimmy, Jimmy, oops, oops ..." So in the span, Rogozin. laughing
          1. +1
            25 May 2018 15: 38
            Rogozin, IMHO, does not know much, but independent Indians are even less so. If Amer’s ears do not come out, you can put an end to this program. hi
          2. Alf
            +2
            25 May 2018 23: 11
            Quote: Mordvin 3
            So in flight, Rogozin.

            In the span will not be Rogozin, but the whole of Roskosmos.
      3. +6
        25 May 2018 10: 12
        Quote: SNEAKY
        For starters, they would have produced a plane on their own, lunatics.

        Once a year their GSLV Mk. ll flies and at the same time successfully, on March 29 the satellite put into geostationary orbit for example, there is still Mk. lll, last year they launched successfully, and the lightweight PSLV, this year two successful launches.
      4. 0
        25 May 2018 11: 08
        No, as an astronaut, a levitating yogi will participate in this program.
        But seriously, the undertaking with a laser engine is a failure, because it has not even been tested, and there is no need to talk about energy costs for its operation and its effectiveness. Easier on a solar sail)
      5. 0
        25 May 2018 11: 56
        fly on your vimanas
    2. Maz
      0
      25 May 2018 10: 17
      there is no need for India, China and Russia to build the lunar program together - everyone takes the lead, as a result, everyone will lose
  2. +4
    25 May 2018 10: 01
    they have competition with China, and we have tight finances ...
  3. +2
    25 May 2018 10: 01
    India is finalizing the space shuttle for the Chandrayan II moon mission. And what about Russia?
    What about the rest?
    1. +4
      25 May 2018 10: 23
      Americans have already reported, then they are not interested
  4. 0
    25 May 2018 10: 01
    And what about Russia? ... and what else is America and China? ... why won't the Hindus outperform? ... wait, sir ... maybe there’s no need to outdid it ... so far there are only declarations of intent.
  5. 0
    25 May 2018 10: 02
    In my opinion, India is too early to create such projects.
    1. 0
      25 May 2018 10: 07
      Quote: Heterocapsa
      In my opinion, India is too early to create such projects.

      We’ll see in October whether they launch or transfer
  6. +5
    25 May 2018 10: 02
    I watched the video .... it's full ... trash (speaking with an eye on moderators). Raj Kapoor on the moon ... how far we are from the Indians in understanding this world ... and it's great!
  7. +1
    25 May 2018 10: 15
    Hindus have much to strive for, on their territory, "vimans" flew before the birth of Christ. laughing
  8. +1
    25 May 2018 10: 16
    The USA, using terry corruption in India, is trying to drive wedges between Russia and Turkey. India suffers a lot from this, but those interested do not give a damn about it. If the program provides for the launch of shuttles with astronauts, then I would not risk traveling on a carrier of purely Indian design - the risk is too great ...
  9. 0
    25 May 2018 10: 20
    Quote: Puncher
    Quote: SNEAKY
    For starters, they would have produced a plane on their own, lunatics.

    Once a year their GSLV Mk. ll flies and at the same time successfully, on March 29, the satellite launched into geostationary orbit, for example.
    Yeah. Without Russian technology, they would only be making films in their dreams. Although men there are not jumping weakly, they can throw a girl in the shower cubicle to the moon laughing
  10. +2
    25 May 2018 10: 28
    In most cases, Russia silently or without a special pump does its work. While Ilon Mask launched his car on Mars, we silently conducted numerous tests of the new manned spacecraft, improved the Unions, and developed new engines. Of course, not everything is rosy, but the Indians would work under sanctions while building a large bridge, a floating nuclear power plant, building nuclear power plants to other countries, a bunch of icebreakers for themselves, containing two spaceports, developing new planes, helicopters, and several hundred little things ????
    1. +9
      25 May 2018 10: 39
      The start of Tesla was overshadowed by the fact of Falcon Heavy flight for most of us, they have been actively trying on our super-gravity for 20 years, and the train is still standing
      1. 0
        25 May 2018 10: 54
        Well flew so what? Our energy flew. The fact that he still has to prove superheavy, but putting tons into 3-4 orbit (with 16 declared along the same route) and pulling them somewhere in the direction of Mars is not proof. More like a fakoy farce.
        1. +6
          25 May 2018 11: 01
          So, we have lost the Energy technology, and about the Falcon-Heavy PN, it consists of the first three stages of the Falcon-9 and one second stage of the Falcon-9, and this carrier has already proved its PN for its dozens of flights. Withdrawing 5,2 tons for GPO with return, with a maximum of 5,5 tons for GPO with return.
          1. 0
            25 May 2018 11: 39
            So we have lost Energy Technologies.

            How do you get this, let me ask? Does the Angara-A5 PH architecture remind you of anything?
            Falcon-Heavy consists of three first steps Falcon-9 and one second step Falcon-9

            Accelerating blocks of our Angara were generally created as universal. That is, not alterations, not the fitting of one system into synchronous operation with the same, but the ready-made universal unit - put at least two, at least five.
            Withdrawing 5,2 tons of GPO with return, with max 5,5 tons of GPO with return.

            So what? Proton, too, for 50 years already proves the same thing. And the return of steps ... this is a rather dubious matter and has been discussed more than once here.
            1. +6
              25 May 2018 12: 07
              Quote: Wedmak
              And the return of steps ... this is a rather dubious matter and has been discussed more than once here.

              It was not discussed, but was rushed. Patriots do not see the point in reusable steps just because it was Musk who implemented it, not Roscosmos. And logic does not work here, only patriotism and faith in the inferiority of the United States.
              1. +3
                25 May 2018 12: 16
                Patriots do not see the point in reusable steps just because it was Musk who implemented it, not Roscosmos.

                In fact, the return steps were worked out in the USSR and were considered ineffective. Their troubleshooting takes a lot of time and even with full automation does not guarantee successful re-use - the requirements for the design of the LV are too high.
                1. +3
                  25 May 2018 12: 50
                  Quote: Wedmak
                  In fact, the return steps were worked out in the USSR and were considered ineffective.

                  Does this mean that they could not be mistaken?
                  Quote: Wedmak
                  Their troubleshooting is time consuming

                  No more than producing new ones.
                  Quote: Wedmak
                  does not guarantee successful reuse

                  All restarted Falcon9 steps worked normally, this is not a secret.
              2. 0
                25 May 2018 12: 50
                Quote: Puncher
                It was not discussed, but was rushed. Patriots do not see the point in reusable steps just because it was Musk who implemented it, not Roscosmos.

                This is a systemic question. Modern space rockets are so unreliable that it’s not about reuse, even if you can return the booster to Earth.
                1. +1
                  25 May 2018 12: 51
                  But B \ U Falconov has 100% reliability, according to statistics of launches
                  1. +2
                    25 May 2018 13: 06
                    Quote: BlackMokona
                    But B \ U Falconov has 100% reliability, according to statistics of launches

                    This does not mean that they will certainly fall! This means that defect and subsequent preflight training will cost more than the construction of a new launch vehicle.
                    1. 0
                      25 May 2018 14: 10
                      According to SpaceX, verification and preparation costs significantly less than 50% of the cost of the new one, and for a new modification, Block 5 takes 24 hours to complete the preparation.
                      1. 0
                        25 May 2018 15: 49
                        And how much is a new one?) You need to know what to take 50% from.
                    2. +2
                      25 May 2018 16: 19
                      troubleshooting of each stage after each return - this is only while statistics and knowledge are being developed ...
                      an airplane when a new model also goes through troubleshooting after each flight or a series of flights + a separate instance is being built for a vibration stand, etc. etc. (and now think of the possibility of launching aircraft and launch vehicles to generate statistics) ...
                      this is what, when I build up knowledge, improve missiles (where are weak points), build statistics then I DON'T NEED to carry out a troubleshooting every time (they will know after how many flights what part to change and when the body as a whole will begin to fall apart even without looking at it - statistics good thing).
                      and for this reason SpaceX is already ahead not by 5 but by as much as 10 years and even more, for others it seems almost impossible to develop statistics for reusability in such competition ...
                      1. 0
                        25 May 2018 16: 24
                        Quote: Topgun
                        the plane when the new model also goes through troubleshooting after each flight

                        The aircraft safety factor is two orders of magnitude higher, therefore, tolerances for troubleshooting are less strict.
            2. +1
              25 May 2018 12: 14
              1. High government officials said that hydrogen engine technology has been lost, etc.
              The hangar is already dying before our eyes, now a new idea in the form of Union-5 and its assemblies.
              2. Most versions of the Angara have already been canceled.
              3. The fact that max PN Falcon Heavy is an easy task based on ready-made data
              1. +2
                25 May 2018 12: 33
                High government officials claim hydrogen technology has been lost

                Not the technologies themselves, but the production technology of these engines - these are slightly different concepts.
                The hangar is already dying before our eyes, now a new idea in the form of Union-5 and its assemblies.
                Most versions of the Angara have already been canceled.

                I don’t know where you get the info. I've found news about the revision of the A5 version and the beginning of work on the heavy class. Given the modular principle of building a launch vehicle, this will not be delayed for a long time.
                https://ria.ru/science/20180405/1517992367.html
                About the entire Angara series: https://tvzvezda.ru/news/opk/content/201801281917
                -qhyv.htm
                The light version is also going to be made returnable, but on the wings, and not the engines. Development and super-heavy are underway.
                The fact that Max PN Falcon Heavy is an easy task based on ready-made data

                How will the start with the maximum load, then I will believe, but for now this is a gorgeous PR company.

                In Russia, unfortunately, there is not much money to file dozens of megaprojects with exhaust for the distant future.
                Your "beloved" Mask in general received NASA technologies and specialists on a silver platter, funding from there: he did not do long trials, alterations, upgrades, tests again. Nobody drove him into crisis, sanctions, did not put sticks in wheels. He took the finished and built the launch vehicle.
                1. +5
                  25 May 2018 12: 41
                  Not the technologies themselves, but the production technology of these engines - these are slightly different concepts.

                  Both. It’s easier to create a new rocket than to revive Energy.
                  I don’t know where you get the info. I've found news about the revision of the A5 version and the beginning of work on the heavy class. Given the modular principle of building a launch vehicle, this will not be delayed for a long time.

                  The hangar has long dragged on.
                  Flight tests even before 2025 will stretch according to the statement. And development began in 1995. Falcon-9 for comparison began to be developed in 2005 and already in 2010 Falcon-9 took off. And to date, 55 launches have already been made and 3 global upgrades and a bunch of small ones have been carried out.
                  Your "beloved" Mask in general received NASA technologies and specialists on a silver platter, funding from there: he did not do long trials, alterations, upgrades, tests again. Nobody drove him into crisis, sanctions, did not put sticks in wheels. He took the finished and built the launch vehicle.

                  No one has ever brought up what kind of specialists and what technologies. Since suddenly, NASA is not developing launch vehicles, engines and other things. This is done by individual commercial firms, Rocketdine, Lockheed, Boeing, etc. Who absolutely have no desire to share their pie and give any technology and specialists
              2. +2
                25 May 2018 16: 06
                1. Cryogenic engine technologies are developing successfully. Earlier, Energomash announced the creation of an LNG engine for the launch vehicle, a working prototype of such an engine is presented. In addition, it was also previously announced the creation of a hydrogen RB KVTK for the Angara launch vehicle by the year 2024 as part of the A5B project.

                2. It was planned three versions of the Angara launch vehicle - A1.2, A3 and A5. Version A7 - was proactive and was an opportunity to further upgrade the media. At the time of the decision on A3, its analogue of the Zenit rocket existed, so A3 was canceled. After the Zenit launch vehicle was shut down, the issue of returning to A3 was considered, but in this case the possibility of using the SK at Baikonur and at the Sea Launch was lost. Therefore, it was decided to replace the Zenit rocket with the Soyuz-5 missile with the best performance, but with the possibility of operation from the Zenit SC. Accordingly, the Ministry of Defense is currently testing A1.2 and A5 missiles, while continuing to operate the Proton-M launch vehicle for its airborne missiles. All new similar PN is created under the Angara launch vehicle. According to the statement of Roscosmos, the construction of the UMK Amur for the Angara launch vehicle at Vostochny under civilian launches will begin in June, a positive conclusion on the start of construction has already been received.
    2. +1
      25 May 2018 12: 44
      Quote: Wedmak
      In most cases, Russia silently or without a special pump does its work

      Recently, about the development of only news about curtailing work and lack of funds, in such matters pomp is unnecessary.
      Quote: Wedmak
      While Elon Musk launched his car on Mars

      Wake up, the end of May in the yard, after nine starts at the Mask already, including the new version of the F9 bl. 5, in a tenth week, and in August Dragon2 will fly, while the Federation which
      Quote: Wedmak
      silently conducted numerous tests of the new manned ship

      that nine years are tortured, only the aerodynamic tests have begun and the launch is planned in 2022.
      Quote: Wedmak
      but how would the same Indians work under sanctions, at the same time building a large bridge, a floating nuclear power plant, building nuclear power plants for other countries, a bunch of icebreakers for themselves, containing two spaceports, developing new planes, helicopters, and so on a few hundred more trifle projects ????

      India has been sanctioned more than once, so it won’t do it.
      1. 0
        25 May 2018 16: 09
        And where to rush with the "Federation"? Missiles for her yet. Now the Soyuz-MS operation is in excellent progress and ALL tasks by this ship are being carried out ..
    3. +1
      26 May 2018 06: 57
      Yeah, the Hindus also build aircraft carriers on trifles. It’s not necessary to upgrade the rocket alliance, but to test the rocket’s revolving stages, there was a wagon for their creation, it’s been launching its mask for a long time, we are slowly merging commercial space, and this is not a lot of money !!!, workplaces!!!
  11. +1
    25 May 2018 10: 29
    But we don’t need it !!! We need to invest money in defense, everything else is fun and show off. In Russia, workers receive a salary so that they do not die of hunger, the government wants to raise the retirement age because there is no money to support the elderly, etc. And where to get money for the lunar program? Again, raise taxes and gas prices? We do not need either Mars or the Moon !!!! And who needs it, let them invest their money!
  12. 0
    25 May 2018 10: 31
    They opened the "Vimanika Shastra" and the "advanced" technologies are shown on a carbon copy! And will these vimans be able to fly independently, without the help of Russia?
  13. +5
    25 May 2018 10: 32
    And what about Russia?
    And Russia, under the strict guidance of the under-journalist R. is finalizing a trampoline?
    1. +1
      25 May 2018 11: 06
      Farewell to international cooperation in space, farewell to manned space exploration, etc.
  14. +1
    25 May 2018 10: 43
    Launching people to the moon is expensive; robots are needed there. People are interesting on the moon only for testing the technology of settling Mars in the distant future.
    1. 0
      25 May 2018 11: 49
      On Mars, it will be simpler for people nevertheless, there is at least an atmosphere there. According to calculations, in the summer, at the equator, you can even go out in the usual autumn clothes, not forgetting to bring along a balloon with air for breathing. A good attraction for tourists would come out, by the way.
      1. 0
        25 May 2018 12: 12
        There is practically no atmosphere and the water boils at zero degrees Celsius. So you can’t do without a spacesuit.
        1. 0
          25 May 2018 12: 39
          I apologize about the clothes, I turned down, but it is quite possible to fight with a light spacesuit.
          1. 0
            25 May 2018 22: 50
            But do not forget that due to the weak ozone layer on Mars, a high level of radiation.
  15. +1
    25 May 2018 10: 45
    Indian designers are busy developing promising spacecraft that could be used in interplanetary missions.
    Trampoline means already built. laughing
    spaceships can become effective in performing relatively short-term missions - for example, to the moon or Mars.
    Well, the moon is still okay, but to Mars it’s a year there, a year back, a very short-term mission.
  16. 0
    25 May 2018 10: 55
    great cosmosode!
  17. +1
    25 May 2018 11: 00
    "The Indians came up with a good religion -
    That we, having given our ends, do not die for good ...
    But if stupid, like a tree, you will be born a baobab
    And you will be a baobab for a thousand years while you die. "(V. Vysotsky)
  18. 0
    25 May 2018 11: 00
    Recall that Roskosmos has repeatedly declared its interest in the development of the lunar program, including manned flights. No specific results have been heard so far.

    probably, as usual, will be announced from the moon. the country also knew nothing about the first satellite and man.
  19. +1
    25 May 2018 11: 00
    The Indian state system is not effective.
    1. AUL
      +2
      25 May 2018 14: 17
      What about Russian?
  20. DPN
    +3
    25 May 2018 11: 09
    And what about Russia? -Plodit oligarchs and rising prices, and space is the past and forgotten as the Soviet Union and the current generation will not fly anywhere!
  21. 0
    25 May 2018 11: 09
    I don’t think that they can cope without Russian participation. Too irresponsible people. Either surrender or lose the carrier.
  22. +1
    25 May 2018 11: 12
    Neighing from the headline. And do not say that this is not funny ... Indians ... shuttle ... space .... if only on vivams from the brahmaputra ..... Where do they have technology based on materials for a start ????? DO NOT MAKE ME LAUGH!
    1. 0
      25 May 2018 11: 41
      yes here apparently the entire audience of the portal neighing laughing
    2. 0
      25 May 2018 11: 42
      Yes, they are not the first ... recently, Turkey was going to overtake Russia in space. Chet did not even see them at the start, probably something did not take into account.
    3. +1
      25 May 2018 12: 03
      Quote: Kent0001
      Neighing from the headline. And do not say that this is not funny ... Indians ... shuttle ... space .... if only on vivams from the brahmaputra ..... Where do they have technology based on materials for a start ????? DO NOT MAKE ME LAUGH!

      India had three launches this year, the Russian Federation six.
      What's so funny?
      1. 0
        25 May 2018 12: 25
        don’t you find that launching a satellite into orbit and flying to the moon and beyond are somewhat different things?
        1. 0
          25 May 2018 12: 41
          Some have already made a film with the lunar program and an empty medium ... well, in the end, keep up with the same lol
      2. 0
        25 May 2018 12: 27
        What’s so funny? If all of a sudden they stop selling technology to them, then with their brains, at best, steam engines will install shuttles on the shuttle! But again, then sell them coal laughing
  23. 0
    25 May 2018 12: 58
    We plan to create a nuclear tug by 2025.
    1. 0
      25 May 2018 13: 02
      Which for a long time according to plans was supposed to fly. But transfers.
      “Ferry” is a reusable interorbital tug designed at RSC Energia [1] since 2000 and which was to become a replacement for the Progress-type disposable transport spacecraft. [2] It was conceived as a means of delivering cargo to the ISS [3] and the orbits of other planets and interacting with the Federation ship. [4]

      The Russian space corporation Energia planned to launch the first interorbital tug of the Ferry type in space in 2009, however, since 2006 [8], there have been no official announcements and publications on the development of this project [9] [10].

      1. 0
        25 May 2018 16: 32
        The tug "Ferry" was canceled back in 2006. Work on the PTK NP "Federation" began in 2011. Where did they get “interaction" from ?!
        1. 0
          25 May 2018 17: 44
          Projects are canceled and revived at the request of the left heel
          1. 0
            25 May 2018 19: 35
            No, there are good reasons. The "ferry" was not on its own.
  24. +1
    25 May 2018 13: 02
    And what good is the country from manned flights to the moon? The same epotage as the World Cup, the Olympics, etc. We need to be a little more pragmatic, develop astronautics in the direction of practical orientation, reduce the cost of satellite output and increase reliability, conduct various experiments in orbit, but when profit comes from this, then send it to R&D in the form of flights to Mars, the moon, etc. etc., and it’s better to do this with some sort of a country of addiction. In addition, our country is already participating in a number of ambitious projects, and financing is not going smoothly, so if I choose a priority, then I personally would prefer the allocation of large resources towards tokamaks and peaceful thermonuclear fusion, that’s where the revolution in industry or in side of the AI.
  25. 0
    25 May 2018 14: 09
    Quote: Wedmak
    So we have lost Energy Technologies.

    How do you get this, let me ask? Does the Angara-A5 PH architecture remind you of anything?
    Falcon-Heavy consists of three first steps Falcon-9 and one second step Falcon-9


    Angara is kerosene, and Energy is on hydrogen. The difference is fundamental. Lost the entire infrastructure of liquid hydrogen.
    1. 0
      25 May 2018 16: 33
      The new "hydrogen" infrastructure is planned to be implemented at the Amur USK.
      1. 0
        26 May 2018 09: 41
        Are you talking about RD-0150, which is 4 times more powerful than RD-0146 (RN Angara) and 4 times less powerful than RD-0120 (RN Energy)?
        1. 0
          26 May 2018 14: 11
          This is, first of all, for KVTK.
  26. 0
    25 May 2018 18: 36
    Quote: taiga2018
    they have competition with China, and we have tight finances ...

    I forgot about brains and industry
  27. 0
    26 May 2018 07: 27
    such spaceships can become effective in performing relatively short-term missions - for example, to the moon or Mars.
    Is this a short-term mission to Mars? Or do they measure the duration of flights on a galactic scale?
    With the help of such light ships equipped with a high-speed laser engine ...
    Is that a photon rocket?
    When implementing the program, highly environmentally friendly materials and substances are used. In particular, we are talking about a "green" type of fuel, which should replace its toxic version when used in engines of a new type.
    How is that? If this is an interplanetary shuttle, then what could it pollute there? Vacuum? So I see the slogans: Stop the pollution of the universe !!! No emissions to interplanetary space!
  28. +2
    26 May 2018 08: 12
    70 ... USSR in space and India prays, 2010е Russia prays and India flies into space
  29. 0
    26 May 2018 18: 50
    just a fairy tale, well, we smoked again, sleepwalkers ...

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