War of the worlds or war with ignorance?
Why do points of view change?
And I took this nonsense from ... my own lecture about the wonders and mysteries of ancient civilizations, which I read as a lecturer at the Komsomol OK in summer field camps for students and collective farmers and, I must say, not without success. Yes, yes, at that time they were also interested in it, although not in such volumes as now. But, having become older, I began to take the hypotheses more seriously, both my own and, first of all, to strangers, and most importantly - I began to try first to find out all the available information on this or that issue, and only then express my opinion. And to find out not only what corresponds to my point of view, but also what is opposite to it. Arguments both for and against!
Temple of the Inscriptions in the city of Palenque. Pyramid.
Today we are experiencing a departure from totalitarian, that is, universal and verified points of view and the rejection of like-mindedness, and this is good. But as always in any process there is good, but there are "side effects". One of them was the spread of all kinds of delusional theories, popular among people with low levels of knowledge and intelligence (and, alas, there are many), which, however, with persistence worthy of a better application, promote them everywhere and all. And all the evils, as is well known, stem from incomplete knowledge and more ... from poverty. I saw that Deniken showed you or Muldashev there and ... believed. And go and see all the money itself is not enough. Work with old maps in the archives of the Maritime Museum in Barcelona? Languages, like Chapaev, are not trained. So it turns out - incomplete knowledge, making a person with an unstable psyche vulnerable. Well, examples of how the information is supplied by the adherents of "secret knowledge" is darkness. But today we will touch only one thing: the famous plate from the Temple of Inscriptions in Palenque, about which sometimes things are said to be most amazing.
Temple of the Inscriptions. Actually, the temple.
And it was like this that in 1948, the Mexican archeologist Alberto Ruz found in the jungle of the Mexican state of Chiapas the ruins of the ancient Mayan city of Palenque (Spanish - Fortress), and in it there is a high pyramid with a temple at the top, called the Temple of Inscriptions. And it was so named because its walls were once decorated with huge plates with numerous bas-reliefs and 620-th hieroglyphic inscriptions, some of which have survived to this day. What they say is still not fully understood, because the combination of picture-words and phonetic symbols has not yet been fully explained. However, it is obvious that they belong to epochs that are thousands of years distant from us and contain narrations about people and gods participating in events. stories Mayan. By the way, the city was abandoned already in the years of the Spanish conquest. Cortes and other Spanish conquistadors did not write anything about him and clearly did not know about this city. Europeans did not know anything about the existence of this city hidden in the jungle until the 1746 year.
The main square of the city of Palenque. The Temple of the Inscriptions on the left.
The temple itself is built on a nine-stage 20-meter pyramid, while its rear side rests on the steep slope of the mountain. When Ruz discovered it, the pyramid with the Temple of the Inscriptions looked like a hill overgrown with vegetation, so it took a huge mass of earth to move before it appeared before the archaeologists completely.
The temple is inside. Now I understand why he was called so?
The floor of the Temple of Inscriptions covers large and well-polished stone slabs. Archaeologists immediately noticed one of them, since there were two rows of holes on it, covered with stone traffic jams. Moreover, the massive walls of the temple lay on the floor, and went somewhere deep. This led them to the idea that under this stone flooring there could be some other structure. Alberto Ruz immediately began to dig and found an underground passage going deep into the pyramid, and, having reached the very "bottom" in 1952, he realized that there was a crypt with a burial.
Underpass inside the pyramid.
It was about 9 meters long and 4 meters wide, and its high, vaulted ceiling went up almost 7 meters. The design of this underground room was so perfect that its preservation turned out to be almost perfect even after a thousand years. The stones of the walls and the vault were hewn with such art that not one of them fell from its place. The walls of the crypt were decorated with plaster bas-reliefs: nine richly dressed figures, apparently, symbolized the Lords of the Night (in Mayan theology, deities from the underworlds). They were dressed in lush costumes, surprisingly similar to each other: hats from the long feathers of the quetzal bird, fancy masks, cloaks of feathers and jade plates, skirts or loincloths with a belt, sandals made of leather straps. The neck, chest, hands and legs of these figures were literally humiliated with various precious ornaments. On the high position of these characters spoke scepters with a handle in the form of a serpent's head, masks of the god of rain and round shields depicting the god of the sun.
“They were all aliens!” The bas-reliefs of the Temple of the Inscriptions.
The floor of the crypt is almost entirely covered with a rectangular slab of size 3,8x2,2 m and thickness 0,25 m, entirely covered with fine carvings. The edges of the stone slab were bordered by a ribbon of hieroglyphs. Later Rus deciphered two calendar dates. They corresponded to 603 and 633. n e. As for the plate itself, it is rightly recognized as one of the most outstanding works of art of the Maya. For the highest technique of execution it is compared with the works of European masters of the Renaissance.
Here it is a stove! But so look at her wrong. (National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico)
Under the slab, archaeologists have found the burial of a man of forty or fifty, in abundance furnished with ornaments of precious jade. Who was that? The ruler of the city? The great priest, and so great that they decided to bury him first and only then build a pyramid and a temple over him? Who knows…
Right to look at it like this!
What do historians say?
One of the first description of the tombstone found in the pyramid was given by the Soviet historian V. Gulyaev. And he saw on it this: “In the lower part a terrible mask is drawn, already with its appearance reminding of death: jaws and nose devoid of soft tissues, huge empty eye sockets and bare fangs. The top of this mask is crowned with four images, two of which symbolize death, and the other two, on the contrary, suggest the idea of birth and life (a grain of corn and something resembling its ear or some flower). At the top of this monster sits, leaning back, a young handsome man in a rich headdress, decorated with jewels. He is intensely looking in the direction of a strange crosshair subject, which is most likely a stylized image of the maize germ, which is revered in Mayan culture. Finally, at the top of this cornfly sits the sacred bird quetzal, the long feathers of which were considered the privilege of the rulers and Mayan priests. And below are the symbols of water and two disks, which show the masks of the sun god. ” However, he did not notice that the character depicted on the stove is very similar to the reconstruction of a jade mask covering the face of the deceased. But then others noticed it.
Plate inside the tomb. Original.
“Bad examples” are always contagious!
And this fact and pushed two scientists - Italian Pinotti and Japanese Matsumura (independently of each other), on the same thought, and crazy thought, that if a real person is depicted on a plate, then real objects surround him too. and not some kind of mystical symbols. After this, the “development” of this idea automatically led them to the conclusion that the drawing on the plate is a detailed ... drawing of a certain spacecraft! “Bad examples” are said to be very infectious, and soon Russian scientist V. Zaitsev joined their company, and American aircraft designer J. Sanderson even laid a reproduction of the pattern from the plate into a computer and gave him a “command” to convert the flat image into a three-dimensional one. So it turned out the cabin of the spacecraft with the control panel and the engine, spewing flame. At the same time, Sanderson also supplemented his computer printouts with several strokes, depicting, in addition, also the external casing of the carrier rocket, which is absent in the image on the slab!
The slab, and under it the sarcophagus. Reconstruction. (Palenque Museum)
As always, Daniken didn’t do without ...
But this idea was best known in the interpretation of the famous Swiss writer Erich von Daniken. In his book, The Chariots of the Gods, he stated that the mysterious figure in the center of the lid is an astronaut who sits in the cabin of a starship, and the book has become a real bestseller. Moreover, without further thinking of the evil one, he arranged the drawing not vertically, but horizontally, and he immediately “spoke” exactly as he wanted!
Volume drawing of the image on the plate.
“In the middle of the drawing,” Daniken writes, “is a seated person leaning forward. On his head is a helmet, from which the halts or hoses are pulled back. A device resembling an oxygen apparatus is located in front of the face. His hands are manipulating control devices. He presses the button or key with his right hand and squeezes the lever with his left (this is confirmed by the fact that the thumb is not visible in the figure). The heel of the left foot rests on the pedals. It is noteworthy that the “Indian” is dressed very modernly. He has a sweater collar around his neck. Sleeves end in knitted elastic cuffs. On a waist a safety belt with a buckle. Pants fit legs like leggings. And after all, modern astronauts dress like this when they are not in spacesuits ”.
Facts versus hypothesis
However, even earlier, namely in the 1968 year, the Soviet science fiction writer A. Kazantsev set forth the same hypothesis in detail in the pages of the magazine "Technology - Youth". But if we turn to real facts, they will not be in favor of supporters of all these cosmic hypotheses. We should start with the fact that both in the Daniken book and in the article of A. Kazantsev, the images on the stone slab - the lid of the sarcophagus from the Temple of Inscriptions - are given in a highly distorted form. The vast spaces of its carved surface were deliberately flooded with black paint, many of the characteristic details are blurred, and the individual parts of the picture (in fact, never connected to each other!) Are connected by a solid line. But the most important thing is the perspective in which they portrayed the lid of the sarcophagus: in order to give their “astronaut” a more natural posture (forward bend, etc.), both authors deliberately placed the image in the wrong, transverse position, whereas standing at its bottom, that is, the end part.
Judging by the sculptures and bas-reliefs, the Mayans were very fond of depicting symbols of death ... She can be said to be just “my dear mother”.
As a result of this distortion, many details of the sculptural composition - the quetzal bird, the mask of the earth deity, etc. - appear before the viewer in a completely unnatural form: upside down or sideways. If you look at the relief of the sarcophagus correctly, then we will see that the young man depicted there is sitting, significantly leaning back, on his back and looking intently up at the cruciform object. The young man is not dressed in "checkered pants", as Daniken writes, - their Maya did not know, but only in a loincloth. The body, arms and legs of the young man are naked, although they are decorated with bracelets and beads made from jade plates. Finally, all the main elements of the image from the cover of the sarcophagus from the Temple of the Inscriptions - the cross ("tree of life") with a bird above, a mask of the monster of the earth, etc. are presented in different variations and in a number of other temples of Palenque.
The device is a tomb inside the pyramid of the Temple of the Inscriptions.
But the most important argument in favor of the fact that the stranger is not depicted on the slab is connected with our simple logic, which we dislike. Well, pray tell, to whom, if he were at least three times a stranger from space, would it be necessary to show the Indian savages a drawing of their spaceship, and most importantly, while still explaining this to them so that they would understand it? Well, is not it nonsense to assume that? “Do not tag the beads before the pigs, and do not trample it with your feet!” - it is written in the Bible, and it is precisely this, I think, that all is said once and for all!
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