KGB against policemen: how they caught Hitler's punishers

During the Great Patriotic War in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe, the Nazis and their henchmen from among the local traitors committed many war crimes against civilians and captured military personnel. The volleys of Victory in Berlin have not yet been heard, and the Soviet state security agencies already had an important and rather difficult task - to investigate all the crimes of the Hitlerites, to identify and detain the perpetrators, to bring them to justice.

The search for Nazi war criminals began during the Great Patriotic War and is not completed to this day. After all, there are no time limits and statutes of limitations for the atrocities that were committed by the Nazis on Soviet soil. As soon as the Soviet troops liberated the occupied territories, operational and investigative agencies immediately began to work on them, first of all, counterintelligence of Smersh. Thanks to the Sirshevi, as well as servicemen and police officers, a large number of Nazi Germany’s accomplices among the local population were identified.

Former policemen received criminal convictions under Article 58 of the USSR Criminal Code and were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment, usually from ten to fifteen years. Since the country ravaged by the war needed workers' hands, the death penalty was applied only to the most notorious and odious executioners. Many policemen spent their time and returned home in the 1950-e - 1960-e. But some of the collaborators managed to avoid arrest, posing as civilians or even attributing heroic biographies of participants in World War II as part of the Red Army.

For example, Pavel Aleksashkin commanded the punitive unit of policemen in Belarus. When the USSR won the Great Patriotic War, Aleksashkin was able to hide his personal involvement in war crimes. For the service of the Germans he was given a short time. After being released from the camp, Aleksashkin moved to the Yaroslavl Region, and soon, with courage, began to impersonate a veteran of World War II. Having managed to obtain the necessary documents, he began to receive all the privileges required for veterans, from time to time he was awarded orders and medals, he was invited to speak to schools in front of Soviet children - to talk about his military path. And the former Hitler punisher lied without a twinge of conscience, attributing to himself other people's exploits and carefully concealing his true face. But when the security authorities required Aleksashkin's testimony in the case of one of the war criminals, they made a request at the place of residence and found that the former policeman was pretending to be a veteran of World War II.

KGB against policemen: how they caught Hitler's punishers

One of the first trials of Hitlerite war criminals took place on 14 — 17 on July 1943 of the year in Krasnodar. The Great Patriotic War was still in full swing, and in the Krasnodar cinema "Velikan" the trial of the eleven Nazi accomplices from the SS team "10" was underway. More than 7 thousands of civilians of Krasnodar and the Krasnodar Territory were destroyed in the gas vans. The direct leaders of the massacres were the officers of the German Gestapo, but executioners were executed by local traitors.

Vasily Petrovich Tishchenko, born 1914, went to serve in the occupying police in August 1942, then became a senior officer of the SS SSN team “10”, later - a Gestapo investigator. Nikolai Semenovich Pushkarev, born 1915, served as a squadron commander, Ivan Anisimovich Rechkalov, born 1911, evaded mobilization in the Red Army, and after joining the German troops he joined the Sonderkommando. Grigoriy Nikitich Misan, 1916, born, was also a volunteer policeman, as well as Ivan Fedorovich Kotomtsev, who was previously convicted, 1918, born. In torture and executions of Soviet citizens participated Yunus Mitsuhovich Naptsok, born 1914; Ignaty Kladov, born 1911; Mikhail Pavlovich Lastovina, born 1883; Grigori Petrovich Tuchkov, born 1909; Vasily Stepanovich Pavlov, born 1914; Ivan Ivanovich Paramonov, born 1923 The trial was quick and fair. 17 July 1943, Tishchenko, Rechkalov, Pushkarev, Naptsok, Misan, Kotomtsev, Kladov and Lastovina were sentenced to death and July 18 1943 were hanged on the central square of Krasnodar. Paramonov, Tuchkov and Pavlov received 20 years of imprisonment.

However, the other participants of the 10 sunder team then managed to avoid punishment. Twenty years passed before a new trial was held over the Hitlerite minions - the executioners who killed the Soviet people - in Krasnodar in the autumn of 1963. Nine people appeared before the court - former policemen Alois Weikh, Valentin Skripkin, Mikhail Yeskov, Andrei Sukhov, Valerian Surguladze, Nikolai Zhirukhin, Emelyan Buglak, Uruzbek Dzampaev, Nikolai Psarev. All of them took part in the massacres of civilians in the Rostov region, Krasnodar Territory, Ukraine, Belarus.

Before the war, Valentin Skripkin lived in Taganrog, was a promising football player, and with the start of the German occupation, he signed up as a policeman. He hid until the 1956 year, before the amnesty, and then legalized, worked at the bakery. It took six years of painstaking work for the KGB to establish: Skripkin personally participated in the many murders of the Soviet people, including in the terrible slaughter in Zmievskoy gully in Rostov-on-Don.

Mikhail Yeskov was a Black Sea sailor, a member of the defense of Sevastopol. Two sailors in a trench at Pesochnaya Bay stood against German wedges. One sailor died and was buried in a mass grave, forever remaining a hero. Eskova contused. So he got to the Germans, and then out of hopelessness entered the service in the platoon of the sonderkommando and became a war criminal. In 1943, he was arrested for the first time — for serving in German auxiliary units, they were given ten years. In the 1953 year, Eskov was freed to sit down again in the 1963 year.

Nikolai Zhirukhin worked with 1959 for a year as a teacher in one of the Novorossiysk schools, in 1962 he graduated from 3 by correspondence at the Pedagogical Institute. He "split" by his own stupidity, believing that after the amnesty of 1956, he was not expected to be responsible for serving the Germans. Before the war, Zhirukhin worked in the fire department, then he was mobilized from 1940 to 1942. served as a clerk of the garrison guardhouse in Novorossiysk, and during the offensive of the German troops ran to the side of the Nazis. Andrei Sukhov, in the past - a veterinary medical assistant. In 1943, he fell behind the Germans in the Tsimlyansk region. He was detained by the Red Army soldiers, but Sukhov was sent to the penal battalion, then he was reinstated as a senior lieutenant of the Red Army, reached Berlin, and after the war he lived quietly as a veteran of the Second World War and worked in the militarized guards in Rostov-on-Don.

After the war, Alexander Veikh worked in the Kemerovo Region at the timber industry enterprise - sawmill. A tidy and disciplined employee was even chosen in the local. But one thing surprised colleagues and fellow villagers - for eighteen years he never left the village. Valerian Surguladze was arrested right on the day of his own wedding. A graduate of the sabotage school, a fighter of the 10-a Sonderkommando and a platoon commander of the SD, Surguladze was responsible for the deaths of many Soviet citizens.

Nikolai Psarev entered the service of the Germans in Taganrog - himself, voluntarily. At first he was a battalion with a German officer, then he ended up in the Sonderkommando. Being in love with the German army, he didn’t even want to repent of the crimes committed by him when he, who worked as a construction superintendent at Chimkent, was arrested twenty years after that terrible war. Yemelyan Buglak was arrested in Krasnodar, where he settled after years of wandering around the country, finding that there was nothing to fear. Uruzbek Dzampaev, who sold hazelnuts, was the most restless among all the detained policemen and, as it seemed to the investigators, even with some relief was concerned with his own arrest. October 24 1963 was the death sentence of all the defendants in the 10 Sunder Team case. Eighteen years after the war, deserved punishment still found executioners who personally killed thousands of Soviet citizens.

The Krasnodar 1963 process of the year was far from the only example of the condemnation of the Nazi executioners even many years after the victory in the Great Patriotic War. In 1976, in Bryansk, one of the local residents accidentally identified Nikolai Ivanin, the former head of the Lokot prison, in a passing man. The policeman was arrested, and he, in turn, reported interesting information about a woman for whom security officers had been hunting for since the war - about Antonin Makarova, better known as “Tonka-machine gunner”.

The former nurse of the Red Army, “Tonka-machine-gunner” was captured, then she fled, wandered through the villages, and then went to the service of the Germans. She has at least 1500 lives of Soviet prisoners of war and civilians. When the Red Army captured Koenigsberg in 1945, Antonina disguised herself as a Soviet nurse, got a job at a field hospital, where she met soldier Viktor Ginzburg and soon married him, changing her last name. After the war, Ginzburg settled in the Belarusian city of Lepel, where Antonina got a job at a sewing factory as a product quality inspector.

The real surname of Antonina Ginzburg - Makarova became known only in 1976, when her brother, who lived in Tyumen, filled out a questionnaire for traveling abroad and indicated the name of her sister - Ginzburg, nee - Makarova. This fact interested the bodies of state security of the USSR. Observation of Antonina Ginzburg lasted more than a year. Only in September 1978, she was arrested. 20 November 1978 of the year Antonina Makarova was sentenced to death and 11 of August 1979 was shot by the court. The death sentence for Antonina Makarova was one of three death sentences for women imposed in the Soviet Union in the post-Stalin era.

Years and decades passed, and security forces continued to identify executioners who were responsible for the death of Soviet citizens. The work of identifying Nazi henchmen demanded maximum attentiveness: after all, the innocent could get under the "flywheel" of the state punitive machine. Therefore, in order to eliminate all possible errors, every potential suspect candidate was monitored for a very long time before the decision to detain was made.

Antonina Makarov was led by the KGB for more than a year. At first, they set up a meeting with a disguised KGB officer who started a conversation about the war, about where Antonina served. But the woman did not remember the names of military units and the names of the commanders. Then they brought one of the witnesses of her crimes to the factory where the “Tonka-machine-gunner” worked, and she was watching from the window and was able to identify Makarova. But this identification was not enough for the investigators. Then brought two more witnesses. Makarov was summoned to his office, ostensibly to recalculate pensions. One of the witnesses was sitting in front of a police officer and identified the criminal, the second one, who played the role of a female security officer, also unequivocally stated that in front of her was “Tonka-machine-gunner”.

In the middle of 1970's. The first trials of policemen guilty of the destruction of Khatyn took place. The judge of the Military Tribunal of the Belarusian Military District Viktor Glazkov learned the name of the main participant of the atrocities - Grigory Vasyura. A man with the same name lived in Kiev, worked as deputy director of the state farm. For Vasura established observation. Respectable Soviet citizen posing as a veteran of the Great Patriotic War. However, the investigators found witnesses to Vasiur’s crimes. Former Nazi punisher arrested. As he did not unlock, but the fault of 72-year-old Vasyura managed to prove. At the end of 1986, he was sentenced to death and soon shot forty-one years after the Great Patriotic War.

Back in 1974, almost thirty years after the Great Victory, a group of tourists from the United States of America arrived in Crimea. Among them was an American citizen Fedor Fedorenko (in the photo). His personality was interested in the security organs. It was found out that during the war years Fedorenko served as a security guard in the Treblinka concentration camp in Poland. But there were many guards in the camp and not all of them personally participated in the killings and torture of Soviet citizens. Therefore, the identity of Fedorenko began to study in more detail. It turned out that he not only protected the prisoners, but also killed and tortured the Soviet people. Fedorenko was arrested and extradited to the Soviet Union. In 1987, Fedor Fedorenko was shot, although at that time he was already 80 years old.

Now the last veterans of the Great Patriotic War are passing away, already very elderly people - and those whose share in childhood has been frightened by being subjected to Nazi war crimes. Of course, the policemen themselves are very old - the youngest of them are the same age as the youngest veterans. But even such a respectable age should not be a guarantee against accountability.
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  1. +5
    22 May 2018 06: 11
    Many police officers served their sentences and returned home in the 1950s and 1960s.

    In the mother’s village and in the neighboring (Smolensk region) after the Second World War there were only two adult healthy men who had offended police officers. There were two more people with disabilities, Finnish and WWII .......
    1. +1
      23 May 2018 14: 43
      Quote: Olgovich
      Many police officers served their sentences and returned home in the 1950s and 1960s.

      And people like Dobrobaba were also offended for the fact that they were given a term, the awards were not returned, They cried for the whole world and unfortunately they knocked out a tear for many. To this day there are enough mourners for the "innocent victim"
  2. +20
    22 May 2018 06: 23
    In Ukraine, a new generation of war criminals has grown up - it will be someone to hang and shoot, they have already served themselves in such sentences.
    1. +2
      23 May 2018 04: 35
      The Ukrainians themselves will try to clean them very soon. The first wave was already there. We grind the most zealous on the Donbas. Those that remained, the small punks, the gorlopans and the cunning, didn’t tear to the front line. Without the support of NATO troops, there will be no significant changes on the fronts of the Donbas. And the Yankees have clearly stated that they will not fight Russia over Ukraine. Still, the world war is not such a profitable business. Provocations will be, that’s yes. But that's all.
    2. MrK
      23 May 2018 12: 16
      Quote: LeonidL
      A new generation of war criminals has grown in Ukraine

      I agree. Moreover, Nazism cannot be stopped with sweet buns. It can be stopped only by dirty Russian chuny in their sleek snouts. Like in 1945. And our leadership is all posing as a cat Leopold - chopped, let's live together. I’m afraid that we will have to take Kiev to evict Ragul selyuk from there. But after the World Cup. Surkov did everything for this.
    3. +1
      24 May 2018 20: 57
      I completely agree, but there is no need to shoot, ammunition must be protected, but HANGING is yes, moreover, in public and in the squares.
  3. +9
    22 May 2018 08: 36
    b Antonina Makarova, better known as the “Tonka-machine-gunner”.

    ,,, there was a TV show on Channel One, called the Executioner, the executioner was the killer who personally shot the 1500 man, without any remorse, turned into a positive hero in the series, saying that it’s not us who live like that and the Soviet power turns out to be the cause what a man was brought to! fool
    1. +4
      22 May 2018 13: 55
      Write nonsense, she is NOT a good hero in the series, no need to invent
      1. +3
        22 May 2018 17: 16
        Have you watched the series? In it, Tonka the Machine Gunner is constantly justified (the main point is that the girl was good, but her circumstances led to this). Therefore, we must understand and forgive.
        1. +1
          22 May 2018 18: 10
          Looked. They gave the character a little bulge so that it was not completely flat and not smeared with one paint. And so no one is born a villain, always a person somehow comes to the side of evil.
  4. +2
    22 May 2018 09: 57
    It is necessary to understand the concept of a traitor, because if the initial enemy of the state or government, if possible, switched to the service of their enemies, this is not a traitor, it is a constant enemy. A traitor, when he served the state or authorities, for reasons of personal security or self-interest, goes over to the side of the enemy - this is a traitor and everyone is always despised ...
    1. +3
      22 May 2018 10: 45
      Quote: Vladimir 5
      if the original enemy of the state or government, if possible, switched to the service of their enemies

      The enemy cannot go to the enemies, he is the enemy.
      Quote: Vladimir 5
      A traitor, when serving the state or authority,

      Many traitors were not serving the state or government. The same criminals.

      Something you do with the wording is not very. For me, traitors are those who lived in peace among us and in difficult times for the Motherland, went over to the enemy. It can be both employees and so forth, and ZK.
      1. 0
        22 May 2018 12: 00
        Boris 55. According to the wording, the enemy of power did not previously cooperate with the external enemies of the government and the state (sometimes such external enemies were allies for some time, like Germany until 1941.06.22). Accordingly, cooperation began in fact, and with various external enemies. But the internal enemy remained such an enemy and served the external enemy. Talk about betrayals, and betrayal, when an ally or his citizen begins to serve the enemy ... Prisoners from the USSR, as a rule, did not cooperate with the Germans, of course there are always exceptions. And the criminals were not implacable enemies of power (in the USSR, because they lived well before the war), only the internal structures of power ...
    2. +3
      22 May 2018 11: 51
      Quote: Vladimir 5
      Need to make out the concept of a traitor

      The traitor, as applied to the discussion of this article, is the one who, being a citizen of his country, deliberately acts against its interests. And absolutely indifferently, a man became a traitor for reasons of personal gain or ideological reasons, for his people he is an enemy who does not deserve leniency. Should the political opposition be considered traitors? Not every oppositionist is a traitor and not every traitor is an oppositionist. Here you need to understand specifically in each case. The selection criterion is the desire to bring concrete harm to one’s country or one’s people.
      1. -1
        22 May 2018 13: 56
        You are right: "you will be judged according to deeds." But the article is about traitors in the Second World War, that's all the cheese is about them ... According to this, the enemy is the enemy and it can be understood, but the traitor, another category, is despised, and all under one comb is legally not right ...
  5. +2
    22 May 2018 10: 41
    It’s only with the Bandera’s that a clear KGB flaw was revealed, too many of them remained intact and have now appeared in Ukraine, so after the liberation of Ukraine it will be necessary to more carefully deal with their followers.
    1. +1
      22 May 2018 11: 01
      When is the liberation campaign scheduled? And then suddenly a hike, but I'm tired ... bully
      1. 0
        23 May 2018 12: 27
        No, there will be no liberation campaigns; they themselves brought Bandera to power, even if they themselves are freed from them.
    2. 0
      22 May 2018 14: 03
      Bandera, like nationalism, raises its head when interethnic prerogatives recede and disappear. That is the fault of the center link, when the cosmopolitan Moscow thief robs both Russia and Ukraine. Ukrainians arise and resist, the Russian national identity is strangled ...
      1. +2
        23 May 2018 12: 25
        Yeltsin, Shukhevych and Kravchuk went against the will of the peoples of the USSR and committed a state crime - they are criminals and so far some are free. And then the new “presidents" really liked the power, and in order to keep it, they remembered nationalism.
        1. 0
          30 May 2018 14: 21
          Roman Shukhevych and Stanislav Shushkevich should not be confused.
          1. 0
            30 May 2018 15: 44
            Yes, about the same thing.
    3. MrK
      23 May 2018 12: 21
      Quote: turbris
      That's just with Bandera revealed a clear flaw in the KGB

      So when the NKVD got in touch with Bandera in Kiev, Khrushchev quickly stopped everything and replaced the leadership of this operation. Communist, damn it.
  6. +19
    22 May 2018 13: 31
    The series Confrontation is probably a classic of the genre
    It is a pity for the flaws that many have escaped from retribution and are now marching not in hell on pancakes, but through the streets of the cities of the outskirts of our former empire. As usual - many innocents died, but many villains survived
  7. +4
    22 May 2018 14: 01
    In the words of the son of a white emigrant Mikhail Tulev: “I will remind him of the Krasnodar process - he’ll do it.” “By the way, how did it end there?” “They shot me!” “Ay-yy-yay! And they did it right!”.
  8. +6
    22 May 2018 15: 54
    Sometimes you expect the author to reveal some important details. rummaging through archives, revealing something new from previously unknown or once classified information. But no, a simple transfusion from empty to empty. Therefore, dear authors, if you undertake to describe the work of the investigation and counterintelligence agencies, then at least study this process from the inside, feel it on yourself, work in such organizations for at least three years! And it turns out when you read such materials that you are plagiarists who eat their bread in vain.
    Described in this article was known 30 years ago.
  9. 0
    22 May 2018 15: 55
    Yes, not all were caught. This is especially true of Western Ukraine. Maybe it would be better if Stalin after the Second World War gave this territory to the Poles. If only the Poles would suffer with them. But, quite possibly, in Ukraine there would be no Maidan and other things connected with it.
  10. +1
    22 May 2018 17: 36
    Nikita Khrushchev pardoned everyone on the outskirts. But still, they drove them up to the age of 62 through the forests. Such is the SMERSH service. hi
  11. +1
    22 May 2018 19: 17
    The Cheka caught the traitors, and the bald maize arranged an amnesty, now the shortcomings are marching at the sprats and in the cities of dill. The liberals of Comrade Stalin and Beria were very gentle to traitors! Those should (since there were not enough hands) receive at least 25 years, without the right to parole and amnesty, and without the right (after release) to settle south of 70 latitude!
    1. 0
      22 May 2018 21: 20
      the bald maize man gave amnesty, now the shortages are marching with sprat-men and in the cities of dill.
      ,, Balts were amnestied before Khrushchev ,,,

      13 April 1946 city
      Council of Ministers of the USSR
      RESOLUTION No. 843 – 342ss of 13 on April 1946 Moscow Kremlin
      On the repatriation of Latvians, Estonians and Lithuanians to their homeland

      The Council of Ministers of the USSR resolves:
      1. Establish that the Decree of the GOKO of 18 August 1945, No. 9871, and the Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of 21, December 1945, No. 3141 – 950, on the direction to resettlement of repatriated Soviet citizens who served in the German army, legionaries, Vlasov and the cops do not apply to repatriated Latvians, Estonians and Lithuanians who are permanentresidents of the Latvian, Estonian and Lithuanian SSR.
      2. Instruct the USSR Ministry of the Interior, during the year of the 1946, to send to the Latvian, Estonian and Lithuanian SSR all the Latvians, Estonians and Lithuanians referred to in paragraph 1 of this Resolution in the following order:
      a) all persons of military age who were not demobilized by their peers should be sent, respectively, in coordination with the USSR State Planning Committee, organized by working in industry and construction in the Latvian, Estonian and Lithuanian SSR, securing them in this work until the end of demobilization of their peers from the Red Army;
      b) all persons of non-appeal age, whose peers are not in the Red Army by age, to be released and sent to the place of permanent residence of their families.
      3. To oblige the USSR ministries and other central departments, as well as enterprises of the Union republics and local industry, to release during 1946, with the permission to leave, for their repatriated Latvians, Estonians and Lithuanians who are permanent residents of the Latvian, Estonian and Lithuanian SSR, transferred to the present Resolutions of the working battalions and test-filtration camps for permanent work for industrial enterprises and for construction.
      4. To establish that persons of military age who are sent in accordance with paragraph 2 “a” of this Regulation for work in industry and construction shall be held criminally liable for unauthorized departure from work.
      Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers I. STALIN
      1. MrK
        23 May 2018 12: 26
        Quote: bubalik
        the Baltic states amnestied even before Khrushchev

        No need to spray a specific substance on the fan. In this decision there is no word about Bandera.
        1. 0
          23 May 2018 13: 13
          This ruling does not contain a word about Bandera.
          ,, and I did not speak about them, but commented on the Baltic peoples ,,,
    2. 0
      23 May 2018 16: 40
      Quote: nnz226
      The Cheka caught the traitors, and the bald maize arranged an amnesty, now the shortcomings are marching at the sprats and in the cities of dill. The liberals of Comrade Stalin and Beria were very gentle to traitors! Those should (since there were not enough hands) receive at least 25 years, without the right to parole and amnesty, and without the right (after release) to settle south of 70 latitude!

      That's why he is a maize. Stalin’s pathetic shadow in every way.
  12. 0
    22 May 2018 20: 48
    There will be demand for everything, sooner or later! Proven by life
  13. 0
    23 May 2018 04: 24
    According to the international protocol, war crimes are labeled “no statute of limitations.” Therefore, the West is constantly trying to make war criminals out of those unwanted, forgetting that this is a boomerang.
  14. 0
    6 August 2018 22: 57
    Khrushchev pardoned the fascist henchmen, and they gave offspring and multiplied.

    We are now looking at what is happening in Ukraine and the Baltic states ...


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