What should be the perfect gun? Subjective opinion
Usually, weapons are built on the basis of some kind of separate ammunition, in our case there is no specifics, which to some extent expands the space for the flight of fantasy. Nevertheless, in the article “Modern ammunition for a pistol and a submachine gun,” I outlined the way I see modern ammunition for the army and the police. Based on this, we can conclude that the weapon should be in at least two versions, under two different cartridges.
At the moment, with the spread of body armor, the army needs a cartridge with high armor-piercing properties of a bullet. In the article, I suggested using the experience of the Swedes, who developed a rather interesting ammunition for a submachine gun, as part of creating individual defense weapons for soldiers. In short, the bullet of a Swedish ammunition consists of an armor-piercing core wrapped in plastic, which makes it very light and therefore very fast, and the speed, as is known, has never interfered with the armor-piercing. If the idea is somewhat modified, in particular, to wrap an armor-piercing core in an aluminum shirt and make the shell plastic, then you can lose a little in armor-piercing, primarily due to a loss in speed, but you get other positive results. When a core gets into the armored plate, such a bullet will, in theory, be pierced through it, leaving the armored platinum and the plastic shell outside, and the aluminum shirt. While in contact with unprotected targets, such a bullet will remain intact, showing a higher stopping effect than when a thin armor-piercing core penetrates. Obviously, I do not take into account any nuances in this fantasy, otherwise a cartridge with such a bullet would have been created long ago, but the general idea is this.
For the police, on the contrary, high armor-piercing properties of the bullet of the cartridge will be harmful. Since the absolute majority of the targets for which law enforcement officers fire, are not protected by body armor, first and foremost it is necessary to put precisely high stopping power. That is, the cartridge should be with a heavy bullet of large caliber.
Since the conditions for the army and the police are mutually exclusive, respectively, we need two types of weapons, at least for two different ammunition. Why not make two different pistols? The answer is simple - banal for reasons of economy, and we are talking about an ideal gun, why do we need two ideal ones, when it is cheaper and easier to make one.
Examples of the use of two or more ammunition in almost identical designs weight. You can pay attention at least to the same Steyr pistols, described in the last article. The transition between ammunition with a different sleeve is carried out by replacing the casing-bolt, barrel, return spring and magazine, if required. For the transition between cartridges with the same sleeve, only the replacement of the barrel and return spring is required.
That is, if the ammunition for the army and the police will be created on the basis of a single cartridge case, then a pistol for the army and the police will be only a barrel and a return spring. This means that in the production of the same parts will be stamped, and this is anyway saving.
The civilian market and weapons for special forces remain unclosed. Both in the first and in the second case there is freedom of choice, and in a rather wide range. Should I try to make a weapon that would suit athletes from practical shooting at the base of the pistol for the army and police. Of course, it is, but it should be done without priority, so that it does not negatively affect the weapon. If we talk about special forces, then even within the framework of a single class of weapons, such as a pistol, it is very difficult to close all needs, which will vary depending on the task.
I will give the simplest example. In one case, there are no requirements for the sound of a shot; you need a simple self-loading pistol with ammunition, the bullet of which is most effective. In the second case, there are noise requirements, that is, the gun should be as quiet as possible, ideally non-autonomous, in order to minimize the noise when using the weapon. From this we can conclude that in some cases, the design of the gun suitable for the army and the police is not suitable. Of course, it is worth paying back attention to the requirements of specialists, but if the fulfillment of these requirements will harm the design of a police officer or a combined-arms pistol, then their implementation will have to be postponed to a distant box for implementation in other models.
You will not be nice to everyone, therefore you need to prioritize and decide in advance for whom exactly the weapon is designed.
Based on this, we can draw the following conclusions:
1) The pistol must be able to transfer at least between two ammunition, by replacing the minimum number of weapon parts.
2) The design of the gun should provide for the possibility of adaptation to the special requirements, if it does not harm the basic versions of the weapon.
Mass and dimensions of the gun
Repeatedly, in the comments to the articles, visitors pointed out that in peacetime only a paperweight needed a pistol in the army so that the paper would not be blown away by the wind. It is difficult to argue with such a statement, as well as the fact that in wartime the pistol is not in the first or even in the second roles. Despite this, not a single army in the world has yet renounced this class of weapon; we will not be pioneers in this matter either, but we will try to take into account the wishes of the consumer.
First of all, you need to pay attention to the size and weight of the weapon. Without any problems, you can now do something small and light, but then they will start complaining not about dimensions and weight, but about recoil when shooting and low accuracy. In general, complaints about the mass, in my opinion far-fetched. Even if the weapon weighs a kilogram, it is quite possible to get used to it after a couple of weeks of constant wear, the lack of this weight will rather cause discomfort than its presence. However, the “customer is always right.”
Once we are going to lighten the weapon, it would be quite logical to abandon the steel frame of the pistol, which is already considered an anachronism, but not everything is so simple. The territory of Russia includes a variety of climatic zones, that is, we need a weapon that would not feel the difference between -50 degrees Celsius and + 50, and ideally in a wider range. It should be borne in mind that the transition from the same -50 degrees to zero temperature can be very fast, because they usually shoot weapons, and this process is accompanied by heat generation. Of course, the frame of the pistol should be strong enough to withstand the process of firing and external influences. In addition to all this, it is also necessary to take into account the resistance to long-term exposure to ultraviolet, many manufacturers at one time quite sensitively put their foreheads about this problem. If all these requirements will be possible to implement in the polymer version, then just fine, but if not, then light alloys of metals will still remain to find a solution. The main task is to reduce weight without loss of strength and durability even in adverse conditions. If we talk in numbers, we will focus on 550-600 grams without cartridges, in order to reach a mass close to the mass of a Makarov pistol with a full magazine, but given that the capacity of the store will be greater.
As for the dimensions of the weapon ... The dimensions of the pistol completely depend on the length of the barrel of the weapon and the capacity of its store. Let's start with the length of the trunk. A longer pistol barrel is primarily a higher initial bullet speed and higher accuracy. Do you need high accuracy for an army pistol? Even when shooting in a shooting range, with a weapon that is quite good in its characteristics, not everyone can show at least some performance at a distance beyond 50-75 meters. The main goal is not to create an expensive high-precision sports pistol, but to say “workhorse”, which will surely work at real application distances, and these are usually very short distances, but we will give stock to all the usual 50 meters.
Back based on the experience and the result of labor of domestic and foreign designers, it can be concluded that such accuracy can provide weapons with a barrel length of about 100 millimeters. That is, we are talking about a gun in the dimensions of the same Makarov pistol.
But this, let's say, is the basic version of the weapon. Absolutely nothing prevents to make a larger model of a pistol with a more spacious store. So with an increase in the length of the barrel, the frame of the weapon can remain unchanged, along with the barrel only the cover-slide will grow. You can also increase the capacity of the store without changing the frame of the weapon; the handle can be lengthened by the store itself, in the lower part of which you can place a plastic part that makes the extended handle visually more attractive than just sticking a store. Although, in my opinion, the capacity in the 12-14 cartridges is more than enough, and such capacity can be organized slightly exceeding the dimensions of the handle of the same PM.
3) The mass of the gun without cartridges must be in the area of 550-600 grams.
4) Weapons dimensions should be comparable to a Makarov pistol, with the barrel length should be about 100 millimeters.
5) The pistol magazine must have an 12-14 ammo capacity.
6) The design of the weapon should provide for the possibility of adaptation to a longer barrel and the use of stores of expanded capacity without changing the scope of the gun.
Although the weight and dimensions of the weapon to some extent belong to ergonomics, we considered them separately. In this part of the article I will try to create a list of parts that would not be completely redundant in the gun and would make it more comfortable to use.
First you need to pay attention to the handle of the weapon. Despite the fact that we have widely applied the practice of measuring the average temperature in the hospital, to deny that people can not have different palm sizes, then the weapon must be easily adapted to the specific size of the hand arrow. In addition, it is impossible to deny the fact that we have a change of seasons and that handle, which lies comfortably in the bare hand, will not be so comfortable in the hand, on which a warm glove is pulled. It seems to be a trifle, but it is from such trifles that the general impression about the weapon is usually formed.
Foreign manufacturers quite often implement the "fit" of the weapon under the hand of the shooter with the help of interchangeable linings on the back side of the handle. As for me, this is a half measure, and if you make a fit, then by replacing the entire handle. That is, replaceable should be not just the lining on the back side, but also the side cheeks and the back side. This can be arranged if the handle overlays are U-shaped in section. On the one hand, this will entail additional costs, but on the other hand, the requirements to the plastic on the pistol grip are not the highest, so that such parts will be inexpensive. But the weapon will be more convenient for the end user.
The second point is the location of the weapons shop button. Despite the fact that many are accustomed to the latch of a Makarov pistol, it will have to be abandoned in favor of the possibility of using stores with expanded capacity. It remains only to determine exactly where the button will be located to extract the store. In my opinion, its most appropriate location is at the base of the safety bracket, which will eliminate accidental pressing and leave this element quite convenient for quick access. Well, it is important that this button was located on both sides of the gun, without having to disassemble or rearrange something.
As for the safety guard itself, its dimensions should be sufficient for the normal use of the weapon, all in the same gloves.
Slide delay lever. First of all, this element should be large enough so that it can be used all in the same gloves, at the same time it should not protrude significantly beyond the arms, that is, instead of a lever there should be a large button. And if it is duplicated on both sides of the weapon, it will be generally perfect. In addition, I would like to see a not quite standard implementation of the slide delay. So the slide delay should be turned off immediately after a new magazine was inserted into the weapon, without pressing the shutter delay button, this will slightly speed up the process of changing the magazine, seemingly a trifle, but a trifle is quite pleasant. It is quite natural to question the cartridge in the chamber after the new store is inserted. It is for this reason that the shutter delay button does not need to be abandoned, if you just need to insert the magazine into the weapon, without the possibility of its immediate use, you can first remove the bolt from the delay with the button, and then insert the new magazine, leaving the chamber empty.
Not the most unnecessary thing is the indicator of the presence of a cartridge in the chamber. This is usually done with the help of the ejector. It is a well-thought-out and well-proven solution, but if there is a light-accumulating insert on such an indicator, it will not get any worse. As well as if this indicator will be transferred to the back of the housing-bolt. In this case, the main thing is its presence and the clearness of its work, and not its location and implementation.
As for the controls safety devices. If you look at the latest models of weapons from different manufacturers, you will notice that they have a fuse switch. Recently, preference is given to so-called “automatic” fuses. Such a solution, of course, has a plus in the form of instant readiness of weapons for use, immediately after extraction, but the implementation of this outrage must be approached more carefully than it might seem at first glance. We will analyze this moment in more detail below, but for the time being we will only focus on the layout of the controls. Since the choice has fallen in favor of automatic fuses, we will not invent anything new, but leave everything in the form of the now common levers on the trigger and the time-tested key on the back of the handle, what these elements will do, let us analyze the design of the gun.
It would not be superfluous to organize the possibility of a smooth descent of the strike mechanism of the weapon. Conversely, the third question will be implemented as it is important that the control element of this procedure be equally convenient for left-handed and right-handed people and does not require any additional manipulations with the gun, except for one simple action.
Sights. Since the pistol is clearly not sporty, there are no special requirements for sighting devices. For my part, I can note that for faster aiming, the rear sight is subjectively convenient, the slot of which has a triangular or trapezoidal shape than a rectangular one. If the sights are marked with light-accumulating paint - great. If the form of such marking is not in the form of points, but in the form of horizontal lines - even better. If the sighting devices themselves can be replaced, then the civilian market will say a big thank you.
Not a bad idea would be to organize in arms and control the consumption of ammunition. The first thing that comes to mind is a small screen that shows the number of rounds. But, in my age, it is still too early for me to fall into insanity, because it is much easier, more reliable and cheaper to do everything a little differently. One solution may be tactile notification that cartridges in the store are coming to an end. For example, after there are, say, three rounds left in the store, a small part will act under the thumb of the holding hand for a couple of millimeters, shifted by the same store feeder. If such a detail is placed on the left and right sides of the gun and signals a close emptying of the store, without interfering with keeping the pistol normally, then everyone will be satisfied. Simple, reliable, cheap and effective.
Thus, we continue the list:
7) A pistol should be able to easily and cheaply adapt a weapon to a specific palm size.
8) Absolutely all elements of the weapon must be comfortable for both left-handed and right-handed.
9) Gun aiming devices must be designed with priority on fast aiming and use in low light conditions.
10) Store replacement procedure should be minimal.
11) The design of the gun should provide for the possibility of safe descent of the firing mechanism
12) The design of the gun must contain elements that clearly and clearly indicate the presence of a cartridge in the chamber, the position of the firing mechanism, which can be distinguished both in dim light and tactile.
13) The design of the pistol must have the ability to control the amount of ammunition in the process of firing.
As already decided, the gun is not designed for athletes, it means you do not need to reinvent the wheel in pursuit of hundredths of the accuracy of fire. It is possible to take the basis for the automation system proposed by Browning, using the recoil energy in the short course of the weapon’s barrel, with the barrel bore locked when entering a projection above the chamber in the window for ejection of spent cartridges. How will the shift of the breech section of the trunk vertically be organized? The only question is reliability, that is, how easier and safer is it, so we do.
The only thing you should pay attention to is the location of the barrel. To ensure a more comfortable perception of recoil when firing, the axis of the trunk should be as low as possible. You can take into account the experience of Czech designers, in particular their work on the gun 7,5FK. In this gun, not only is the barrel low enough relative to the grip of the weapon, it also does not usually move in the process of working the weapon. In our usual designs, with the normal position of the housing-bolt, the axis of the barrel is parallel to the motion vector of the housing-bolt. When the housing-bolt moves back, the breech of the trunk decreases, deflecting the axis of the barrel. In a Czech pistol, with the normal position of the casing-bolt, the breech breech is raised, that is, the barrel axis is not parallel to the casing-bolt movement, parallel to the barrel axis and the casing-bolt movement vector when the casing-bolt moves back. As I understand it, this decision was made in order to reduce the speed of the casing-bolt rollback when firing due to the use of relatively powerful ammunition, as well as to ensure the lowest possible position of the barrel. If the decisions of Czech gunsmiths are justified and do not affect the reliability and durability of the structure, they can be used.
As for the firing mechanism of the weapon, it is possible to dwell on the striker, but not on its variant with a dovvod, which is now widespread, but on a double action mechanism. Like it or not, if it is necessary to make the first shot immediately after removing the weapon, the force of pressing the trigger will not be as critical as it is tried to be presented. But subsequent shots and shots with the preliminary preparation of weapons should not be affected by the tight turn of the trigger.
Separately, it should be noted the possibility of assembling the trigger mechanism as a single unit that could be completely removed from the weapon frame without its disassembly. Such a solution will give, first of all, space for the subsequent modernization of this node, as well as its changes in accordance with the requirements for the creation of highly specialized weapons. When repairing, replacing a single unit instead of individual worn parts gives a higher repair speed, plus the mechanism itself is installed completely new, without worn, but still retaining, elements.
Also worth mentioning in more detail safety devices. As mentioned above, the fuse switches can be completely abandoned under certain conditions. So, the key on the back of the handle should be soft enough not to create discomfort when holding the weapon, while in its normal position, it should not block the sear, the trigger or some other parts of the trigger mechanism. It should act directly on the part that causes the shot, in our case it is the drummer. In this case, the interaction of the key on the back side of the pistol grip with the drummer should not be based on friction or any other interaction, the reliability of which with the development of parts on the surface of the parts may decrease. This should be a reliable rigid locking, resistant to long-term operation. As for the trigger, the key on it, like in many other models of modern pistols, can block the trigger itself, but at the same time, the locking system of the same drummer must be implemented in the design of the trigger until the trigger is selected. completely. At the same time, the trigger lock of the firing pin should be independent of the firing pin lock by the key on the back side of the handle. As a result, we obtain a completely safe weapon, which will be such even with a cartridge in the chamber and at the same time such a gun will be ready for use immediately after removal.
From all this we get a few more points:
14) Automatic pistol should be built on the use of recoil energy in the short course of the barrel of the weapon, with the barrel bore locked when the barrel is engaged with the shutter.
15) The location of the gun barrel axis should be as low as possible to ensure a more comfortable perception of recoil.
16) The pistol trigger mechanism is shock, the trigger mechanism must be assembled in a separate, easily detachable unit.
17) Mechanisms protecting the weapon from an accidental shot should be reliable and resistant to wear, should firmly lock the drummer, and not block the sear.
In the end, first of all, it should be noted that the vision of the question of the ideal pistol is based only on my opinion, and I may be mistaken, and often mistaken, because an active discussion is only welcome. In my opinion, such a weapon design will make it possible to create weapons that can be easily adapted to various ammunition, suitable for use both in the army and the police with appropriate ammunition. In the design of the gun there is room for maneuver in order to assemble a more specialized weapon on the base model.
There may be a completely logical question why in this dream pistol there is no possibility of automatic fire. This question may arise in the first place among those who have not tried to shoot from the same MTA, as they say, "like an adult". At very short distances, the efficiency is really present and not at all small, but already on 10-15 meters it will be strange to talk about effective automatic fire, without using the butt. No, of course, there are unique people who can hold the RMB in each hand and at the same time shoot at the enemy, but take into account the indicative exoticism is clearly not worth it.
And finally, the most important point on which to finish this article. The weapon described above will never be massive and will never be accepted for service. There will be several reasons for this. Even if you save on all that you can, the design of such a gun will have a lot of small details, which in total with the overall savings will lead to a drop in the reliability of the weapon. If you take high-quality materials, carefully monitor production, the price tag for such a gun will be such that it will not only become unavailable for mass distribution, and even in the foreign civilian market not everyone can afford such a weapon. Of course, you can combine several functions in one detail, simplify the shape of individual elements as much as possible, and so on, but I don’t even want to think about what kind of work it is at the design stage. So the fantasies of a person who are just beginning to delve into the world of firearms should remain fantasies, and work on weapons should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the immediate consumer, specialists who have been working on this issue for more than a year.
Special thanks to the visitor with a nickname Pishchak for the idea for the article.
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