What should be a modern sniper (part of 1)

Colonel Jeff Cooper, idol and ideological mentor of Western military riflemen, called the rifle "queen of the rifle weapons". In fact, the rifle, the more equipped with an optical sight, is by far the most prominent representative of handguns - in terms of accuracy, ease of handling and grace of forms. The last moment, of course, is not of practical importance, but nevertheless plays an important role. a role for a real shooter who respects and loves his weapon.

It is precisely the precision rifle with a telescopic sight since the times of the First World War that serves as the main combat tool in sniping - the most effective method of warfare. Over the past decade, sniper art has become a fashionable topic for many authors of books and articles. Accordingly, many opinions have been expressed as to what a modern sniper rifle should be.


Some theory

One of the characteristic features of sniper weapons is that from the very moment of its appearance it was located at the junction of three types of small arms - combat, sport and hunting. To date, the hunting traits have gone into oblivion, but the qualities of combat and sport are present in almost all modern models.

So what kind of weapon is a sniper rifle? When evaluating a particular rifle, one should keep in mind that a sniper is primarily a combat weapon, therefore its basic qualities must correspond to the qualities of a combat weapon.

The most famous Russian gunsmith VG Fedorov wrote back in 1938 that the main trends in the development of handguns "were expressed mainly in increasing the firing range, slope of the trajectory and rate of fire; often, one of these elements was in conflict with the other ... cause of all the work in the field of improvements in handguns served as the requirement of tactics to increase the firing range, to give the opportunity to defeat the enemy from more distant distances ... A gradual evolution of the handgun fire from flint rifles, increased the range from 300 to 3200 steps with sufficient accuracy and slaughter at these distances, the rate of fire was increased from 1 shots per minute with flint guns to 20 shots per minute with automatic, i.e., 10 times range and 20 times the rate of fire.

What could be the limit to increasing the quality of future firearms? It was believed that with respect to the range, the limit would be set by the abilities of the human eye, but rifles were already injected with optical sights. It was believed that in relation to the rate of fire due to the huge consumption of cartridges will establish a production base and organization of the supply. but история the development of weapons shows that, no matter how colossal the demands in the part of the fire-fighting equipment were made by the war, all these requirements, although not immediately, were fulfilled. "

It is believed that the entire set of properties of modern military small arms is reduced to the following groups: combat properties, operational properties and production properties.

Under the combat properties of gunsmiths understand the complex qualities of the system, which characterize the possibility of fire impact on the enemy's manpower, subject to the normal technical condition of the weapon and its trouble-free action. Among the combat properties, they emphasize the shooting power, maneuverability and reliability of the weapon system.

The power of a weapon is the total amount of energy possessed by all the bullets that hit the target per unit of time. Here the question immediately arises: how to calculate the power of a sniper rifle, if the concept of the rate of fire for the "super-arrow" actually does not matter? After all, a sniper, as is known, most often makes a shot at an 1-2 target.

As the distance to the target increases, the speed of the bullet at the target, of course, decreases, and therefore, the firing power decreases.

But the power of fire can be increased not only by increasing the rate of fire, as is the case in automatic weapons, but also by increasing the probability of hitting, or, in other words, the accuracy of shooting. This is directly related to sniper weapons.

As mentioned above, among all the other combat properties of the sniper system, accuracy is crucial. What is accuracy from the point of view of science? According to the law of dispersion, it is "a combination of the degree of grouping of points of hit around the center of grouping (accuracy of fire) and the degree of combining of the center of grouping (average point of impact) with the desired point of the goal (accuracy of fire)."

What should be a modern sniper (part of 1)



In practice, accuracy is estimated by the dispersion characteristics inherent in a given weapon system. It must be borne in mind that stability in the sense of influence on dispersion is the ability of the weapon to maintain the position given to it before the shot. That is why most modern sniper rifles have significant weight - it increases stability; for that, the bipods are an integral attribute of the current sniper.

The stability of the weapon’s battlefield is no less important for shooting accuracy.

But there is also the law of dispersion in the world - “the law of meanness” for all shooters. The fact is that in practice it is impossible to observe the absolute monotony of all shooting conditions, since there are always insignificant, almost elusive variations in the size of the powder grains, the weight of the charge and bullet, the shape of the bullet; various igniting ability of a cap; various conditions of bullet movement in and out of the barrel, gradual contamination of the barrel bore and its heating, gusts of wind and changing air temperature; the errors allowed by the shooter during the tip, in the application, etc. Therefore, even under the most favorable shooting conditions, each of the fired bullets will describe its own trajectory, somewhat different from the trajectory of the other bullets. This phenomenon is called the natural dispersion of shots.

With a significant number of shots, the trajectories in their entirety form a sheaf of trajectories, which, when meeting the affected surface (target), gives a series of holes more or less distant from each other; the area they occupy is called the dispersion area.

All the holes are located on the area of ​​dispersion around a certain point, called the center of dispersion, or the middle point of impact (FTS). The trajectory located in the middle of the sheaf and passing through the middle point of impact, is called the average trajectory. When compiling tabular data when amending the trailer installation during firing, it is always this average trajectory that is implied.

From all this, it is clear how difficult it is to make an accurate shot over a long distance and how many factors that adversely affect the accuracy should be taken into account by the sniper.

So, if we take into account all the theoretical “zaum” cited above, then it is clearly seen how difficult it is to combine all these numerous, often contradictory requirements in one design. From this point of view, the E.F. Dragunov can be considered an almost perfect model of weapons for an army sniper.
But still...

A bit of history

In 1932, the Red Army received a sniper model of the SI system. Mosin, which allowed us to begin large-scale training of "supermarked shooters."

It is hardly necessary to go into detail in the history of that period, it has been written about this many times. Another point is interesting: the sniper rifle of the 1891 / 30 model. I stayed in service for three decades without any changes, until the adoption of the SVD rifle in 1963. And this is despite the fact that the flaws of the Mosin rifle, even in the infantry variant, were well known.

... In 1943, a group of the best front-line snipers of the Soviet army was invited to participate in a meeting of senior officers of the USSR NKO. This meeting addressed a variety of issues relating to sniping. And this is characteristic: the question of replacing and at least fundamentally modernizing the sniper version of the S. I. Mosin system rifle was not even raised. But by that time this weapon had been in service with the Russian army for more than half a century, and its numerous shortcomings made it uncompetitive even in the standard infantry version.

One of the participants of this meeting, Hero of the Soviet Union, Vladimir Nikolaevich Pchelintsev, recalled: “We didn’t have any complaints about the combat sniper rifle sample 1891 / 30. The main remarks were about optics. Based on the combat experience, we expressed our wishes for a few modernized and made some necessary equipment on the front ... We proposed the development of a special aiming net and a more convenient location of the aiming handwheels. Of the devices we were interested in two elements: sun protection a swiveling visor on the lens and a corrugated rubber tube on the eyepiece of the sight. " There was also a suggestion "on the development of special" target cartridges for sniper weapons with improved gunpowder quality and a more careful selection of bullets in factories. These cartridges should be made in small batches especially for snipers. This would make it possible to drastically improve the range and accuracy of shooting. "



However, proposals to improve weapons and ammunition were implemented only through 20 years with the adoption of the SVD.

In the autumn of 1939, Dragunov was drafted into the ranks of the Red Army and sent to serve in the Far East. After two months of service, he was sent to the school of junior commanders of the AIP (Artillery Instrumental Intelligence). Successes in shooting sports helped Evgeny Fedorovich in the course of his further service, after graduating from school, he was appointed gun master of the school. When the Far Eastern Artillery School was formed on the basis of the school at the beginning of the war, Dragunov became the senior weapon master of the school. In this position, he served until the demobilization of 1945 in the fall.

In January, 1946, Dragunov re-entered the factory. Taking into account the experience of the army service, the personnel department sent Evgeny Fedorovich to the department of the chief designer for the position of technician-researcher. Dragunov began work in the maintenance bureau of the current production of the Mosin rifle and was included in the group that investigated the causes of the state of emergency that occurred in production. Taking into account the experience of the war, a new type of test was introduced into the technical conditions of the rifle - shooting 50 shots with the maximum possible rate of fire, while the store was loaded from the holder. During tests, it was found that with most of the rifles when the cartridges were sent, the top cartridge — the first cartridge — clings to the bottom edge — the second cartridge — and is so strong that it does not reach the barrel even after a two or three palm strike on the bolt handle.

Outstanding designer


Nevertheless, even before the outbreak of World War II, many leading gunsmiths understood the need to manufacture special weapon systems for sniping. In particular, the well-known gunsmith and an expert in weapons business V.E. Markevich believed that "a sniper rifle should combine the best qualities of military and hunting rifles, so such main parts as the barrel, sights, bed, descent and other parts should be skillfully designed ...

The multiplicity of the optical sight from 2,5 to 4,5 times the most suitable for sniping. Increased multiplicity makes it difficult to aim, especially when shooting at moving and emerging targets. The multiplicity of 6x and more is suitable mainly for shooting at fixed targets ...

The trigger has a great effect on shooting accuracy. The descent should not require a large pressing force, should not have a long stroke and free swing. Tension in 1,5-2 kg is considered sufficient. Modern descent should be with a warning that much better. Adjusting the descent is also desirable ...

For thick winter clothes and thin summer clothes, a butt of various lengths is needed, so it is better to make a butt of variable length - with detachable wooden overlays at the back plate ...

The neck of the box should be a pistol-shaped, it allows you to hold the rifle monotonously and tightly with your right hand. Scale on the neck of the box is desirable because it does not allow the hand to slide. The handguard should be long, because a rifle with a long forearm is easier to handle, especially in winter. The sleeves should be comfortable not only for carrying a rifle, but also for using the strap when shooting ...
Among the necessary accessories for a sniper rifle should be a good cover. Regarding the cartridges, it should be said that the cartridges should be especially careful to check all the elements of the cartridge and accurate equipment by laboratory in order to have the best ballistic qualities. "

All or almost all of the above requirements are generally satisfied with the army’s “supermarked shooters” today.

The development of weapons and military equipment, as well as significant changes in tactics that have occurred under the influence of numerous local conflicts of recent decades, have revealed the need for a high-precision sniper system (including a rifle, a telescopic sight and a special cartridge), since in many cases snipers have to decide targets for hitting small targets at distances from 800 to 1000 meters.

The answer to these "demands of time" were numerous sniper rifles of Western arms firms that appeared during the 1980-s. In the USSR, there was no time for new snipers: the war ended in Afghanistan, perestroika began, and then the troubled times came. A modest contribution to the fact that the leadership of the power ministries did not respond to the demands of those subordinates who were seriously engaged in the "sniper industry," was also made by some authors of books and publications, who quite convincingly proved to the reading public the dignity and even the advantages of a regular SVD over Western systems.

Interestingly, some Western experts had similar views. A prime example is the quotation from Martin Schober’s article published in the ninth issue of Schweizer Waffen-Magazin magazine for 1989 a year; This quotation fell into the classic work of D. N. Bolotin, "The History of Soviet Small Arms and Ammunition," and since then it has been repeated many times by the authors to the place and out of place. Martin Schober writes that "NATO regulations prescribe a maximum dispersion width for sniper rifles at a distance of 600 yards (548,6) series in 10 15 shots inches (cm 38,1). The Soviet Dragunov sniper rifle surely meets these requirements." First of all, the NATO standards for accuracy for sniper weapons listed in this article have now become outdated: now the maximum dispersion value should be no more than one angular minute (1 MOA). In addition, simple calculations show that the average dispersion width for SVDs at a distance of 600 meters is 83,5 cm for the LPS cartridge and 51,5 cm for the 7Н1 sniper cartridge.



Speaking specifically about the SVD, it should be noted that many authors concerning these weapons usually give the figure 800 m when assessing the range of effective fire. Indeed, this indicator appears in the instruction on shooting. But the problem lies in the fact that the army sniper, most often not having other directories at his disposal, except for this unauthorized access, cannot understand for what purpose, with what cartridge and at what distances there is a real sense to shoot (with a high probability of hitting the target).

The main conclusion: the head shape should be struck from the SVD with the first shot at all distances up to 500 meters, the chest figure - up to 700 meters, the waist and running figures - up to 800 meters, provided that the sniper cartridge 7H1 is used. We also note that all these data are given without taking into account possible errors made by the shooter in preparation for shooting (for example, an incorrect assessment of the distance to the target) and in firing a shot (for example, jerking to descend under the influence of stress) - in other words, the notorious " human factor".

Why are Western rifles today considered accurate enough for sniping only if their dispersion does not exceed the notorious angular minute? The minute of angle, or 1 MOA, is 0,28 thousandth distance. In other words, at a distance of 100 meters, dispersion in 1 MOA will theoretically give a circle with a dispersion diameter of about 2,8. This is important when shooting at long distances - up to 800 meters and more.

According to the instruction on the rifle case, the accuracy of the SVD is considered satisfactory if four holes are placed in a circle with a diameter of 100, see 8, see, of course, many "edvashki", especially new ones, with non-shot stems, give much better accuracy, but the notorious 8, see considered the maximum allowable rate.

Now let's count. If the dispersion diameter at a distance of 100 meters is exactly 8 cm, then theoretically! - on 200 meters it will be 16 cm, on 300 meters - 24 cm and so on up to 600 meters. After the 600 mile line, the dispersion will no longer grow according to a linear law, but will increase 1,2-1,3 times every hundred meters of distance: the bullet speed will begin to approach the speed of sound (330 m / s) by this time, and the bullet will lose stability on the trajectory. From here we have the following: at a distance of 800 meters, the theoretical accuracy of the SVD will be 83,2, see. From a rifle with such accuracy it is still possible with quite a high probability to get into a fixed height or waist figure, but now it’s almost unreal to hit the chest figure.

It may be objected that there have been cases when a sniper managed to remove an enemy even at long distances. Of course, there have been such cases. By the way, one of them. In 1874, somewhere in the Wild West, a bison hunter party was attacked in its camp by a squad of Indians. The siege lasted almost three days. Both the besieged and the Indians were already completely exhausted, but the exchange of fire continued. Bill Dixon, one of the hunters, saw an Indian clearly standing out on a cliff. He struck a shot of "Sharps" - and the Indian collapsed from the saddle upside down. The Indians struck by such accuracy soon left. When the distance of the shot was measured, it was equal to 1538 yards (about 1400 meters). This is a record shot even for a modern sniper.

Of course, a great shot, but in this case, as in many others, chance played a big role, the simple luck of the shooter. A sniper performing a responsible combat mission cannot rely on chance.

Of course, the accuracy of the rifle is not the only goal for the designer-gunsmith, as we said earlier, there are many more important points to consider. But the accuracy of sniper weapons is important, primarily because if these weapons show high accuracy in close to ideal conditions of the shooting range, then possible errors that are likely to be made by the shooter in difficult conditions of the combat situation are compensated for precisely by the high accuracy and stability of the battle.

It is also necessary to take into account the problem of the cartridge: a special weapon requires a special cartridge, and such a cartridge with a high quality of production must also be relatively inexpensive in production. Interestingly, the difficulties with the production of large-scale sniper ammunition were not only in the USSR, but also in the United States.

SVD entered service almost immediately in conjunction with a special sniper cartridge. Despite the fact that the combat experience of the Great Patriotic War clearly showed that in order to achieve maximum efficiency, the sniper should be equipped with special ammunition, the creation of a special cartridge for sniper rifles in the USSR was started only after the war. In the year of 1960, while working on a single cartridge, it was found that the new bullet design of the improved aerodynamic shape for this cartridge consistently gave excellent results on accuracy of fire - 1,5-2 times better than the cartridge with the LPS bullet. This led to the conclusion about the possibility of creating a self-loading sniper rifle with accuracy better than when shooting from a sniper rifle arr. 1891 / 30's, close to the results obtained when using target cartridges. Based on these studies, the designers-patrons were given the task of working to improve the effectiveness of firing a SVD rifle at the expense of the cartridge. The aim of the work was to improve the accuracy of the sniper rifle battle 2 times the area of ​​dispersion.

In 1963, a bullet was recommended for further development, which today is known as a sniper. When firing ballistic barrels, cartridges with this bullet showed excellent results: on 300 meters R50 no more than 5 cm, R100 is 9,6-11, see. Requirements for the new sniper cartridge were extremely tough: the bullet should have a steel core, for accuracy not inferior to target cartridges, the cartridge had to have a standard bimetallic sleeve and at a cost did not exceed the gross cartridge with an LPS bullet more than doubled. In addition, accuracy when firing SVD should be two times smaller in the area of ​​dispersion, i.e. R100 not more than 10 cm at a distance of 300 meters. As a result, the 1967-mm rifle sniper cartridge, produced today under the symbol 7,62H7, was developed and in 1.

Distribution of personal protective equipment in recent decades has reduced the effectiveness of the 7НХNUMX cartridge. In the conditions of modern combat, when the majority of military personnel have armor protection means, the sniper cartridge must have a sufficiently high armor penetration. In particular, if a sniper is firing at a “chest figure” dressed in a helmet and body armor, then the vulnerable target area is reduced to the size of 1 x 20 cm, i.e. face size. Naturally, the effective range will thus decrease. To avoid this, the designer-patrons had to look for an alternative solution, combining little compatible qualities in one cartridge - accuracy and penetration. The result of this search was the new sniper cartridge 20H7. The bullet of this cartridge has a heat strengthened core, therefore it has a high penetrating ability while maintaining high ballistic qualities.

Modern sniper

According to the leading weapons experts, a modern sniper rifle should primarily ensure the defeat of a live target at a distance of up to 1000 m, while a high probability of being hit by a first shot at the waist target at a distance of up to 800 m and in the chest - up to 600 m. The weather and climate The conditions, temperature of the barrel and the state of the weapon should not affect the accuracy of shooting. In addition, the specifics of sniper operations require that unmasking factors, such as a flash of a shot, powder smoke, the strength of the sound of a shot, the clanging of the shutter when reloading, or the knocking of moving parts of automation, are as small as possible. The shape of a sniper rifle should provide convenience when shooting from different positions. If possible, the weight and dimensions should ensure stability in firing, but at the same time, the shooter should not be tired while staying in a closed position for a long time and should not reduce its maneuverability during movements.

Military experts believe that the above requirements are basic. Without performing their weapons and ammunition are unsuitable for use in sniping.

Basically, all the requirements for a sniper system should be aimed at increasing the accuracy and efficiency of fire, the reliability of the weapon during its operation under the most adverse conditions, and also - not least - at maximum ease of handling.

First of all, factors such as rifle barrel design, strength, rigidity and weight of the box, the quality of an optical sight and special ammunition affect the shooting accuracy.

Thus, with an increase in the wall thickness of the trunk, harmonic oscillations during firing decrease and the effect of changes in the temperature of the barrel. The stock and stock of the sniper rifle should preferably be made from epoxy walnut wood or high-strength plastic.

Sniper riflescope deserves a separate discussion, since the requirements for it are quite contradictory. On the one hand, it should provide an opportunity to observe the terrain, detect targets and fire at targets that are moving and appearing for a short time, which requires a large field of view and a small multiplicity - from about 3x to 5x. And at the same time, the sniper has to shoot at long ranges, up to 1000 m, therefore, it is required to see the target well at this distance, and therefore a large multiplicity - up to 10-12x. Optical sight with variable multiplicity (pancratic) allows to avoid these contradictions, but at the same time such a scheme makes the sight more complex and more fragile.

In general, the optical sight of the sniper system must be durable, have a sealed enclosure, preferably rubberized and filled with dry nitrogen (so that the lenses do not mist inside when temperature drops), consistently maintain the adjustment values ​​in any conditions, convenient correction devices (handwheels).

The uniform and smooth operation of the firing mechanism also has a significant effect on shooting comfort, and hence on accuracy. Therefore, it is highly desirable that the sniper can independently and easily adjust the length and tension of the descent.

A classic example of a modern western-made sniper rifle is the AW (Arctic Warfare) system in England.

English company Accuracy International from Portsmouth since the beginning of the 1980-ies is a recognized leader in the manufacture of high-precision sniper weapons with manual reloading. That AI was the first to develop rifles on "support-rail technology."

In 1986, the British Army adopted a new rifle in place of the outdated Lee Enfield L42. She was the model PM Sniper chambered for NATO 7,62x51, developed by Accuracy International, which received the army index L96A1. It differed sharply from the previous rifles both in appearance and design. The rifle was so successful that it was acquired for its security forces by more than 20 countries of the world. A successful solution of the company is the fact that on the basis of the main model several special modifications were created - large-caliber, silent, with a folding butt.

Immediately after adopting the L96A1, the company launched work on creating a next-generation sniper rifle, taking into account both the experience of manufacturing and practical operation of the prototype, as well as the requirements of the Swedish army, which is able to work reliably at low temperatures. The new model, on the development of which Accuracy International took more than two years, received the index AW (Arctic Warfare). In the Swedish army, which bought 800 copies, the rifle received the index PSG-90.

The model has retained the basic design solutions, but all its elements have undergone refinement in order to simplify the design and increase the reliability of operation. The stainless steel barrel showed on tests high durability, without losing noticeably accuracy even after 10 thousands of shots. When firing high-quality cartridges at a distance of 100 m bullets are stacked in a circle with a diameter of 20 mm. To reduce recoil force, the rifle barrel is equipped with a muzzle brake. This reduces shooter fatigue, reduces the time for re-shot and facilitates learning and addiction to weapons.



A shutter with three lugs ensures reliable operation at low (up to minus 40 ° C) temperatures, even when condensate freezes. Compared with the prototype, the effort required to reload the weapon is reduced, which increases the secrecy of the sniper's actions. Power is supplied from the central box-double store on 10 cartridges. The rifle is usually completed with five magazines. For sighting can be used various optical sights mounted on the bar mounted on the top of the receiver. This is usually a tenfold sight of the firm "Schmidt-Bender." The kit also includes an open sight with graduation to 700 m and front sight. On the front end of the forearm there is a tide for attaching a Parker-Hale adjustable height bipod. The rifle with all the accessories is placed in an aluminum case. Model AW (Arktik Warfare) works great in the most difficult climatic conditions. When using high-precision ammunition, the weapon ensures dispersion of less than 1 MOA. Type of cartridge - NATO 7,62X51. Length - 1180 mm. Weight - 6,1 kg. Barrel length - 650 mm (four rifles with a pitch 250 mm). Magazine capacity - 10 cartridges. The initial speed of the bullet - 850 m / s.

About "bullpaps" and "sniper machines"

The classic model, which is almost ideally suited for practical research from the point of view of the question “what kind of a sniper rifle should NOT be”, are the domestic IED rifle and its modifications.

What is IED? From the point of view of the developers, this is SVD, rearranged according to the "bullpup" scheme to reduce the overall dimensions of the weapon. But potential "users" usually call this system "castrated esvedoshkoy."

The author had to become closely acquainted with this sample of the Russian "miracle weapon" only a year ago. Although it had been possible to hold IEDs in the hands several times before, it turned out that appearance is very deceptive: despite the unusual contours for the Russian eyes and a rather steep look, this rifle, let's say, does not quite correspond to the concept of "sniper weapon".

It is difficult to call the design elegant, it is not such, apparently, and the process of production. To do this, the standard SVD is taken, the butt is removed from it, the barrel is shortened, onto which a massive muzzle device is then hung, the trigger is moved forward, the pistol grip and rubber pad are installed. As a result of all these actions, a cool dwarf is obtained from a polished, beautiful SVD. The external similarity between the SVD and the VCA is the same as between the trilinear and the “death of the chairman”.

IED-A, with which I had to "communicate", was released to the TsKIB in 1994. The form indicates that when the rifle was still SVD, its accuracy in four shots at a distance of 100 meters was R100 = 6,3 cm (i.e., the radius of the circle containing all the holes), and after reworking the weapon R100 began to make 7,8 cm. Who said that despite the shortened trunk accuracy has not decreased?

The rifle was tested at standard distances - 100 and 300 meters. Unfortunately, even at a minimum distance of 100 meters, the results were not impressive: for a group of four shots, R100 was 10 cm. At 300 meters, everything turned out to be even sadder: the average R100 was as much as 16 cm, and none of the five shooters could put everything bullets in the envelope of the chest target. For comparison, it should be noted that the shooter of medium qualification from a distance of 300 meters surely strikes not only the chest, but also the head figure with the same number of cartridges.

The trigger mechanism of the VCA has such a long and difficult descent that sometimes it seems as if the store has already run out of ammunition. When fired, the weapon makes short and elusive movements, from which the eyecup of the sight very unpleasantly clicks the arrow over the eye. Despite the muzzle device and the rubber butt plate, the recoil is somehow not felt much less - perhaps because the muzzle device has only one window on the right side (probably, to compensate for the displacement of the barrel when firing bursts). Accordingly, after each shot the rifle shifts noticeably to the left. The latter is especially noticeable when shooting from the stop.

Translator-fuse has 3 position (like AK), but it is so tight that you can rip the skin on your finger, trying to move it.

Due to the fact that the plastic lining is moved forward, a window appeared in front of the diopter sight, through which the feeder spring is visible and through which all sorts of dirt is stuffed inside the rifle.

A diopter sight on military weapons is a new phenomenon for us. The fact that both the sight and the front sight are made folding are, in principle, good, the bad thing is that with their active use they begin to swing in the transverse plane.

A long trigger that connects the trigger and firing mechanism, is located on the left side of the receiver and is covered with a removable casing. But inside this casing, she walks with such a crunch, that some shooters feel uneasy.

Like all bullpaps, the center of gravity of the weapon falls on the pistol grip, and this loads the sniper's right hand, which should work only on the descent. In addition, on our VCA every 15-20 shots occurred jamming the bolt carrier due to the fact that the ejector axis popped up. In some cases, spontaneous unscrewing of the locking screw of the choke is observed.

Another important point: automatic fire mode. I would like to see at least one Western sniper for a standard cartridge (such as 7,62x 51), which shoots in bursts. They say that at one time the modification of the SVU-AS ordered the Ministry of Internal Affairs ... to arm assault groups! It is difficult to imagine how the special forces will fire from the IED during the storming of the building. The accuracy of the fire in bursts is such that at a distance of 50 meters from 10 cartridges, 1-2 bullets hit the growth figure, and the rest, respectively, will ricoche walk the stormed building. A short barrel in combination with a powerful cartridge makes the automatic fire completely ineffective.

In general, the very idea of ​​a sniper machine, born to customers, probably under the influence of the Vintorez BCC, is inherently flawed. BCC shoots rather weak cartridges with a small recoil impulse, and rifle ammunition 7,62x54 hurls the VCA like a jackhammer.

"Vintorez" (VSS, Rifle Sniper Special, Index GRAU - 6P29) - a silent sniper rifle. Created at the Central Research Institute "Tochmash" in Klimovsk in the early 1980-s under the leadership of Peter Serdyukov. Designed for weapons special forces. Caliber 9 × 39 mm. It has no analogues in TTX in Western countries.

Simultaneously with the development of a silent weapon complex, specialized ammunition was developed for it. A small powder charge (the requirement for ensuring noiselessness) required the presence of a heavy bullet (up to 16 grams), as well as a sufficiently large caliber to ensure both reliable operation of the automation and the necessary killer action. The SP-5 and SP-6 cartridges (7Н33 index, the armor-piercing version of the SP-5 cartridge, a tungsten carbide core bullet) were created on the basis of the 1943 cartridge cartridge of the 7,62 × 39 mm caliber (used, for example, in AK and AKM). The liner sleeve was pereobzhato to caliber 9 mm. In accordance with the requirements for ensuring noiselessness, the initial speed of the bullet of the cartridges SP-5 and SP-6 does not exceed 280 — 290 m / s.

Silent Weapon (Sniper Special "Vintorez")


The modification of the VCA-AS, in addition to the translator, has a folding bipod. On the SVD, such bipods would allow to increase the efficiency of the fire, and on the IED only compensate for low accuracy, but significantly increase the weight.

Unfortunately, all of the above disadvantages are not inherent in individual samples. As far as we know, most of the special units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs have already abandoned the VCA, preferring SVD or other systems. By the way, the "bullpup" scheme has not proven itself in the sniper weapon from the positive side.

Svd or trilinek?

Any gunsmith will say that the magazine rifle always (or almost always) will have a more accurate battle than self-loading of the same class. The reasons for this lie on the surface: there is no removal of powder gases, due to which the initial velocity of the bullet decreases (in the Mosin rifle - 860 m / s., In the SVD - 830 m / s.); no moving parts knocking down weapons at the time of the shot; the whole system is easier to debug, etc.

Let's try to compare the main combat properties of the SVD and the rifle of the 1891 / 30 model. Such a comparison is also interesting because it allows you to visually trace the stages of development of the domestic sniper weapon.

The width of the butt plate of both rifles is about the same and therefore not very convenient: for an accurate weapon it is desirable to have a wider butt plate for a better rest in the shoulder. In addition, both systems use a powerful cartridge 7,62x54, which gives quite a strong return, so it is even more desirable to have a rubber shock absorber on the butt. However, with the SVD, the problem is solved simply: the majority of snipers, according to the army "fashion", have long been equipping their ESD with a rubber butt pad from the GP-25 grenade launcher.

As for the neck of the butt, here again the SVD wins in all respects: the pistol grip is in all respects more convenient than the neck of the Mosin rifle, which was once made straight for the convenience of a bayonet.

The thickness of the walls of the barrel of both rifles about the same. Today, such trunks cause fair complaints snipers. It is known that the barrel, when fired, makes harmonic oscillations causing a scatter of bullets. Accordingly, the thicker the barrel, the smaller these fluctuations and the higher the accuracy of the fire. One of the main requirements for modern sniper weapons is a heavy barrel of the match type, as is done on Western weapons.

The SVD has a gas chamber on the barrel through which a part of the powder gases is removed to ensure the operation of the moving parts of the mechanism. This detail, of course, violates the uniformity of oscillations of the barrel and worsens the battle of weapons, but this deficiency is inherent in all models of automatic weapons, working on the removal of gases, and it should be taken as a given. But the barrel of the SVD has such a necessary detail as a flame arrester, which significantly reduces the flash of a shot, which is very important for a sniper working from a masked position.

The inner surface of the barrel rifle arr. 1891 / 30 not chrome-plated (unlike SVD), therefore it is much more susceptible to rusting. But the trunk of the trilinear is easy to debug. It can be planted "on three points", i.e. minimize the area of ​​contact between the trunk and the lodge. To do this, a scraper is made from an ordinary cartridge case (the cartridge is placed on the handle and its edges are sharpened), which then selects a layer of wood from the box until a folded sheet of paper is pulled freely between the barrel and the box. In front of the barrel (under the front ring), a piece of wool fabric 5-7 wide is wound around the trunk. See the trunk now “sits” at three points: tail screw (behind the gate), stop screw (in front of the magazine box) and the gland. This simple refinement significantly improves the fight rifle. Some arrows replace the steel nog with a copper one, softer. But since the stop screw rests against the nog, copper in this case absorbs recoil better.

The pitch of the rifling of both rifles is the same - 240 mm, despite the fact that in the "Manual on small business" for SVD 320 mm is indicated. The change of the pitch of the rifling of the SVD from 320 to 240 mm was due to the fact that at the 320 mm pitch the armor-piercing incendiary bullets flew somersaults. The barrel with pitch 240 mm stabilized the flight of armor-piercing incendiary bullets, but at the same time reduced the overall accuracy by almost 30%.



The trigger mechanism (USM) of the Dragunov rifle rarely causes criticism of the shooters - the force and tension of the trigger, the trigger stroke is selected in the most optimal way. Although it is desirable that USM sniper weapons was still adjustable.

But the trigger Mosin rifle to debug easily and simply. In order to reduce the length of the descent, you need to slightly bend the trigger spring. It is possible to make the work of the descent smoother by polishing the contacting surfaces of the sear and the trigger platoon.

The SVD detachable cheek has only one drawback: it can be lost. But this deficiency has already been eliminated on rifles of the last years of release with a plastic butt - here this part is made fixed.

The Red Army began the first tests of self-loading rifles back in the 1926 year, but until the mid-thirties, none of the tested samples met army requirements. Sergei Simonov began developing a self-loading rifle at the beginning of 1930, and exhibited his designs for the 1931 and 1935 competitions of the year, but only in 1936, the rifle of his design was adopted by the Red Army under the designation "7.62mm Simon automatic rifle of the 193 model 6 of the year", or ABC -36. Experimental production of the ABC-36 rifle was launched in 1935, mass production in 1936 - 1937, and lasted until 1940, when ABC-36 was replaced with the Tokarev self-loading rifle SVT-40. In total, according to various sources, it was released from 35 000 to 65 000 ABC-36 rifles. These rifles were used in the Khalkhin Gol battles in 1939, in the winter war with Finland in 1940. And also in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War. Interesting. That the Finns, who captured both the Tokarev and Simonov designs as rifles in 1940, preferred to use the SVT-38 and SVT-40 rifles, since the Simonov rifle was significantly more complex and more whimsical. However, that is why the Tokarev rifles and replaced the ABC-36 in service with the Red Army.

Simonov Rifles


Shooting with the same rifle arr. 1891 / 30, the shooter, accustomed to SVD, catches himself that the head does not have a fulcrum. And the head here needs to be put with a chin on the comb of the butt, otherwise the eye deviates from the optical axis of the sight. Of course, it is possible to get used to this position, but still it is rather inconvenient, especially when shooting from non-standard positions.

All the sniper rifles of the war years of release were completed with an optical sight PU. Among all models of sights mounted on a three-lane, PU is the simplest, easiest and cheapest to manufacture. Its multiplicity 3,5x, aiming grid is made in the form of a T-shaped mark. One of the main drawbacks is the small focal length - given the rather long butt, the shooter has to reach forward with the chin in order to clearly see the entire image in the eyepiece as a whole. Especially inconvenient to do this, being in thick winter clothes.

PSO-1 - a regular SVD sight - against the background of PU looks almost a miracle of military optics. There are both a protective lens hood, and a rubber eyecup, and an aiming mark illumination, and a rangefinder scale, and a scale of side corrections. All this makes PSO much more efficient and more convenient. And the shift of the base of the sight to the left from the axis of the bore makes the process of aiming easier and more comfortable.

To load the SVD, you only need to attach a magazine equipped with cartridges, while a rifle is a mod. 1891 / 30 it is required to put five cartridges one at a time, all the more so as sometimes they are wedged (if the edge of the upper cartridge clings to the edge of the lower cartridge). Of course, the speed of reloading may not be decisive for sniper weapons, but in some situations this factor may be important.

Reloading the Mosin rifle, the shooter has to tear his head off the butt after each shot, and this is quite inconvenient. True, there is a so-called "sniper" method of reloading: after a shot, grab the trigger by the button and pull back (before setting on a combat platoon), lift the bolt handle up with your fingers, and then slide the bolt back; then with the thumb of the right hand, slide the valve forward and lower the middle and index handle down. However, to quickly do all these manipulations, a certain skill is required.

The Mosin rifle stock is one piece, made most often of birch (for weapons of the military years of release). When swelling such a box may well lead, then it will touch the trunk, and this will significantly worsen the accuracy of the fight.

Lodge SVD consists of a butt and barrel linings, plastic or wooden. Lining directly with the barrel does not come into contact under any circumstances, and therefore does not affect the battle of weapons. In addition, in the lining there are holes that accelerate the cooling of the barrel when firing.

In terms of recoil, the SVD loses several, since when fired, the barrel leads upwards. Perhaps this is a consequence of the movement of the bolt carrier with the bolt and, accordingly, changes in the position of the center of gravity of the weapon. But the rifle arr. 1891 / 30 It has a smooth rectilinear return, well perceived by the sniper's shoulder.

Here you need to keep in mind that according to the NSD, sniper firing is carried out with a Mosin rifle only up to 600 meters (although the remote hand-wheel of the PU sight is designed for distances up to 1300 meters). At long distances, disturbing fire is mostly conducted.

The instruction for the SVD claims that the most effective fire from it is up to 800 meters, although most snipers agree that this weapon ensures a hit from the first shot at a chest target to 500 meters, and a head figure to 300.

It must be admitted that despite a number of the listed drawbacks, it is pleasant to work with the trilinear. The easy-to-shutter, clear and even descent, smooth recoil, clearly visible even at dusk, the crosshair makes this weapon quite comfortable for the shooter. The accuracy of this rifle is somewhat higher than that of the SVD (however, as already mentioned, this is natural for a weapon with manual reloading).

And yet ... Nevertheless, the Dragunov sniper rifle is more applied, allows you to quickly make a shot offhand and is much more convenient for firing from the knee and standing, because It has a pistol grip and allows the shooter to use a rifle belt and magazine if necessary (for focusing on the back of the hand, as seen in the picture). And such elements as a flame arrester, butt cheek, an improved telescopic sight, make the entire system much more preferable for an army sniper.

Concluding the conversation about the SVD, it should be noted that this rifle in its class of self-loading sniper weapons on the basis of generalized parameters of accuracy and accuracy, simplicity of design, reliability of automation work is one of the best in the world. Of course, it has a number of drawbacks, however, an inexpensive self-loading sniper rifle has been created in the world, which has a higher accuracy of fire while maintaining the same reliability of automation in a variety of climatic conditions.

The Dragunov sniper rifle has several modifications, the most promising of which is the SIDS. It has a butt, folding on the right side of the receiver, which is much more convenient for quickly bringing a weapon into a firing position compared to the AK-74M. The stock is made of steel pipes with a back plate and polyamide cheek support. The cheek stop is on the top of the butt and can take two fixed positions - for shooting with an optical sight (top) and for shooting with an open sight (bottom). The rear part of the receiver, the body of the firing mechanism and the trigger are slightly modified.

To simplify the maintenance of the rifle in the field, optimized operating mode of the vapor device and excluded from the design of the gas regulator. The flame arrester is much smaller than the SVD, but not inferior in performance. The length of the trunk is reduced, and the rigidity is increased by increasing its outer diameter. The small dimensions of the SIDS make it very convenient when working as a sniper in a city, in a hidden position, etc.

And yet, the SVD in its classic version no longer meets modern requirements. The alternative to it should, of course, not be a three-lane, but a modern high-precision system.

"Cracker"

And such a system appeared: about three years ago Izhmash introduced his new brainchild - the sniper rifle CB-98. In connection with the urgent need to have in the arsenal of a sniper a system of increased accuracy in the bureau of sports weapons, under the leadership of V. Stronsky, the sniper rifle CB-98 "Burglar" was developed.

The SV-98 sniper rifle was developed by the Chief Designer Department of Concern Izhmash, a group of authors under the leadership of Vladimir Stronsky, based on the Record-CISM 7.62 rifle sports rifle. Sizm. "

The SV-98 is designed to defeat enemy forces that appear, move, open and unmasked, unprotected and equipped with individual armor protection at a distance of up to 1000 m.

Izhevsk weapons. Sniper rifle "CB-98"


This weapon is based on the Record-CISM target rifle and is intended, as stated in the description, “to destroy emerging, moving, open and disguised single targets at ranges up to 1000 meters.” According to the manufacturer, the design is characterized by high reliability and softness of the mechanical part. The barrel is locked by turning the longitudinally sliding bolt into three symmetrically located lugs. The shutter has a hammer cocking pointer.

The trigger has a "warning" and allows you to adjust the trigger pull (from 1 to 1,5 kgf), the trigger stroke and even the position of the trigger relative to the box's handle. To the right of the bolt handle is a button-type fuse, which, when turned on, blocks the shutter (from opening), the sear and the trigger.



The supply of cartridges is made from the 10-local store, which has a special guide mechanism - to facilitate its adjacency in a combat situation, for example, by touch. In contrast to the SVD, the shop path is straight, and not with a turn toward the latch. The magazine's feeding mechanism is composed of levers connected in a parallelogram.

The barrel length 650 mm receiver laid on a fully adjustable box. The cutting pitch of the "sporting" type is 320 mm, which significantly increases the accuracy of shooting. Some disadvantage is that the barrel bore is not chrome-plated - this feature went from the CB-98 from the sports prototype. In this regard, the guaranteed survivability of the barrel is only 3000 shots - and even then, with careful care. In addition, to optimize harmonic oscillations when fired, the barrel is made "floating", i.e. along its entire length it does not touch the lodge.

The rifle's box has an adjustment of the butt length to 20 mm, the position of the butt plate changes up and down to 30 mm and right-left to 7 mm; butt comb is adjustable vertically in the 15 mm range, and horizontally - 4 mm.

Usually, the muzzle of the barrel has a silencer that increases the overall length of the rifle from 1200 to 1375 mm, but it allows you to effectively use the CB-98 when conducting special operations, especially in urban environments. Apart from the fact that the silencer reduces the sound of a shot by about 20 dB, it also reduces the recoil force almost by 30%. Instead of a silencer, a special protective sleeve can be wrapped around the barrel - it creates the necessary tension on the muzzle to improve the accuracy of the fire. The third possible muzzle device is a flame arrester.

If there is a need, an anti-point reflector is installed on the body of the muffler. For the same purpose serves the cloth belt, stretching over the trunk along its entire length. By the way, the need for the last two elements causes some doubt: nevertheless, the SV-98 is a system for solving special problems - it is unlikely that the sniper will have to fire from it intensively. But the fact that Russian developers began to take into account even such minor details to improve the convenience of the shooter can not but cause joy.

For firing CB-98, the manufacturer recommends sniper cartridges 7H1 and 7H14, as well as target cartridges "Extra". With such ammunition in the factory, the rifle shows accuracy within 60-70 mm when shooting groups of 10 shots at a distance of 300 meters. The initial speed of the bullet when using the 7H14 cartridge is 820 m / s, while the direct shot at the chest figure with a height of 50 cm reaches 430 meters.

In front of the box is a folding bipod, which has a separate adjustment of each coulter in height. When carrying a fry is removed inside the forearm, not speaking for the dimensions of the box.

A removable handle can be installed in the middle part of the box - in addition to being easy to carry, in the field it partially protects the telescope from accidental strikes.

The mechanical sight, located above the receiver, allows you to set the firing range from 100 to 600 meters every 100 meters. The aiming line is 581 mm.

The standard optics is considered to be the 1P69 Hyperon stencil. It is installed on the guide bar type "Picatinny" on the top of the receiver. This sight provides automatic introduction of aiming angles when determining the distance to the target or when setting a predetermined distance (for this purpose there is a special swivel ring). In addition, the 1P69 design allows searching, observing, and aimed shooting without changing the aiming angle at any magnification from 3 to 10x. On the seat can be installed any day or night sight of domestic or western production, having a world standard mount.

Speaking of sights. Western shooters spoiled by the abundance of weapon accessories have long been accustomed to the fact that a high-quality optical sight can be almost equal in price to the weapon itself, and this is normal, since a lot depends on the scope. In particular, the telescopic sight not only must have precise installation mechanisms for introducing even small corrections vertically and horizontally, but it also must allow the sniper to adjust it in accordance with the visual features (plus or minus 2 diopters), to have a variable multiplicity (optimally from 2 up to 10 is a multiple) and allow corrections for parallax depending on the distance to the target - at long distances and this matters. And the fashion for pancratic sights, which appeared in our country in the last few years, in which the multiplicity changes in accordance with the change in the distance setting and thus allows to determine this distance, has long passed in the West. The fact is that the distance is estimated very approximately, and the error in installations with a rather complicated mechanism is quite large. However, it is "Hyperon", according to many reviews, just combines the best qualities of conventional optical and pancritical sights.

"Burglar" is a rather heavy weapon: with a silencer and a "Hyperon" sight, the whole system weighs 7,5 kg. Great weight makes it stable when firing. Of course, in maneuverable combat operations, a sniper armed with a CB-98 will not be easy, but, firstly, accuracy is the main indicator of a sniper system, and secondly, it is a special-purpose weapon for solving special tasks.

SV-98 has repeatedly "participated" in competitions snipers power structures in Krasnodar and Minsk. Feedback from professional snipers is the most positive. However, the arrows point out minor flaws. For example, the minus is the individual adjustment of the details of each rifle, i.e. interchangeability of parts is missing. The rifle trigger mechanism is enclosed in an aluminum case, which makes it sensitive to impacts, inevitable in combat conditions. In addition, the reflector is not spring-loaded (as on most Western rifles). This means that to eject a cartridge case, the shutter must be vigorously retracted, which not only leads to a gradual loosening of the shutter, but also unmasks the sniper with a click when reloading.

The standard optical sight has its drawbacks: when the aiming angle is changed, the grid sometimes moves irregularly, the scales do not always move in accordance with the number of clicks.

Nevertheless, in the competition CB-98 competed on an equal footing with the most promising Western sniper - Arctic Warfire (AW). At the same time, the price of the Russian system is several orders of magnitude lower, which is important with a general shortage of funds from the security forces. It should be noted that the CB-98 is not an alternative to the Dragunov sniper rifle. This system is designed to perform special tasks, not for mass army sniping.

They say that Izhmash’s future plans include the release of an export version of the CB-98 chambered for 7,62х51 НATO. It is possible that the use of a wide range of high-quality Western-made ammunition will allow not only to enter the world arms market, but also to further increase the accuracy of the Vzlomschik sniper system.

What should be a modern sniper (part of 2)
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