So who was the “people's saint and wonderworker” Gregory Rasputin after all? Russian Cagliostro? The embodiment of evil? Or an ordinary rogue who had an unprecedented chance to play on the nerves of pampered high society fools? Director of the Police Department S.P. Beletsky recalled that “the gryshka-seer was at once both ignorant, and eloquent, and a hypocrite, and a fanatic, and a saint, and a sinner, and an ascetic, and a womanizer.” Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences A.P. Kotsyubinsky believes that Rasputin was a "hysterical psychopath." A characteristic feature of this type of personality is demonstrativeness, concentration on oneself and the desire to be in the center of attention. And since “among others, including the most high-ranking persons, in that vague era there was no firm certainty what they wanted more - a frighteningly unknown“ constitution ”or a“ sturgeon with horseradish ”that had been tested for centuries,” Rasputin had to be “holy”, and a devil at the same time ”(A. and D. Kotsyubinskie).
But let's start from the beginning: at the age of 24 years (the moment of “spiritual enlightenment”), the behavior of the dissolute village peasant Gregory suddenly changed: he stopped eating meat, alcoholic beverages, began to pray a lot and keep fast. According to some information, he led such an abstinent lifestyle right up to 1913. Then (in 1913), Rasputin suddenly stopped speaking in everyday language - the interlocutors themselves had to interpret his disjointed and mysterious phrases: “To a person, the more incomprehensible, the more expensive,” - he said once in a moment of frankness. At the beginning of his "spiritual" career, his countrymen laughed at him, but the dramatically changed way of life and extraordinary abilities did their work, and gradually a rumor spread around the village that a new prophet, a healer, a man of holy life, Gregory appeared in the village of Pokrovsk.
On the psychic capabilities of Rasputin, apparently, should be told separately. The first manifestations of the ability to heal in Gregory Rasputin appeared in early childhood, when he discovered in himself a talent to heal sick cattle. It is interesting that the boy’s father considered these abilities not free of God, but the devil himself and made the sign of the cross after each such “miracle”. Later, Gregory began to apply his suggestive abilities to people. The first patient turned out to be the daughter of a merchant Lavrenov, who “sits now and then screams all the way”. Rasputin recalled: “The sick woman has left, she is walking, the beast is roaring. I quietly took her hand, put her on the head, stroked her head. I look into her eyes, never take my eyes off. And she quietly so she with tears says: "Mom, this is my savior has come." Three weeks later, the girl was healthy. Since that time, a big conversation about me has gone. They began to call healer and prayer book. They began to pester everyone with questions: "what is a healer?" And then I realized that a person, the more incomprehensible, the more expensive. And he answered all the questions: “Not with grass or water, but with a word I fly” (Rasputin’s story). More - more. Rasputin healed a peasant who hadn’t been up to his feet for two months. From now on, “people started bowing to my feet ... And the great glory went about me. Women spoke especially about me. ” However, it should be said that in the case of a visit to Pokrovskoye of people from the closest royal entourage, Rasputin did not really hope for his popularity and preferred to be safe. At the beginning of 1912, waiting for Vyrubova, he addressed his fellow villagers: “The girlfriend of the Queen Mother goes to me. If I render honor to the whole village, I will be honored. ” The result exceeded all expectations: “Only we moved, but women and girls and many men rush under their feet:“ Our Father, Savior, Son of God! Bless! " Even he himself has gone crazy. ” In St. Petersburg, Rasputin for 10 minutes cured the son of a wealthy merchant Simanovich, who suffered from a disease known as “St. Vitus’s dance,” and Riputin Simanovich himself “encoded” from playing cards. However, Rasputin’s success in treating a hemophilia patient Tsarevich Alexei is most impressive. It has been proven that at least four times (in 1907, in October, 1912, in November, 1915, and at the beginning of 1916) he literally saved the heir to the throne from death. The court doctors could not explain these cases by a miracle. It has now been established that the use of hypnosis or a simple distraction of attention significantly reduces bleeding in patients with hemophilia. Rasputin anticipated this discovery: “Such people who have blood like that are beating, they are very nervous, anxious people, and they must be calmed down in order to calm the blood. And I knew how. ” Rasputin's psychotherapeutic and suggestive abilities were also appreciated by Nicholas II, who spoke to his entourage: “When I have concern, doubt, trouble, it is enough for me to speak with Gregory for five minutes in order to immediately feel strengthened and sedated ... And the action of his words lasts whole weeks. " The famous Felix Yusupov assured State Duma deputy V. Maklakov that “Rasputin has the power that can be found once in hundreds of years ... If you kill Rasputin today, in two weeks the empress will have to be placed in a hospital for the mentally ill. Her state of mind rests solely on Rasputin: she will fall apart as soon as he is gone. ” The Minister of the Interior, A. Khvostov, stated: “when I saw him (Rasputin), I felt utter depression”. Chairman of the III and IV Dumas, M.V.Rodzyanko, felt in Rasputin the “incomprehensible force of tremendous action”.
Rasputin was by no means the first national "holy and miracle-worker" to visit the high-society salons and grand-ducal palaces of St. Petersburg. Hieromonk Iliodor wrote in his famous book “Holy devil” that he could “write more books about Holy Mother Olga (Lokhtin),” “Blessed Mitya,” “About barefoot wanderer Vasya,” “About Matronoshka sandals” and others. However, in order to attract attention in the capital, there were few suggestive abilities and external signs of piety: you will come to the palace only when you call, and along the way you also bow to any riffraff. In order to become “great and terrible” Grigory Rasputin, it is necessary to cut your fist on the royal table with all its might, so that the dishes - on the floor, the emperor - would turn pale from fear, and the empress would jump from the chair. And then put the frightened crowned heads on their knees and make them kiss their purposely unwashed hands with dirty nails. “We need to speak with kings not with reason, but with spirit,” Rasputin instructed hieromonk Iliodor, “They do not understand the mind, but they are afraid of the spirit.”
“Rasputin entered the royal palace as calmly and naturally as he entered his hut in the village of Pokrovsky. It could not make a strong impression and, of course, made me think that only true holiness could put a simple Siberian peasant above all servility before earthly power, ”F. Yusupov admitted in his memoirs.
“He (Rasputin) behaved in aristocratic salons with impossible rudeness ... he treated them (aristocrats) worse than the lackeys and maids,” says the Petersburg merchant of the first guild of A. Symanovich.
“The elder” didn’t stand on ceremony with the high-profile fans in his native village of Pokrovsky: “In Siberia, I had many fans, and among these fans there are women who are very close to the court,” he told I. Manasevichu-Manuylov. They came to me in Siberia and wanted to get closer to God ... One can get close to God only by self-humiliation. And then I took the great ones in diamonds and expensive dresses, - I took them all to the bath (there were 7 women), everyone made a section and made me wash ”. And in order to “pacify the arrogance” of Anna Vyrubova, Rasputin brought to her cooks and dishwashers, forcing the maid of honor to the empress to serve them. However, in the event of a rebuff, Gregory was usually lost and showed fear. It is quite characteristic that Rasputin received resistance mainly from the merchants and petty bourgeoisie.
The first visit by Rasputin of St. Petersburg refers to 1903. The capital made an unpleasant impression on the wanderer: “They wish everyone to curry favor ... They eat one another ... They put the truth in a corner here ... It has become small, all is shaking, afraid to look out ... They say good words but they themselves have no idea about the good ... Hypocrites. ” Before the visit to the royal confessor and the inspector of the Theological Academy, Feofan Rasputin was advised to change clothes, because “the spirit from you is not good”. “Let him smell the peasant spirit,” replied Gregory. Such a “man of God” and “a righteous man of the people” made a pleasant impression on both Archimandrite Theophan and preacher John of Kronstadt, who was famous at that time. Later, Theophanes wrote that “in conversations, Rasputin discovered then not a book reading, but an gained insight into subtle spiritual experiences. And insight, reaching enlightenment. " And here’s how Rasputin himself recalled that meeting: “They took me to Father Theophanes. I approached him with a blessing. We have stared in my eyes: I am in him, he is in me ... And so it became easy in my soul. "Look - I think you will not look ... you will be mine!" And he became mine. ” Feofan was filled with such sympathy for the Siberian pilgrim that he even introduced him to the wife of Grand Duke Peter Nikolaevich Militsa (who had the funny title of Doctor of Alchemy). Rasputin quickly realized the situation: "He (Theophan) drove me like a bird of paradise and ... I understood that they would all play with me in a peasant." Gregory was not averse to play with the gentlemen, but only by his own, and not by someone else's rules.
As a result, on November 1, 1905, Mr. Milica, and her sister, Stan, introduced Rasputin to the emperor, whom the “elder” predicted the imminent completion of the “troubles” of the First Russian Revolution. In 1906, in Znamenka, Nicholas II met Rasputin again, as evidenced by the entry in his diary: “We had the joy to see Gregory. We talked for about an hour. ” And in October, 1906 was the acquaintance of Rasputin with the royal children. This meeting made such an impression on the emperor that three days later he recommended that Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin be invited by the “divine man” to his daughter, who was wounded during the assassination attempt on her father. And in 1907, the time has come for return visits: Militsa visited Rasputin in his native village of Pokrovsky. Soon Rasputin would become so comfortable in the imperial palace that he would force out the autocrat’s close relatives, and the sisters, along with their husbands, would become the worst enemies of the “holy man Gregory”. At the end of 1907, Mr. Rasputin, without touching Tsarevich Alexei, stopped the bleeding with a hemophilia of the heir to the throne by one prayer, and Alexandra Feodorovna for the first time called him "Friend." Since that time, the meetings of the imperial family with Rasputin became regular, but for quite a long time they remained secret. Only in 1908 did vague rumors reach St. Petersburg's high society: “It turns out that Vyrubova is friends with some peasant, and even a monk ... And what is even sadder is that Vyrubova has a peasant and a monk with the queen when she visits Vyrubova "(Entry in the diary of Generals Bogdanovich, November 1908). And in 1909, the palace commandant Dediulin reports to Gerasimov, head of the security department, that "Vyrubova had a peasant, most likely a disguised revolutionary," who meets there with the emperor and his wife. The first reaction of St. Petersburg’s “high society” was curiosity. Rasputin became popular and was adopted in a number of metropolitan salons. On Rasputin's visit to the salon of Countess Sofia Ignatieva, there were poems of the satirical poet Aminad Shpolyansky (Don Aminado), who was popular in those years:
There was war, there was Russia,
And there was the salon of Countess I.
Where is the newly appeared Messiah
Hlebal French au.
How well dope tar,
And women's nerves invigorates.
- Tell me, can I touch you? -
The mistress of the house says.
- Oh, you are so extraordinary,
What I can not sit,
You are supernatural mystery
Must probably own.
In you the quintessence of erotic,
You are a passionate mystic in mind,
Putting his mouth in a pipe,
The Countess is drawn to him.
She, like a butterfly, trembles
In the snare of distributed networks.
And the Countess's manicure shines
Against the background of mourning nails.
. . .
His plastic poses are
Beyond etiquette, without shackles.
Tuberose odor mixed
With a vigorous smell of pants.
And even poor Amur
Look awkward from the ceiling
On titled fool
And on a peasant tramp.
In this case, the author confused a little with the chronology: this episode could have happened no later than 1911. Then the attitude of St. Petersburg secular society towards Rasputin changed, and a war broke out in which the victory, as a rule, remained with the “old man”, who “on behalf of the disenfranchised peasantry took a farewell historical revenge on the morally worn-out “breed” of gentlemen ”(A. and D. Kotsyubinsky). It should be emphasized that the negative attitude towards Rasputin was not formed from below, but from above. The "old man" evoked active rejection mainly among the insulted by the tsarist attention to the "peasant" aristocracy and the wounded hierarchs of the Church. To the disenfranchised estates, stories about how high-class ladies lick the "old man's" fingers smeared with jam and pick up crumbs from his table were rather impressive. Unlike the eccentric and exalted aristocrats, the peasant and artisan people did not believe much in the sanctity of the "Slutty Grishka." And since there is no trust, then there is no disappointment. Ordinary people treated Rasputin in much the same way as Ivan the Fool from a grandmother's fairy tale: an illiterate and unremarkable peasant walked to the capital of the great kingdom-state on foot and fooled them all: the countess forced the floors to be washed in the house, and the tsar to mutton the horn bent, and the queen took amorous. How not to admire such a character: "even a scoundrel, but well done." In front of the people, loyal monarchists and well-intentioned extreme right deputies created a new fairy tale about a cunning Siberian peasant, a stupid tsar and a slutty queen, not realizing that, exposing the imperial family to everyone's ridicule, destroying respect for the sacred person of the Russian autocrat, they sign the verdict of the three-hundred-year-old monarchy, and of ourselves. Here is how N. Gumilyov wrote about Rasputin:
In thickets, in huge swamps,
By tin river,
In the logs shaggy and dark
Strange there are men.
. . .
In proud of our capital
He enters - God save me! -
Charm the Queen
. . .
How not to bend - o woe! -
How not to leave places
Cross on the Kazan Cathedral
And on Isakia's cross?
In 1910, Prime Minister P. Stolypin met with Rasputin, who, presenting the compromising materials collected for him to the “elder”, suggested that he “voluntarily” leave St. Petersburg. After this conversation, Stolypin tried to convey his concerns to Nicholas II. The emperor’s response was simply discouraging: “I ask you never to tell me about Rasputin,” said Nicholas II, “I can’t do anything anyway.” As the last trump card, the Prime Minister laid out the information that Rasputin was going to the bathhouse with women: “I know that he is preaching Holy Scripture there,” the king answered calmly.
In 1911 was The situation with Rasputin is already acquiring the character of a state scandal. Few people knew about Tsarevich Alexei’s illness, and Rasputin’s extraordinary proximity to the imperial couple in secular society was explained by sexual relations between him and Alexandra Feodorovna. Lifebath physician ESBotkin rightly remarked that "if it were not for Rasputin, the opponents of the royal family would have created him with their conversations from Vyrubova, from me, from whom you want." And indeed, at first rumors were spread about the unnatural connection of the empress unloved by all with Vyrubova, then about her close relations with General Orlov and the captain of the imperial yacht Standard, N.P. Sablin. But now Rasputin appeared and overshadowed everyone. A novel between the granddaughter of the famous Queen of Great Britain Victoria, the empress of All Russia, and a simple Siberian peasant, a former whip, a thief and a horse thief! One could only dream of such a gift to the haters of the imperial couple. These rumors and gossip should not be underestimated: "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion," says ancient wisdom. The comic ceases to be terrible and if the family of the absolute monarch becomes the object of ridicule and slander, only a miracle can save the monarchy. It should be said that the empress and, in part, the emperor, are themselves to blame for the situation. Any unbiased researcher will easily find many parallels in the behavior of Alexandra Feodorovna and Queen of France Marie Antoinette. First of all, both of them became famous for evading their court duties. Marie Antoinette left Versailles for the sake of Trianon, where, without an invitation, not only the dukes and cardinals, but even her husband — Louis XVI of France — did not have the right to enter. And Alexandra Feodorovna arranged the last costume ball at the Winter Palace in 1903. The result in both cases was the same: the high life moved to the salons of the aristocrats who were grateful, who were glad of any failure of the monarchs who neglected them. Suffice it to say that the joke that the Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, blown up by Kaliayev (whose head was on the roof of the Senate) "first dreamed his mind before dying," was born not in the working-class suburbs, but in the salon of the Moscow princes Dolgorukikh. The old clan aristocracy gradually passed into opposition to the emperor and the empress. Even the mother of Nicholas II, the widowed empress Maria Feodorovna, could not understand what was stopping the daughter-in-law from smiling and saying a few kind words during the reception, because “the empress’s public duty is to shine and captivate.” But Alexandra "stood like an icy statue and only the blind could not see how she was given official ceremonies." Even the modern researcher A. Bokhanov, who was very well placed to Nicholas II and Alexandra Fyodorovna, was forced to admit in her monograph on Rasputin: “Nicholas II’s wife performed her public solo party unsuccessfully: she did not deserve not only applause, but her number was flooded and zashkali as the curtain fell. As a result, according to the testimony of E. S. Botkin, the daughter of a life lab, “there was not a single self-respecting person in the capital who did not try to hurt her, if not Her Majesty, then Her Majesty. There were people who once were caressed by Them, who requested an audience with Her Majesty at a deliberately uncomfortable hour and, when Her Majesty asked to come in the next day, they said: "Tell Her Majesty that then I will be uncomfortable." Such “heroes” and “brave souls” were enthusiastically received in the best houses of Moscow and St. Petersburg. In 1901, before the appearance of Rasputin, on the proposal received through Dyagilev to continue the series of imperial and grand ducal portraits, V.Serov answered by telegram: "I don’t work for this house (the Romanovs)." On the other hand, even the intimate friends of the Family lost respect for the ruling persons. So, the famous Anna Vyrubova became so brazen that in 1914 Alexandra Feodorovna was forced to complain in a letter to her husband: “In the morning she was again very ungracious with me, or rather, even rude, and in the evening came much later than what was allowed to come, and led me strangely ... When you come back, do not let her rudely flirt with you, otherwise she gets worse. ” The main duty of Nicholas II was to retain the title of sovereign and autocratic monarch. It was his unwillingness to part with illusions and destroyed the family of the last crowned heads. The unfortunate emperor did not suspect that he was never a formidable and sovereign autocrat. His orders were often ignored or carried out in a completely different way than ordered. And both the high officials of the state and the palace servants allowed themselves this. The wife of Nicholas II felt it and continuously called on her husband: “Be firm, show a powerful hand, that’s what Russian has to do ... This is strange, but such is the Slavic nature ... ". A very significant long-term disregard for the emperor's personal orders to expel Bishop Hermogenes and Hieromonk Iliodor from St. Petersburg, which are December 16 1911. staged a wild mob over Rasputin. This order was executed only after a hysteria arranged by an “autocrat” to A. Makarov, the director of the police department. The emperor then "stamped his feet" and shouted: "What kind of autocratic king am I, if you do not fulfill my orders?" But how was Nicholas II’s order to protect Rasputin? The chief of the corps of gendarmes Dzhunkovsky and the director of the police department Beletsky at various times received this order of the emperor. Instead, they, as if by agreement, organized the surveillance of the “Friend of the Family” entrusted to their care. The resulting compromising material immediately fell into the safe hands of the implacable enemies of the emperor and empress. And the Minister of the Interior and the commander of the gendarmes corps, A. Khvostov (who received this post through the efforts of Rasputin and Alexandra Feodorovna), under the guise of a security organization, began to prepare an attempt on the life of his benefactor, but was betrayed by Beletsky. The guard of Rasputin was so poorly organized that several times the “Friend of the Family” was beaten with the full connivance of his bodyguards. The main duty of their guards revered the identification of the guests of his ward, and taking into account the time he spent with them.
But let us return to 1912, at the beginning of which, thanks to A. I. Guchkov (founder and chairman of the Octobrist Party), the rumors about the adultery of the empress receive documentary confirmation: in the salons and on the streets they eagerly read copies of a letter addressed to the empress Rasputin: “My beloved and unforgettable teacher, savior and mentor. How painful to me without you. I am only then quiet, I rest when you, the teacher, sit beside me, and I kiss your hands and bow my head on your blissful shoulders ... Then I wish me one thing: to fall asleep, to fall asleep forever on your shoulders and in your arms. ” After reading this letter, the hostess of the influential metropolitan salon A.V. Bogdanovich writes in her 22 diary February 1912 of February: “All of Petersburg is agitated by what Rasputin creates in Tsarskoe Selo ... The queen of this man can do anything. Such tell horrors about the tsarina and Rasputin, that it is a shame to write. This woman loves neither the king nor the family, and she ruins everyone. ” The letter that made so much noise was stolen from Rasputin by his former supporter, and later by his worst enemy hieromonk Iliodor. Later, Iliodor wrote the book “Holy Devils”, in the work on which he was assisted by journalists A.Prugavin and A.Amphitheatres, as well as the writer AM Gorky. This book, of course, added a few juicy strokes to the portrait of the Friend of the Tsar's family, but it did not contain anything fundamentally new: they told about the same thing in all corners and printed in all the newspapers. However, for publication in the United States, this book was banned on the grounds that familiarity with it could damage the moral integrity of the American people. Currently, some researchers (for example, A. Bokhanov) have expressed doubts about the authenticity of the documents cited by Iliodor. However, the quoted letter should still be recognized as real. According to the memoirs of Russian Prime Minister V.N. Kokovtsev, at the beginning of 1912 Minister of the Interior A.A. Makarov reported that he had succeeded in removing from Iliodor the letters of the tsarina and her children to Grigory Rasputin (total 6 documents). After the meeting, it was decided to hand over a packet with letters to Nicholas II, who “turned pale, nervously took out the letters from the envelope and, glancing at the empress’s handwriting, said:“ Yes, this is not a fake letter ”and then opened the drawer of his desk and sharp, completely unaccustomed he gestured an envelope there. ” Moreover, in a letter to her husband from 17 of September 1915, the Empress certified the authenticity of this letter: “They are not better than Makarov, who showed my letter to Our Friend to strangers”. Was there really a connection between Alexandra and Rasputin? Or was their relationship platonic? The question is, of course, interesting, but not fundamental: all segments of Russian society were convinced that there was a shameful connection, and the empress could only wash away this shame with her own blood. And what did the king's daughter write to Rasputin? After all, very indecent rumors also circulated about their relationship with the “elder”. Olga, for example, shares her intimate experiences with him: “Nikolai drives me crazy, my whole body shakes, I love him. It would have rushed at him. You advised me to be careful. But how be careful, when I cannot cope with myself ”. Here, perhaps, we should tell the story of the unhappy love of this princess. She fell in love with some noble nobleman from Poland. Parents, of course, did not want to hear about such misalliance, the young man was sent away, and Olga fell into a deep depression. Rasputin managed to cure the girl, and as the groom she was appointed Grand Duke Dmitry Pavlovich. However, Rasputin through his channels managed to get evidence of the homosexual relationship of the Grand Duke with Felix Yusupov. As a result, Dmitry Pavlovich did not receive Olga’s hands, and Yusupov was deprived of the opportunity to serve in the guard (the future killers of Rasputin, as we see, had reasons to hate the “elder”). In retaliation, Dmitry dismissed in high society salons a rumor about Olga’s sexual relationship with Rasputin, after which the unfortunate girl tried to commit suicide.
But back to the quoted letter of Olga. Awakening sexuality torments the girl, and she considers it quite natural to seek advice from a man whom her parents presented to her as holy and sinless. Olga does not suspect scandalous rumors and gossips, but the parents of the child are well aware of them. Warnings are poured in from all directions: from Stolypin, and from the widowed empress Maria Feodorovna, and from many others. And yet gentle parents allow a hopelessly compromised person to close communication with their teenage daughter. Why? Nicholas II sometimes experienced some doubts (“he hardly listens to me, worries, he is ashamed,” Rasputin himself admitted), but preferred not to aggravate relations with his beloved wife. In addition, Rasputin really helped the sick Tsarevich, and it was not at all easy to refuse his services. There was a third reason - the weak king was afraid once again to show his weakness: “Today they demand Rasputin’s departure,” he told the court minister V. B. Fredericks, “and tomorrow someone else will not like it, and they will demand that he leave too.” As for Alexandra Feodorovna, she immediately and unconditionally believed in the infallibility of the intercessor and mentor sent to her by heaven, and seriously compared Rasputin with Christ, who was defamed during her life and brought up after death. Moreover, the empress seriously said that Rasputin was more dear to her than the more they scolded him, because she "understands that he leaves everything that is bad there to come to her cleared." The fanatical admirer of the “holy elder”, Maria Golovina, once said to F. Yusupov: “If he (Rasputin) does this (is depraved), then with a special purpose - to morally harden himself.” And another fan of Rasputin, the notorious O.V. Lokhtina, stated: “For a saint, everything is holy. People make sin, and he only sanctifies and reduces God's grace. ” Rasputin himself at the court of arbitration with the participation of church authorities (1909) stated that "every Christian should caress women," for "caress is a Christian feeling." It should be said that most modern researchers are very skeptical about the sexual “exploits” of Grigory Rasputin. He draws attention to the fact that the worst enemy of the “old man”, hieromonk Iliodor (Sergey Trufanov), in his book “Holy devil” counted only 12 cases of “carnal intercourse”. In the polemical fervor, Iliodor got a little excited: the famous Anna Vyrubova, for example, turned out to be a virgin; the nursemaid of Tsarevich Maria Vishnyakova, whom Rasputin allegedly managed to deprive of her virginity in a dream, was recognized mentally ill, etc. Modern researchers A. and D. Kotsyubinsky believe that the matter is not in the chastity of the "old man", but in disorders of the sexual sphere, which hampered the full contact with women. “Not for the sake of this sin, which rarely happens to me, I go with the women to the bathhouse,” Rasputin himself assured his interlocutors. The report of the police agent on the visit of the prostitute by Rasputin is very interesting: “As it turned out during the investigation, when he came to the first prostitute, Rasputin bought her two bottles of beer, did not drink, asked to get undressed, examined the body and left.” Rasputin, of course, was not impotent, but the famous Boney M song about the “machine of love” is hardly true. However, Rasputin nevertheless found a brilliant way to compensate for the lack of supernatural sexual abilities: many admirers of the “old man” argued that, without entering into “carnal” relationships with them, he nevertheless delivered them pleasure, which they had never experienced with others by men. V.A. Zhukovskaya (“Bee”) testifies: “This was the kind of caress about which he said:“ I am only half for the spirit, ”and with which he caressed Lokhtin: bringing her to a frenzy, he put on prayer. Rasputin himself said: “These are the people who ernicate, that I live with the tsarina, and that Lesha does not know what kind of caresses more than that are.”
At the beginning of 1912, the name of Rasputin first appeared in the State Duma. A. I. Guchkov, already mentioned by us, made a request about the activities of Rasputin and the forces behind him: “How did this person reach this central position, capturing such influence, which external carriers of state and church power are inclined to. Just think about it: who is the boss at the top, who turns that axis, which drags both the change of directions, and the change of faces ... But Grigory Rasputin is not alone: unless there is a whole gang, a motley and unexpected company behind him, is his identity, and his spell? ”
Let's find out how real the influence of the “old man” was. Edward Radzinsky, for example, believes that for many years Rasputin was only guessing the thoughts and moods of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. However, he admits that at the end of his career “The Elder” achieved unprecedented power: “Since the times of the Russian empresses of the 18th century, the favorite has not reached such strength. Both the big Romanov family, the courtyard, and the ministers resisted him surreptitiously, hoping only for a secret conspiracy — they did not dare to speak openly. And Dr. Kotsyubinsky, MD, after analyzing historical documents, came to the conclusion that Rasputin "treated the kings ... as a full-fledged mentor, or, in modern terms, as a psychotherapist, truly understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the soul of his clients and directing to a certain direction, as well as to a certain extent forming their moods and thoughts. ” Historians have calculated that at least 11 people owe their exaltation to him: one of them (Stürmer) became the prime minister, three - ministers; two by the chief procurators of the Synod, one by the minister’s (deputy) minister, one by the chief procurator of the Synod, one by the metropolitan, one by the manager of inland waterways and highways, one by the governor of the Tobolsk province. It is a lot or a little - decide for yourself. The most interesting thing is that Rasputin himself had an extremely low opinion of his protégés: “The people whom Mom (that is, Empress Alexandra Feodorovna) and I are installing in the place of ministers are either a scoundrel over a scoundrel, or a sales pelt. What a sneaky people ... And from whom to choose the best? And so, as I can see, - only the two of us at Mom of those who are faithful to her heart: Annushka (Vyrubova) and me. Yes, what are we rulers. “As to what I bring to the House, I don’t know myself,” Rasputin confessed, “One thing is true, that I always wished them well. And what is good? Who knows? In response to the accusations that “I am like a bone in my throat to all the people,” Rasputin replied: “Never in a century can one person be the cause of such a fire. For a long time somewhere embers smolder ... And what about either me or another ... We can only swell this ember with our breath. ”
What was the intellectual level of the person who had such a deep and long-lasting influence on the Russian autocrat couples? It is known that Rasputin was distinguished by a bad memory, he read poorly and slowly, he could only count to one hundred. But together he could not refuse a practical peasant mind. The famous doctor and adventurer, Alexander III's godson P.Padmayev said that Rasputin is “a simple man, uneducated, but he understands things better than educated ones”. The commander of the Separate corps of gendarmes, PGGurlov, agrees with him, who recognized that Rasputin had "a practical understanding of current events, even of a state scale." “He offered me very original and interesting views in the conversation,” the former Prime Minister S.Yu.Witte recalled about his meeting with Rasputin. “A clever, talented peasant” was named by Rasputin, a prominent expert on religious sects and a prominent Bolshevik V.O. Bonch-Bruyevich. On the eve of making a decision on the famous Stolypin reforms, the Saratov Bishop Hermogenes implored Rasputin to persuade the Tsar “not to confirm the law, which is harmful for the life of the people” and received the answer: “My dear Vladyka! Do not worry, I spend the law. He is good". It is difficult to say how real the assistance of Rasputin was in this case, however, there is no doubt that the "elder" turned out to be, if not an ally, then at least not an opponent of Stolypin. But after a few years, Rasputin realized what a terrible explosive force a Decree from 9 in November of 1906 carries in him and changed his attitude towards reforms: “Petrusha decided to buy a peasant ... Zemtsey to cover his mouth. Allotments for the peasants secured. And fix this - INTO kerosene on the hay. Such a fire broke out in the village: a brother against a brother, a son against a father with an ax, climbed. One shouts: "I want to sleep on the ground", and the other - "I want to put on drink!" The muzhik's bone is cracking, and the cam, that bug, sucked korushki ". The negative attitude of Rasputin to the Black Hundred organizations is well known: “I don’t like them ... They do bad things ... Bad things are blood.” Rasputin was a fierce opponent of the European war, believing that Russia should not get involved in other people's affairs, but “restore order in the house.” It is to Rasputin's influence that many researchers attribute Russia's restrained reaction to the annexation of Austria-Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary. The only opponents of the impending war then turned out to be irreconcilable enemies - Stolypin and Rasputin. Interestingly, S.Yu.Witte considered Rasputin’s contribution decisive: “Undoubtedly, the Balkan war did not break out, we owe it to the influence of Rasputin,” the former prime minister testifies. One way or another, the war did not take place, and the newspapers together wrote about the “diplomatic Tsushima”. During the Balkan War, 1912-1913 Rasputin again did not allow the patriotic patriots to "protect their Slav brothers". “Brothers are just pigs, because of which you don’t have to lose a single Russian person,” he told a banker and publisher A. Filippov.
“During the Balkan war, he was against Russia's intervention,” A. Vyrubova testifies.
“He asked the tsar not to fight in the Balkan war, when the entire press demanded the performance of Russia, and he managed to convince the Tsar not to fight,” P.Badmayev asserts.
Subsequently, Rasputin repeatedly stated that if 1914 were in June he was in Petersburg, he would not allow Russia to enter the World War. While in the hospital in Tyumen (after the assassination of Hionii Guseva), Rasputin sends desperate telegrams to the Emperor 20 with calls “not to let insane people triumph and destroy themselves and the people”. After receiving the most decisive and categorical of them, Nicholas II faltered and canceled the already signed decree on mobilization. But in this position the weak emperor could not resist and allowed the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich to persuade himself to the thirsty for military exploits. When Rasputin was handed a telegram about Russia's entry into the war, "he was furious in front of the hospital staff, broke into abuse, began stripping bandages, so that the wound opened again and shouted threats to the king." Returning to St. Petersburg, Rasputin found that the emperor partially came out from under his influence and was under the control of militarist-minded circles of society, reveling in the "nationwide support for a just war" and "unprecedented unity with the people." With grief, Gregory washed down so that he temporarily lost his healing power (she returned to him after the train crash in which Vyrubova fell). It was from this time that the scandalous adventures of the “old man” in restaurants of Moscow and St. Petersburg began, and it was then that a circle of “secretaries” formed around him who began to trade in the influence of the “Friend” of the royal family. But Rasputin did not change his attitude towards war. In 1915 was he writes to the empress: "Whisper you to him (Nicholas II), to wait for victory, it means to lose everything." This year, Russian society has already forgiven with illusions about the imminent and victorious end of the war. Own blunders and failures on the fronts of the highest military command hastened to explain the activities of German spies and pests. This move should be recognized as extremely unfortunate, since the result of the espionage engulfing all strata of society was the accusations of “German” Alexandra Feodorovna and Rasputin at work on the German General Staff, who destroyed the last remnants of the prestige of the Romanov dynasty. In fact, it could only be about the participation of the Empress in the so-called soundings - unofficial negotiations about the conditions for a possible truce between Russia and Germany. In 1916 was Rumors about the betrayal of Rasputin and the empress were so widespread that Rasputin’s son Dmitry decided to ask his father the question: is he not a German spy? Rasputin replied: “War is a cruel thing ...” And there is neither truth nor beauty in it ... This is after all the generals and the priests need, shtoby them more crosses and salaries, but they won’t add you land, they won't build a hut ... German smarter than us. And he understands that the house (actually Russian territories) cannot be fought, and therefore the simplest thing is to finish it ... We need to end the war. And then her soldiers in the war, and the women here - will finish off. " That is exactly what happened! The famous playwright and publicist E. Radzinsky wrote that the Bolsheviks had won because they had realized the “bright idea of the dark forces - to make peace”. Being an opponent of the war, Rasputin, nevertheless, offers a number of ideas that, in his opinion, can improve the situation on the frontlines and in the rear. “Our Friend finds that more factories should produce ammunition, for example, candy factories,” writes 15 August 1915 of the emperor Alexander Fedorovna. In order to increase the sustainability of the state system, the “old man” proposes to increase the salaries of officials through additional taxation of the “capitalists”. Rasputin was capable of certain sacrifices. Neither he nor Nicholas II had any reason to treat well the deputies of the State Duma who had mercilessly criticized them, however, in February, the 1916 was heavy for Russia. Rasputin persuaded the emperor to visit parliament. The deputies were so touched by the attention of the monarch, that until the fall they behaved rather restrainedly towards the government. "Hunting season" was opened by the famous speech of P. Milyukov, known as "Stupidity or treason?". “And what does Rasputin do? Through the Empress persuades Nicholas II to award the Order of the Chairman of the State Duma Rodzianko. I must confess that when I studied the documents of that era I repeatedly had the idea that Rasputin was not lucky with the place of birth.
The famous attempt on Rasputin demonstrated, above all, the insignificance of his high society opponents. The Russian nobility lost drive, and it was no longer capable of serious action. Without special emotions, Alexei Orlov could order Shvanovich to strangle Emperor Peter III and then behave himself in the royal palace in such a way that Catherine II was shaking with fear at the sight of her benefactor. It cost nothing to “hit the snuff box in the temple” with Paul I to Nikolai Zubov. And Kakhovsky could not kill Nicholas I: instead, he shot General Miloradovich who sympathized with the Decembrists. Other leaders of the uprising brought the soldiers obedient to them on Senate Square, held them all day in the cold, and then - calmly allowed to shoot point-blank with a canister. It’s scary to imagine that I could mess things up, having under my command several thousand guardsmen of some kind of Mirovich! And in the beginning of the twentieth century, in order to cope with one man, it took the combined efforts of five distinguished representatives of the high society of St. Petersburg. 4 of the high society homosexual decided to crush the creep (Russia's best tennis player Prince Felix Yusupov, participant of the 1912 Olympic Games in Grand Duke Dmitry Pavlovich, officer of the Preobrazhensky Regiment, S.M. Sukhotin, military doctor, and part-time English spy, S.S.Lazovert), and V.Furishkevich, an extreme right-wing deputy of the State Duma. However, according to the latest information, there was also another participant in this action: a cold-blooded Englishman from the Secret Intelligence Service, who controlled the situation, and, personally convinced of the worthlessness of the high-society killers, apparently killed the "holy elder." The initiator of the murder of Rasputin was F. Yusupov, who initially decided to “remove” “revolutionaries” with his hands in search of which he appealed to State Duma deputy V. Maklakov (not to be confused with his brother - N. Maklakov, Minister of the Interior). However, the deputy was forced to disappoint the prince: “Don't they (revolutionaries) understand that Rasputin is their best ally? No one caused the monarchy so much harm as Rasputin; they would never kill him. ” I had to do everything myself. Naturally, it was not possible to keep the secret: rumors about the upcoming murder of Rasputin, in which Yusupov and Grand Duke Dmitry Pavlovich would take part, reached diplomatic salons (see the memoirs of the British Ambassador Buchanan) and the editors of some newspapers. However, the protection of the “Friend” was disgustingly organized, and no additional security measures were taken. The nerves of the performers were on edge. As a result, V. Maklakov, who promised to provide killers with high-energy killers, quivered at the last minute and gave them aspirin instead of potassium cyanide. Lazover, who was unaware of this, in turn, replaced aspirin with some other harmless powder. Thus, an attempt to poison Rasputin was deliberately doomed to failure. In the car, on which Lasovert had to pick up Purishkevich, the bus burst. Out in the middle of the night from the building of the State Duma Purishkevich spent a lot of time on the street and almost came back. The gates through which Purishkevich and Lasovert were supposed to pass to the Yusupov Palace were forgotten to open and they entered through the main entrance - in front of the servants. Then Lasovert fainted, and Grand Duke Dmitry Pavlovich proposed to move the killing to another time. Yusupov didn’t get into the heart of Rasputin from a distance of 20; as a result, the “old man” unexpectedly “came to life”: according to the recollections of Purishkevich, after that Yusupov had vomiting and was in an irresponsible state for a long time. The door to the courtyard was not closed, and the wounded Rasputin almost ran away from the conspirators. More - more. Immediately after the murder, Purishkevich suddenly remembered his descendants and decided to “stake out” his place in history: he called the policeman S. Vlasyuk and told him that he, a member of the State Duma Vladimir Mitrofanovich Purishkevich and Prince Yusupov killed Rasputin, and then asked him to keep this information in secret. With great difficulty getting rid of the body of the murdered man (they forgot about the prepared weights and threw them into the water after the corpse), the conspirators again gathered in the Yusupov Palace and got drunk. At about 5 in the morning, the drunken killers decided to go with a confession to Interior Minister A. Makarov. He, before clarifying the circumstances, asked Yusupov, Purishkevich and Dmitry Pavlovich to sign a written undertaking not to leave Petersburg. Having slightly sobered up, the conspirators came to the conclusion that “it is not safe to remain in the capital ...” decided to leave ... and only Dmitry Pavlovich decided to stay in the capital ”(Purishkevich diary). Only Purishkevich managed to escape. Investigator for Particularly Important Cases at the Petrograd District Court V.N. Sereda later stated that "he had seen many crimes clever and stupid, but he had not seen such stupid conduct of accomplices, as in this case, in all his practice." The conspirators did not have a clear plan of action: for some reason they thought that after the murder of Rasputin they themselves would develop in the right direction. Meanwhile, everyone was waiting for decisive action from them. The officers of the Guards regiments offered Dmitry Pavlovich to lead the night march to Tsarskoye Selo, but he refused. Grand Duke Nikolai Mikhailovich expressed at that time in his diary regret that Felix and Dmitry Pavlovich “did not finish the extermination that had begun ...
The weak king showed his weakness in this matter too: the law of the Russian Empire stated that in the case of a group case, all participants are judged by the authority in whose jurisdiction there is an accomplice who occupies the highest position. There was no special court for members of the imperial family in Russia: the tsar alone decided their fate. The Empress demanded that the murderers be shot, but Nicholas II confined himself to a purely symbolic punishment.