Military Review

"There is no other way how to break the Poles with the power and fear of death"

37
"There is no other way how to break the Poles with the power and fear of death"

370 years ago, in May 1648, the battle of Yellow Waters took place. It was the first major victory of the rebellious Cossacks over the Polish troops during the uprising of Bogdan Khmelnitsky.


prehistory

The prerequisites of the Cossack uprising, and then of the people's war, were associated with the anti-Russian policy of the Polish authorities - religious, national and socio-economic oppression of the overwhelming majority of the population of Western and Southern Russia (Small Russia). Only an insignificant part of the top of the West Russian population was integrated into Polish society and followed the path of polishing and bristling (assimilation). Most of the Russians were considered claps, “cattle” (herd), which they shorn and beat. This caused the Cossack and peasant uprisings, but they were poorly organized, had no external support and the Poles drowned blood riots. However, the contradictions did not go anywhere, only intensified due to the colonialist, anti-Russian policy of Poland. A new powerful explosion was brewing.

The reason for the beginning of the uprising was another manifestation of Polish arbitrariness. The Poles, led by under-warmer Chaplinsky, took away the farm Subotov from the registered colonel of the Zaporozhian Army Bogdan Khmelnitsky, ravaged the farm, according to some information, they spotted his ten-year-old son to death and took the woman with whom he lived after his wife's death. Bogdan had a high education at that time, an enormous military experience, a man who was intelligent and well integrated into Polish society, even had contacts with the king, who tried to limit the appetites of the magnates with the help of the Cossacks. Khmelnitsky began to seek justice and justice for these atrocities, but the Polish judges did not help him. Then Khmelnitsky was thrown into the prison in Mostostin, from which his friends set him free. A personal appeal to the Polish king, whom Khmelnitsky knew from previous times, was unsuccessful.

Khmelnitsky, having learned that he was going to be killed as a possible instigator of the new uprising, in December 1647 of the year went to Bottom (islands below the Zaporozhian Sich), where he quickly gathered a squad of hunters (volunteers) to settle scores with the Poles. With their help, Bogdan raised the Cossacks of the whole Sich. Khmelnitsky was elected hetman of the rebellious Cossacks.

Insurrection

Khmelnitsky was preparing the base of the uprising and fortified the island Butsky. Work to strengthen the camp conducted ataman Fyodor Lyuty. The camp was surrounded by moats and palisades. Now the island could not be taken on the move, he could hold a siege. As the troops grew, other islands and places were also strengthened in order to cover the approaches to the Sich from the north. Throughout Little Russia (Ukraine), people dispersed with letters ("inviting sheets"). Bogdan calls the people to revolt against the Polish oppressors. Cossacks and peasants sent from Zaporozhye to the volost establish contacts with the discontented throughout the region. Folk singers (kobzari) called on the people to go into the army of Bogdan. Registrants were sent to all the regiments of the regiment, who went over to the side of the rebels. They carried Khmelnitsky letters and carried out the corresponding agitation.

On the island and its neighboring islands, on the banks of the Dnieper began to arrive "plastuns", "meadows", "foresters", all sorts of Zaporozhye fishermen, who so strengthened the first detachment of Bogdan that it was decided to attack the Polish garrison, standing in the camp and around it . In the second half of January, 1648, the rebels unexpectedly attacked an enemy unit near the island of Khortytsya. There was almost no fight. Most of the registered Cossacks immediately went over to the side of the brothers. Polish dragoons, having lost more than thirty people in a short skirmish, fled. Together with them in Krylov to Konetspolsky arrived and their commander, Colonel Gursky. Then they surrendered without a fight and the remaining Cossacks of the Cherkasy Regiment. They handed over Khmelnitsky Sich with all the supplies and boats.

Thus, the uprising began, which quickly developed into a people's war of liberation. The fiery words of the first Khmelnitsky station wagon spread throughout Little Russia: “Do not obey your contract officers anymore, like slaves, you, whose fathers did not recognize any panic laws and did not obey any kings ... There is no other way against all those crimes that were committed to you only by force and fear of death to break the Poles ... Go to Zaporozhye to the inaccessible places of the Dnieper Basin, and strike the Poles ... It would be very good if Cossacks and peasants were hit without any delay at once and jointly. "

The words of the station wagon shook all the people, who had long ago saved their hatred against Polish oppressors and parasites - both Cossacks, peasants, and bourgeoisers, all who wanted to break free from the gentry. Zaporizhia Network becomes the core of the uprising. In a very short time, in just two or three months, the first detachments of the rebel army are created in the Sich. Hardened in battles and campaigns, the Cossacks of Bogdan conducted “courses” of combat training — they trained volunteers in hand-to-hand combat, fencing, shooting, and the basics of military tactics.

The news of the uprising did not seriously disturbed the Polish gentry. Emergency measures are being taken to strangle the rebellion in the bud. So that the Cossacks did not break into the lower reaches of the Dnieper covered by unrest. Polish tycoons and Polish authorities organize punitive expeditions against the rebel villages and villages. Barriers and ambushes are inserted against the fugitives. The population is taken away weapon. Courts worked without rest to intimidate people. Especially the Poles were afraid that the Cossacks would come out of the Sich to the "volost" and unite with the rebels in the Dnieper region, and then peasants, tradesmen and Cossacks of the Left Bank and the Right Bank will rise. Garrisons in the Ukraine are increasing. They are replenished with a large number of mercenaries. Each tycoon exhibits their squads. In particular, Jeremiah Vishnevetsky had a whole army.

The leadership of all government forces in Little Russia was handed over to the crown hetman Nikolai Pototsky and his assistant, full hetman Martin Kalinovskiy. 20 February 1648, Potocki conveyed an ultimatum to the rebels. He offered the rebels to seize and betray Bogdan. Otherwise, he threatened: “Know that if you do not fulfill my will, I will order you to take away all your property in the volosts, and cut your wives and children”. Pototsky also frightened the insurgents by the performance of Russian troops and Tatars against them. When the intimidation did not help, the hetman ordered the colonel of the Kanevsky Regiment Regiment to perform in Zaporozhye and suppress the uprising. To help him were given the strength Chigirinsky and Pereyaslav register regiments. Pototsky also publishes a station wagon about the collection of all the crown troops that were in Ukraine, in Bar. Stretching there, they moved to Cherkasy, where the magnate forces were to join them.

To gain time, Pototsky moves from threats to proposals. He offers Khmelnitsky to surrender, and in return guarantees security and promises to return the farm Sabbot. In order to persuade the Cossacks to surrender, the Polish hetman sent his pet, Captain Ivan Khmeletsky, and Colonel Krichesky, who were old acquaintances of Khmelnytsky and knew many of his Cossacks. However, Khmelnitsky well knew the price of all these promises. He sent the Hetman's ambassadors back with the requirements of withdrawing all Polish troops from the Ukraine, liquidating the Ordinance 1638 of the year, and eliminating all Polish gentry from Zaporizhia. He knew that the crown hetman would never agree to these requirements. Bogdan also wanted to gain time.

Search for allies

Khmelnitsky was a good politician. Speaking his teeth to the Polish envoys that he was not a rebel and has no hostile plans against the royal power, but only seeking justice, Bogdan prepared for war and sought external support. He understood that without external support the powerful Rzeczpospolita could not be defeated. After the first victories, while Poland did not come to its senses, it will be necessary to consolidate success, with the support of the interested external force. Knowing that Pototsky was trying to defame him in front of Moscow, Khmelnitsky tried to establish contact with the Russian kingdom. In order to strengthen the long-standing friendship and agree on joint actions, I contacted the Don Cossacks. He also sent representatives with friendly assurances and a request for help to the Crimean Khan.

Meanwhile, the Polish magnates, fearing the intervention of Moscow, tried to negotiate the rebels in front of the Russian government. Messengers from the Polish authorities in Little Russia sent dozens of letters to the Russian border authorities in which events in Zaporozhye were covered in the most black light. For example, it was reported about the desire of the Cossacks, along with the Crimean Tatars to attack the Russian kingdom. The Poles wanted to provoke a conflict between Russia and the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks in order to create distrust of Moscow from the side of the Western Russian population.

Don Cossacks at the request of Khmelnitsky sent for help detachment. Ivan Bohun also arrived, who helped the Don Cossacks to fight with the Tatars and the Turks, who tried to destroy the main city of the Don Army Cherkassk and strengthen themselves in the mouth of the Don. The glory of Bohun as a skillful warrior and a desperate brave man boomed all over South Russia.

The logic of the war said that it is impossible to sit endlessly in the Sich. Potocki hastily assembled troops. Polish punitive sank the rebel villages in the blood. Having crushed peasant speeches, the Poles could go to the Sich. The Cossacks had to go to densely populated areas, to the big cities, where the masses of peasants, Cossacks and burghers would join the rebels. It is necessary to incline the registered Cossacks to their side. The support of all the people is needed. And only then it will be possible to measure power with the crown army. In addition, we need an alliance with the Russian kingdom. The idea of ​​reuniting the two parts of Russia and the Russian people had widespread support in Little Russia.

At the initial stage, a temporary alliance with the Crimean Khanate was also necessary. It was impossible to prevent the union of the Crimea and the Commonwealth. The Cossacks could not win the war on two fronts. The strike of the Crimean horde from the rear ruined the whole uprising. Therefore, two embassies were sent to the Crimea. One headed Klysh, the other - Kondrat Burlyay. Initially negotiations did not produce results. A mediator in the negotiations was made close to Islam Giray III Khan Murza Tugay-Bey, who was given back his son, previously captured by the Cossacks.

In the Crimean Horde was restless. The throne under the khan was reeling. In order to consolidate his power and weaken his dependence on Ports, Islam-Girey dismissed Viseer Sefer-Ghazi-agu, the appointee of the big feudal lords, from his post and replaced Mahmet-aga with a devotee. Dissatisfied to know rebelled, the war began for the throne. Han himself needed support. He sent an ambassador to the Polish king Vladislav demanding a tribute that had not been given for several years. But received a resolute refusal. In this case, the Crimean ambassador is indicatively insulted. When the ambassador asked to be allowed to kiss the royal hand, he was refused, allowing only to touch the edge of the royal cape. Crimean ambassador said he considers it a declaration of war.

Therefore, the Khan needed an ally to punish Poland and at the same time cover the Crimea from a possible Polish strike. The bloody civil war subsided. Sefer-Ghazi swore allegiance to the khan, was forgiven, and returned the position of the Vizier. But the lull was temporary. Bogdan and Zaporozhye foremen knew this. It was decided to make a new attempt. Khmelnytsky went to Giray himself. Negotiations took place in Bakhchisarai. The Khan Murzas were divided: some, encouraged by gifts, entered into a profitable alliance with the Cossacks, others were against the union, since the Cossacks were the old enemies of the Crimean Tatars. Khan himself feared that it was a trap. That the Cossacks are sent by the king and want to lure the Crimean army and bring it under the blow of the gentry army.

As a result, Khmelnitsky, in order to calm Islam Giray, swore on his saber in the presence of all the Khan murz. As a hostage in the Khan's headquarters remained the son of Hetman Timothy. It was a difficult forced step that led to a lot of blood in South Russia. But there was no other way. After that, the Khan agreed to an alliance against Poland. Thus, both sides found a temporary ally against Poland, although they were perennial enemies. To help Khmelnitsky Khan singled out a horde under the command of Tugay Bey, one of the most influential nobles of the feudal opposition group. That is, Giray immediately "killed two birds with one stone". On the one hand, he struck at Poland and was freed from the detachment of a dangerous feudal oppositionist who could be defeated and die. On the other hand, he protected himself from the possible dissatisfaction of Poland and Turkey, they say, the disobedient vassal leads the war, and the khan is not guilty. At the same time, Girey retained the possibility of reconciliation with Poland. He immediately sent a messenger to Pototsky and Vishnevetsky, whom he knew well, with assurances of friendship.

Thus, having concluded an alliance with the Crimean Khanate, Khmelnitsky proved to be a reasonable politician and diplomat. Poland suffered a serious diplomatic defeat; at the height of the uprising, the Cossacks gained a strong ally and secured their rear. Also, the alliance with the Crimea warned Turkey to enter the war on the side of the Commonwealth. Although, as the future showed, the Tatar detachments played a supporting role in the fight against Polish troops, preferring to engage in looting and taking people to full. However, the strategic importance of the union of Zaporozhye and Crimea was obvious. One performance of the Crimean horde against the rebels in the midst of their war with the Poles led the uprising to defeat.

At the end of February 1648, Khmelnitsky left Bakhchisarai. With him was 4-thousand. Tatar horde led by Tugay Bey. 18 April Khmelnitsky was at the Sich. Cossack officers supported Khmelnitsky. Gathered rad. The first made ataman Fyodor Fierce. He spoke of the oppression that the people endure from the Poles, that it was time to free themselves from them. What Khmelnitsky decided on the "military against the Poles deal with the insults and gravity of the Cossacks and all Little Russia from the Poles" and that the Cossacks and all the people support him in this. Koshevoi announced an alliance with the Crimean Khanate. Rada also supported Khmelnitsky. Also elected hetman who will lead the people to the holy war. They became Khmelnitsky.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
National Liberation War of Bohdan Khmelnytsky

370 years ago, the national liberation war of the Russian people against the Polish invaders began
As the Poles pursued a policy of genocide of the Russian population who did not want to live in slavery
"The Russian land will rise, it has never risen as never before"
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  1. avt
    avt 11 May 2018 07: 29
    +9
    The reason for the beginning of the uprising was another manifestation of Polish arbitrariness. The Poles, led by under-warmer Chaplinsky, took away the farm Subotov from the registered colonel of the Zaporozhian Army Bogdan Khmelnitsky, ravaged the farm, according to some information, they spotted his ten-year-old son to death and took the woman with whom he lived after his wife's death. Bogdan had a high education at that time, an enormous military experience, a man who was intelligent and well integrated into Polish society, even had contacts with the king, who tried to limit the appetites of the magnates with the help of the Cossacks. Khmelnitsky began to seek justice and justice for these atrocities, but the Polish judges did not help him. Then Khmelnitsky was thrown into the prison in Mostostin, from which his friends set him free. A personal appeal to the Polish king, whom Khmelnitsky knew from previous times, was unsuccessful.
    bully Well, for officialdom it’s okay, although they have already discussed more than once or twice about Chaplinsky, who was taken by the farm in court, and about the friend-king, who advised Khmel to “understand the concepts.” Yes, and about Khmel's girlfriend, with whom he lived. . ,,. by civil marriage "well, at that time in fornication, unlike Chaplinsky, who actually got married to her bully Well, about the award shabluku from the King of Poland, for his salvation under ... Smolensk seems from the Russians, it would be necessary to remember that. And then it’s not clear how Hops so famously climbed with the King wassat .All the same, here on the site people are mostly adults, you could write everything in an adult way. bully
    1. Knizhnik
      Knizhnik 11 May 2018 09: 47
      +3
      Well, for officialdom it’s alright, although it’s been discussed more than once or twice about Chaplinsky, who was taken by a farm in court

      +1 It is better to write as is, the truth will always come out.
      with whom he lived .. ,,. by civil marriage "well, at that time in fornication, unlike Chaplinsky, who actually got married to her

      Khmelnitsky, who apparently loved the “Lyashka” for a long time, even during his wife’s life, claimed that she had been taken away by force, Chaplinsky, on the contrary, complained that she was tired of it, since she had only “sailor”, and she married him voluntarily. With Chaplinsky married in the Catholic rite, a few years later - with Khmelnitsky already in the Orthodox (with a living husband). In general, that little thing, to match Elena Troyanskaya: there were litigation, and duel, and abduction, and as a result of the war. Eh, they did not listen to the advisers who reproached, saying that the light came down on her like a wedge or something, they found because of whom.

      And then it’s not clear how Hops so famously climbed with the King

      +1 And here the matter is not only in the case near Smolensk. The king wanted the Cossacks for him to be like marines for the Amer president - to fight without the consent of the Congress, that is, the Sejm. And what was the phrase that the Cossacks themselves were to blame for the fact that, having a saber, they allow themselves to offend?
      1. Weyland
        Weyland 12 May 2018 18: 17
        0
        Quote: Knizhnik
        In general, that little thing, to match Elena Troyanskoy: there were litigation, and duel, and abduction, and as a result of the war

        EMNIP, in the end, her stepson hung her - supposedly for treason.
      2. Weyland
        Weyland 12 May 2018 18: 19
        0
        Quote: Knizhnik
        The king wanted the Cossacks for him to be like marines for the Amer president - to fight without the consent of the Congress, that is, the Sejm.

        Judging by the fact that he even secretly financed Khmelnitsky - he had one more important task: to “knock out” PMCs of opposition-minded magnates with the help of Cossacks!
    2. Monarchist
      Monarchist 11 May 2018 12: 51
      0
      To do this, you need: a) an appropriate mind; b) desire, or you can write for speed more simply
  2. Bar1
    Bar1 11 May 2018 07: 33
    +2
    The army of Bogdan Khmelnitsky totaled up to 150 thousand people at different periods of the war with Poland.
    http://cyclowiki.org/wiki/Армия_Хмельницкого
    if it was an army of tramps and rags of the runaway slaves, then where did this army come from? to equip an army with guns, this requires DEFENSE industry. Extraction of ore, coal, blast furnaces for smelting cast iron, further steelmaking, manufacture of gunpowder. To make gunpowder you need to extract sulfur, coal and nitrate. Here it is very difficult to produce nitrate. In short, the victorious army of Bohdan Khmelnitsky could not rely on the weak economy of the Cossack Zaporodsky Sich, as historians tell us, and under this army there should be a well-defined and powerful economically basis for a strong state. This basis could only have one country in Russia-Moscow of those years, therefore, the army of Bogdan Khmelnitsky is not an army of tramps and robbers, but a regular army of Russia. So the story becomes more understandable.
    [media = https: //vk.com/video166874787_164078353]
    1. hhhhhhh
      hhhhhhh 11 May 2018 09: 03
      +6
      then where did this army come from?
      Voentorg
    2. already a Muscovite
      already a Muscovite 11 May 2018 21: 32
      +1
      Quote: Bar1
      this requires the defense industry.

      Come on...? Then Afghanistan and Somalia are directly famous for their weapons factories.
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 11 May 2018 22: 19
        0
        Quote: already a Muscovite
        Quote: Bar1
        this requires the defense industry.

        Come on...? Then Afghanistan and Somalia are directly famous for their weapons factories.


        would you just mind out of the blue?
        Afghan mujahideen are partisans who organize road mining, raids on roadblocks, but did not carry out frontal attacks on regular Soviet units and did not have heavy weapons. But the army of Bohdan Khmelnitsky had all this.
        You do not understand history in military affairs either.
    3. arturpraetor
      arturpraetor 12 May 2018 13: 17
      0
      You forget the specifics of those territories and that time. Almost every year people visit Crimea, do you need to defend yourself if you don’t have time to get out of the Tartar’s blow - not just one drek? And this really was a regular problem, at that time the Tatars went to the Moscow region much less often, because there were serif features, and in general why go far. Actually, many even poor families had in their stocks self-propelled weapons of one degree or another of antiquity and workmanship. Or did you think about "thrifty Ukrainians" stories, and jokes about grandfather and submarine arose from scratch? laughing Actually, it was read that Jeremiah Vishnevetsky in front of the Khmelnichchina tried to seize the firearm from the peasants so that they had nothing to rebel against him, and was stunned by the amount seized - despite the fact that he was sure that they had not found it even more stupidly. True, there is a possibility. what a bike it is.
      But by itself. this is not the only source of the gunshot was. And they bought through Crimeans for the loot from the same lords, and seized from the Poles, and took the gum. help from the king, where without it. Plus, in the Kiev region in Polesie at that time there were certain production capacities, they could produce some firearms themselves, although I couldn’t find accurate information about the quantity and quality, and they couldn’t work for Khmelnitsky regularly, because in fact they were directly in the war zone and often passed from hand to hand.
      1. Antares
        Antares 12 May 2018 13: 57
        0
        Quote: arturpraetor
        captured from the Poles

        in several victorious battles of the train, the equipment of the gun = -on the whole army. Plus arsenals in the captured cities. Plus military money (treasury of Poles_values, Poles lovers in their carts to carry all valuables). At first, the Poles fled in panic, did not destroy. Well, Bogdan prudently accumulated strength.
        1. arturpraetor
          arturpraetor 12 May 2018 14: 12
          0
          Plus personal master's arsenals, in which at times one could find a very high-quality firearm, and even in large quantities. By the way, these quantities were for the same reason - in order to defend themselves against the Tatars or rebellious peasants by arming the servants. In general, in Ukraine (miles sorry for an anachronism for some ears and eyes, but it’s easier) there were really a lot of weapons of that time - the region is violent, dangerous, the nomads always strive to raid, it is just right to compare with the Wild West in the USA. And in general there were no problems with the personnel - they knew how to hold weapons in their hands then not only Sichwaers and registrars, there were enough veterans of past wars, but they also could have their own weapons stocks ...
    4. Weyland
      Weyland 12 May 2018 18: 25
      0
      Quote: Bar1
      if it was an army of tramps and rags of the runaway slaves, then where did this army come from?

      the militia men had self-made weapons (or trophy weapons). But the Cossacks in that era were, as it were, not the best army in Europe in terms of providing a firearm - each Cossack has 4 pistols + a musket! External financing was also, of course - but at first the king himself financed this rebellion, he dreamed of tying magnates, then Turkey, to which Khmelnitsky promised to surrender to vassality, and Moscow was already connected in the end.
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 11 May 2018 09: 05
    0
    Cossacks could not forever remain "second-class people." But the lords didn’t do otherwise. Has accumulated. And there’s no need to write an icon with anyone. From Bohdan Khmelnitsky all the more. But the memory remains. And he successfully agreed with Crimea.
    1. Knizhnik
      Knizhnik 11 May 2018 09: 54
      +1
      Cossacks could not forever remain "second-class people." But the lords didn’t do otherwise. Has accumulated.

      Influential Cossacks are accustomed to consider themselves equal gentry. Litigation Khmelnitsky, IMHO, many simply opened their eyes to inequality.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 11 May 2018 11: 45
        +1
        Yes. And their children were educated by the Poles. But they were no match. Although the whole picture of the fragments is not easy to collect.
        1. Weyland
          Weyland 12 May 2018 18: 28
          +1
          Quote: Korsar4
          And their children were educated by the Poles

          The same Khmelnitsky graduated from a Jesuit college in Lviv - and learned a lot from them, and the Jesuits really gave (and still give!) The best education in the world, plus they taught to trick, hunt, etc.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 12 May 2018 23: 21
            0
            Aramis alone is worth it. And what can be a layer of exorbitant literature.
      2. avt
        avt 11 May 2018 14: 21
        0
        Quote: Knizhnik
        Influential Cossacks are accustomed to consider themselves equal gentry. Litigation Khmelnitsky, IMHO, many simply opened their eyes to inequality.

        But it’s interesting - the author finds it hard to describe the further adventures of the Orthodox Cossacks without gloss? Well, all the throwing of Hops and his son? It would also be nice if the author listed the conditions on which they were accepted into the Kingdom and which acted until the betrayal of Mazepa. In general, the Getmanshchina, in addition to slaughtering the "Silent" landlords, lived practically on the rights of a confederation. The only restriction on the fact was not to conduct foreign policy activity on the rights of the subject.
        1. Knizhnik
          Knizhnik 11 May 2018 15: 27
          0
          Maybe you will try it yourself, you will somehow be more lively, without officialdom?
          1. avt
            avt 11 May 2018 16: 32
            +3
            Quote: Knizhnik
            Maybe you can try it yourself

            No. I do not fundamentally take up articles for the site. I don’t want to swagger, but seriously write, well, somehow it’s necessary to work professionally not with Internet sources. I believe that work for the public should be done with respect to the readers, or not done at all, which does not exclude its critical analysis. There are still quite a few such authors on the site. Well, not just self-affirming, but quite interested in the subject they are writing about, and quite professionally sometimes. By the way! I highly recommend the book, if I passed by, because it was not widely announced - not fiction and not Akuninism, namely, ,, The journey of the Antioch Patriarch Makarii to Russia in the half of the XNUMXth century described by his son, Archdeacon Pavel Alepsky "Practical travel notes of eyewitnesses with a description of small things The death of their eldest son, Khmel, they seemed to be in Moldova. In particular, they were struck by the scenes in Moscow when they saw that Muslims in public on the street personally received the blessing of the then Orthodox priests. This fact was shocking for the Antiochian Arabs of Christians.
            1. Knizhnik
              Knizhnik 12 May 2018 15: 20
              0
              I don’t want to swagger, but seriously write, well, somehow it’s necessary to work professionally not with Internet sources.

              And I have the same hi Damned laziness, someday I will overcome it and write something good
        2. Curious
          Curious 11 May 2018 22: 45
          0
          "But it is interesting - the author finds it difficult to describe the further adventures of the Orthodox Cossacks without gloss?"
          No, it doesn’t. The author is a hostage of his own lies. Therefore, he deprived himself of the opportunity to rip off the gloss, only to suggest. Otherwise, it will not be in the stream.
  4. Monarchist
    Monarchist 11 May 2018 13: 40
    0
    However, the clandestine pans acted more than recklessly: after all, they understood that Bogdan would need allies and that Crimea was one of the potential allies, and they significantly humiliated the envoy Islam Girey. In fact, they help Bohdan Khmelnitsky.
    Comrades, or I’m slow-witted or the author is not attentive to the sources: “The Tugai-Bey Murza close to launching Islam Girey was the mediator,” and further: “he singled out the horde under the leadership of Tugai Bey, one of the most influential nobles of the Opozitsmona feudal group.” I do not understand how you can be close and one of the leaders of the opposition? In my opinion it is as possible as fried snow. Or Islam-Giray was not friends with his head at all: to make his close associates a man who sharpened a knife against you.
    1. Curious
      Curious 11 May 2018 23: 06
      +1
      Yes, Monarchist, it is clear that in intrigue you are absolute zero. How will you defend the ideals of monarchism, because monarchism does not exist without court intrigue.
    2. Weyland
      Weyland 12 May 2018 18: 30
      0
      Quote: Monarchist
      I do not understand how you can be close and one of the leaders of the opposition?

      "Keep your friends close and your enemies even closer!" - old oriental wisdom
  5. Monarchist
    Monarchist 11 May 2018 13: 45
    0
    Quote: hhhhhhh
    then where did this army come from?
    Voentorg

    The Lord heeded the prayers. : “I hope no one doubts the power of the Holy Virgin?” (“Secrets of the Burgunsky court”)
  6. Molot1979
    Molot1979 11 May 2018 16: 12
    0
    Quote: Bar1
    where did this army come from


    And who said that this army was well armed? The Cossack core is by itself, there the reserves were not bad, and the defense industry was available. Yes, and Moscow tossed whenever possible. The bulk, the one from the former serfs and bourgeois, armed themselves with whatever they could. Reforged braids, flocks, peaks and other rubbish. Well, we’ll add trophies, because at first Khmelnitsky inflicted several serious defeats on the Poles, they probably picked up a lot of weapons on the battlefield. To arm the whole crowd in the first rank? Unrealistic, and unnecessary. You need to wave a saber for many years of training, and you can’t train anyone with a squeak.
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 11 May 2018 18: 37
      +1
      Quote: Molot1979
      And who said that this army was well armed?

      Naturally, our story is fiction for the demented, historians always emphasize that the Cossacks were barefoot and not warriors, but runaway slaves. But this is complete nonsense if you only turn on the brains. The Bosak army of Bohdan Khmelnitsky took 20 POLISH CITIES. Is that braids and pitchforks? The Polish army of those years was one of the most combat-ready in Europe. In order to take a medieval fortified city, guns and large-caliber mortars are needed, a lot of gunpowder is needed, nuclei, bombs, grenades are needed.
      You’ve entered a military review, but don’t know how many times a soldier changes his weapon if intense clashes take place. The resource of any small arms is limited, so any gun after a certain number of shots becomes ineffective because accuracy decreases. After the battle, the weapon deteriorates and fails, so the soldier changes his weapon several times during the war. This also applies to cold steel, after there is little that remains of a cruel slash from a saber and the warrior needs to either repair the saber or change it.
      Therefore, in order not to be left without weapons, the army should always have a strong rear and its own production of weapons. But the fact that someone was captured there is just talking to fools, you won’t win trophies, or rather trophies are just for robbers .
      1. already a Muscovite
        already a Muscovite 11 May 2018 22: 06
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        Quote: Bar1
        . Bosyak army of Bohdan Khmelnytsky took 20 POLISH CITIES

        So the armies of Razin and Pugachev, too, took the city, and also there were many starving people in them. So no wonder ...
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 11 May 2018 22: 11
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          Quote: already a Muscovite
          Quote: Bar1
          . Bosyak army of Bohdan Khmelnytsky took 20 POLISH CITIES

          So the armies of Razin and Pugachev, too, took the city, and also there were many starving people in them. So no wonder ...


          Yes, no, my friend, to make analogies based on incorrect assumptions - it is a matter of mistake. The armies of Razin and Pugachev were not the same armies of the fugitives, but were armies that had both a rear and a production base. The story was different.
          To understand how the regular army deals with the rebellious people, read-The Chembarnik Uprising.
      2. Antares
        Antares 12 May 2018 14: 44
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        Quote: Bar1
        Therefore, in order not to be left without weapons, the army should always have a strong rear and its own production of weapons. But the fact that someone was captured there is just talking to fools, you won’t win trophies, or rather trophies are just for robbers .

        agree
        for example
        Musket with a padlock, modern reconstruction.
        K. Lipa, O. Rudenko. "Vysko Bogdan Khmelnitsky"

        It is known that the Cossacks were not uncommon to have newfangled flint locks and even wheeled locks - reliable, but extremely expensive. Such progress in armament is most likely due to the presence of a large number of hunting weapons captured in magnate arsenals.
        Do not think that the industry that was in Ukraine at that time stopped the production of weapons and ammunition for Hops.
        In addition, they seized money and other values, easily convertible into weapons in the same Moscow / Turkey, etc.
        Khmelnitsky’s army captured 90 guns, huge stocks of gunpowder: the cost of trophies was estimated at a huge amount of 7 to 10 million gold.

        Battle of Pilyavtsi
      3. Weyland
        Weyland 12 May 2018 18: 36
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        Quote: Bar1
        This also applies to edged weapons, after a cruel slashing from the saber, little remains and the warrior needs to either repair the saber or change it.

        a matter of quality - it was so with consumer goods, and the highest quality blades have served for centuries!
        Quote: Bar1
        you won’t win trophies, or rather trophies are just for robbers

        And the Cossacks, in your opinion, who? The Vikings, by the way, fought almost exclusively with captured Frankish swords - their own products sucked: “Kjartan delivered terrible blows, but the sword was no good. He had to throw him to the ground and straighten his blade with his foot” (Saga of the People from Laksdal)
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 12 May 2018 21: 37
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          Quote: Weyland
          a matter of quality - it was with consumer goods, and the highest quality blades have served for centuries


          I don’t know about very high-quality ones, but to take any saber or saber and the same one and cross it in a strike, both blades will suffer, on both will be serrated.

          Quote: Weyland
          And the Cossacks, in your opinion, who? The Vikings, by the way, fought almost exclusively with captured Frankish swords - their own products sucked: “Kjartan delivered terrible blows, but the sword was no good. He had to throw him to the ground and straighten his blade with his foot” (Saga of the People from Laksdal)


          Did they steal swords from the Franks while they were sleeping or beat the Franks with sticks, until they gave the swords? Stupid, like that.
          1. Weyland
            Weyland 13 May 2018 13: 13
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            Quote: Bar1
            take any saber or saber and the same and cross in the strike, both blades will suffer, on both will be serrated.

            Keyword: "same." But it was possible to cut consumer goods with an elite click without much risk:

            Everywhere on the nails, hooks and loops of old
            Traces of saber strokes are visible:
            Kohl saber managed to cut a nail head,
            Without jerking the blade - appreciated zygmuntovka!

            Quote: Bar1
            Did they steal swords from the Franks while they were sleeping or beat the Franks with sticks, until they gave the swords?

            The Vikings were very fond of attacking the sleeping ones - and they beat the Franks with axes.
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 13 May 2018 18: 39
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              Quote: Weyland
              The Vikings were very fond of attacking the sleeping ones - and they beat the Franks with axes.

              if swords defeated with axes, then why would they knowingly have worse weapons?
  7. Weyland
    Weyland 12 May 2018 18: 09
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    Although, as shown by the future, the Tatar detachments played a supporting role in the fight against the Polish troops, preferring to engage in robberies and taking people to the brim.

    However, without the help of the Tatars Khmelnitsky did not win no one the battle!