Military Review

Break through the wall without breaking a head. H. 7

17
Preparations for the Summer Offensive of 1917 led to the fact that Russian troops in technical (especially artillery) respect were at their best.


The calculation rate for this operation applies to the South-Western Front - 1 division in the first line on the 2 km of front, as well as 60 guns (half of them are light guns and a third - howitzers) and 16 mortars per kilometer of the front. Trench Guns - 8 per division.

Since the combat capability of the majority of Russian units in revolutionary conditions was tending to zero, the command of the Southwestern Front had to raise the capacity of the troops — shock units were formed from the best soldiers and officers, and the troops were saturated with equipment. In fact, for the first time during the war, the volume of ammunition was not limited - and a wide range of combat missions fell on the artillery.

Russian troops managed to achieve a tactical breakthrough.

E. von Ludendorff noted a significant amount of ammunition used by the Russians during the offensive in Eastern Galicia. [Ludendorff E. Decree. cit. C. 434]. So, on the front, assisting the offensive of the South-Western Front of the 10 Army of the Western Front, “The destruction carried out was very solid. The trenches of 1 and 2 lines are badly damaged; partly destroyed, partly filled up with many dugouts and machine-gun nests, both behind the trenches and in the nodes and behind them. The destruction of the flanking faces was weaker ”[See. Artillery standard. Part of 1 ; Artillery standard. Part of 2 ; Artillery standard. Part of 3]. In order to destroy more solid defense units, the commanders of artillery groups attached others to the working batteries, sometimes massaging fire up to 4 batteries in one area. Batteries that performed their tasks received new ones. Light artillery cleared and widened the aisles made in the wire fences.

M. Hoffman wrote about the battles with the troops of the Russian Western Front, that the German command had to worry about when the Russians broke through the German front near Krevo. Strong artillery fire managed to detain the Russian troops, already penetrated into the German positions, and then force them to surrender the occupied trenches. Because of the revolution, the Russian army lost a significant part of moral stamina - the situation would have become more difficult before. [Hoffman M. War of Opportunities. C. 153].

So, according to the Russian soldier-front, artillery preparation was carried out brilliantly. The German wire barriers were swept away, and the regiment with small losses broke into the 1 line of dilapidated enemy trenches. The 2-I and 3-I lines of the German defense were taken in combat, and then the German counter-attack was repulsed - and about 200 German corpses left to lie, buried in the ground. But behind the 3 line, the Russian chains lay down, demanding a shift - at the rally it was promised that the guard would lead the shift as soon as the German lines of defense were broken. The 6 th Finnish regiment refused to attack further - he was waiting for the Guardsmen to replace them. But when the regimental committee sent a delegation to the Guards Corps, it turned out that the soldiers of the latter were not going to attack - in fact, the corps was led by a Bolshevik-minded committee, which was against the offensive [History Civil War in the USSR. T. 1 M., 1935. C. 140].

The summer offensive of 1917 was indicative of the thoroughness of its preparation.

Engineering reconnaissance was carried out, infantry and artillery positions were built, corps and army artillery depots, heavy dugouts and observation posts, dirt and highways, wide-gauge and narrow-gauge railway lines.



False batteries were built, masking of artillery positions was widely used - and none of the masked batteries were discovered before they opened fire. Only on the day of the battle - according to the brilliance of shots - did the enemy manage to install Russian batteries.

The batteries were supplied with wattles for installation in front of the guns - to reduce the effect of dust from shots, especially to the unmasking artillery during the dry season. Especially for wetting wattle with water on the wells were built wells. The batteries were dragged in with wire nets (the color of the terrain) - and then everything was painted to match the environment. Some batteries used wooden shields instead of nets, which fell down with earth and were painted.


Disguised 152-mm howitzer battery. Forest Radiotin, South-Western Front, June 1917

For example, the 4-gun battery of the 9-Mortar Artillery Battalion was disguised using nets with interlocking live branches in them - this masking cover was painted green, as well as the battery dugouts and its observation post. When masking the 2 heavy battery, the letters F extracted the earth were stained, and to destroy the shadows, brushwood was laid, which was also watered with a solution of paint. After the installation of the battery was completed, two large panels were painted in a protective color, of which 2 tents were installed, mounted above the implements.

When masking actively used overlap of brushwood. The parapets and brushwood were brown with green spots (imitating the color of a grass-covered plowed field). Earth mounds were painted green.

1 is a separate heavy battery of letters Ж and 2 of the 12 of the siege park near der. Troszyants, who were on the chalky soil, were masked with white canvas, for which a skeleton was arranged over each weapon and a canvas was stretched, and the extracted white earth, scattered in small areas, was sometimes painted dark brown. This gave the impression of a plowed field with white spots (the latter looked like the roofs of dugouts built in this area in the spring of 1917).

Used as an assistant, and harvested material - sleepers, mats, shields, masks, nets, etc. Bridges were painted in the color of water, artillery cellars - in the color of meadows, rails and sleepers - in the color of the highway, etc. It was spent on data works up to 3 tons of paints, 1,2 tons of soot, 256 kg of naphthol, 672 kg of chalk, 288 kg of lime, and up to 9 tons of cement.

Intelligence work has also given great results. By the beginning of the operation, it was adjusted to 70% of enemy batteries. The positions of the enemy batteries could be determined either by a serif system using sound measuring methods or by observing from tethered balloons. A high-quality connection was established - at least 2-3 communication lines stretched from each observation point to the battery.

The artillery ammunition plan was drawn up in advance. The technique of using artillery was also reasonable. After the end of the shooting, the artillery of each corps proceeded to the shooting for the destruction of the enemy positions assigned to them, and to the destruction of the wire barriers. In addition to artillery and mortars worked.

During the artillery preparation, the artillery of each corps repeatedly made false transfers of fire — the Germans opened barrage and found and confirmed the locations of their batteries. The advancing Russian infantry was accompanied by a barrage of fire, the schemes of which were distributed to the commanding staff - up to company commanders inclusive.

The summer offensive of 1917 is an extra example of the fact that the technician cannot compensate for the lack of morale and will to win.

Austro-German troops localized the Russian offensive.

In many ways, this was facilitated by the fact that in 1917 they applied a new tactical device - the so-called. “Counterattacks from the depths”: significant infantry masses hit the enemy that had broken through from the depth of defense (5-8 km from the front edge), acting under the protection of second-line artillery. Russian troops (and so largely lost their combat capability during the period of “deepening the revolution”), breaking through the first line, counterattacked before they managed to gain a foothold and tighten their artillery.


Атака


As a result, the operational-tactical doctrine of the Russian army during the period of positional warfare in 1917 was based on the following main elements: the fortified band consists of a number of fortified rifle positions interconnected by communications and artillery positions; the number of rifle positions is no less than 3's, but depending on the depth of their defenses there can be more; the distance between the 1 and 2 lines of defense is approximately 300 steps, between the 2 and 3 lines - 500-1000 steps; the depth of the reinforced strip at 3's rifle lines is up to a kilometer; besides the main fortified lane, in the near rear (kilometers in 6-8) there was a rear fortified lane; the rifle positions were a series of staggered strongholds, surrounded by 2-3 with artificial obstacles and interconnected by means of defense of communications moves; the width of the breakthrough front depends on the goal, available forces and means, terrain properties - for the greatest impact force a relatively small area is needed (length along the front is 1,5-2 km), but expandable to the sides of the flanks by at least 3-4 km (better 7- 8 km) in each direction; accordingly, the total width of the front of the attacked area is 10-20 km; all calculations, efforts and means of an attacker, including artillery preparation, should be directed to breaking through the entire fortified band of the enemy at once - preferably one non-stop offensive; for the success of a breakthrough, an infantry division must be assigned to every kilometer of the section being broken, at least 1 infantry regiment must be assigned to every kilometer of a section adjacent to the breakthrough, and in the near rear to develop the strike - 1-2 divisions (i.e., to break through the 8 front - 10 km need 2-3 corps from 5-6 divisions, and on the front 15-20 km - 3-4 corps from 7-8 divisions); On the 1, a breakthrough front km is needed - 40 light and 20 heavy guns, and on 1 km of neighboring attacked sites - 15-20 light guns.



The ending should ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Break through the wall without breaking a head. H. 1
Break through the wall without breaking a head. H. 2
Break through the wall without breaking a head. H. 3
Break through the wall without breaking a head. H. 4
Break through the wall without breaking a head. H. 5
Break through the wall without breaking a head. H. 6
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  1. Brutan
    Brutan 14 May 2018 05: 38
    +9
    Learned to break through
    And ammunition order
    Yes, that's just a revolutionary year spoiled
    1. Horseman without a head
      Horseman without a head 14 May 2018 06: 23
      +17
      Yes, that's just a revolutionary year spoiled


      when the regimental committee sent a delegation to the Guards Corps, it turned out that the soldiers of the latter were not going to attack - in fact, the corps was led by a Bolshevik-minded committee, which was against the offensive

      H.t.
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 14 May 2018 06: 13
    +1
    the amount of ammunition was not limited

    Witnesses of Bolshevism claim the opposite ....
    1. Horseman without a head
      Horseman without a head 14 May 2018 06: 21
      +21
      On the contrary, dear Olgovich, just the same in special editions of 20-30. 20th century, published by military experts of the Red Army and indicates that after the operations of August-September 1914, the Summer Offensive of 1917 was the only one where there were no problems with ammunition.
      A hurricane of fire, steel and equipment sought to make up for the degradation of the democratized infantry, which had lost the will to win. And the spirit turned out to be preferable to technology ...
      1. Brutan
        Brutan 14 May 2018 06: 33
        +7
        It should be noted that by the spring of 1917 the Russian army was better than before, provided with the main types of military equipment

        The state of the Russian army in the spring of 1917 was fundamentally different from the previous one. Previously, by the beginning of an operation on a particular front, there was no doubt about the combat effectiveness of the troops, and the main difficulty was the poor material and technical support of the hostilities. By May 1917, the situation had changed. For the first time during the war, material and technical support, including heavy artillery, shells, etc., did not cause much concern, but the combat readiness of the troops who did not want to fight anymore was also not satisfactory for the first time during the war.

        This is Kavtoradze A.G. The June offensive of the Russian army in 1917 // VIZH, 1967, No. 5.
        1. Horseman without a head
          Horseman without a head 14 May 2018 06: 37
          +17
          But in Art. Ammunition Supply Evolution:
          And in 1917, Russia coped with difficulties in satisfying the needs of its army with regard to light and medium caliber shells, gradually freeing itself from foreign dependence. More than 14 million shells of the first type arrive this year (of which about 23% are from abroad), and over 4 million are delivered to medium-caliber guns (with the same% of overseas stock). In the case of shells for TAON, the quantity of ammunition ordered from outside was 3,5 times higher than the productivity of domestic industry. In 1917, about 8 thousand shells were delivered to the 12 - 110-inch guns.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 May 2018 06: 58
        +4
        Quote: The Headless Horseman
        On the contrary, dear Olgovich, just the same in special editions of 20-30. 20th century, published by military experts of the Red Army

        You, SW. comrade, I recommend the imperishable and the Bible of witnesses of Bolshevism: "A short course in the history of vkpbe"written by yourself you know by whom. About the June offensive:
        There was no doubt that the offensive would fail. And it
        really failed. Fatigue of soldiers, their lack of understanding of the goal
        offensive, distrust of the commanding personnel alien to the soldiers, a lack of
        shells and artillery
        - All this determined the failure of the offensive at the front.

        And where is the "opposite"? belay
        PS This netlenka gives answers to ALL questions of history yes
        1. soldier
          soldier 14 May 2018 08: 36
          +18
          And I really liked it - Witnesses of Bolshevism. Just like Jehovah.
          Well, by the way, a short course in the history of the CPSU is not serious, we’re talking about the work of military specialists. wink
          I wanted to know your Olgovich opinion on this issue. You know, your opinion is always important to me.
          Repeatedly in the comments on the VO it was said about the goals of wars, the Patriotic ones are not Patriotic, etc. People do not understand that a war can start as a domestic one, but have imperialist results, and vice versa.
          I wanted to say something about the PMV. It does not count for Russia that the German bloc was legally recognized by AGRESSOR, and its member countries legally and actually attacked Russia (Turkey - in general, as Germany later attacked Russian ports and ships without a declaration of war on June 22, 19141). These people say that the imperialist desire of Russia to resolve the issue of the Black Sea Straits makes the war imperialistic.
          But after all, the USSR, which led the Second World War, in 1943-45. He also wanted to resolve the issue with the Black Sea Straits (and without even fighting with Turkey) - the Transcaucasian Front was created, the issue of the Straits was repeatedly raised by the Allies and discussed at conferences (starting with Tehran). Just the Turks did not enter the war, otherwise the Straits would surely be ours.
          Is such a desire on the part of the USSR not imperialistic?
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 14 May 2018 09: 10
            +3
            Quote: soldier
            Well, by the way, the Short course in the history of the VKPb is not serious, we are talking about the work of military specialists

            I wrote about non-military specialists and their lies.Because it was they, and not the military experts in closed inaccessible publications, who determined the views of society on the Second World War (some still have). The dear rider tried to refute precisely this.
            And he turned out to be wrong: in their most important Talmud, it is deceitfully written about the LACK of shells in the June offensive.
            Quote: soldier
            People do not understand that a war can begin as a domestic war, but have imperialist results, and vice versa. Is such a desire on the part of the USSR not imperialistic?

            In my humble opinion, World War II cannot subsequently become imperialistic, because their meaning and purpose is protection from the attacking aggressor with his subsequent punishment, and non predatory goals initially. There is nothing imperialistic in the straits, königbergs, indemnities and reparations, for this pay aggressor for crime of attack.
            As there is nothing criminal in punishing the offender., Incl. by confiscation of his property, for his deeds. IMHOhi
            1. soldier
              soldier 14 May 2018 09: 30
              +16
              I understood you.
              But the question is still controversial. It is not for nothing that after 1945 the WWI basically ceased to be called imperialist. Simply, the actions of any empire are aimed at "imperialism." What annexations after 1812 and 1945 - we know.
              But that’s all right. I'm talking about something else.
              You wrote.
              there is nothing criminal in punishing the offender., incl. by confiscation of his property, for his deeds
              And where is the edge of rationality and justice? Who will install it? And couldn’t it be like this - at first protecting one’s own land, and then robbing someone else’s - moreover disproportionate?
              But even that is okay.
              Indeed, based on your wording, the predatory goals of Russia in WWI initially were absent - after all, the pre-war agreements within the Entente were defensive (as the Entente itself was a defensive alliance against German aggression), and the Straits agreements, which appeared in March 1915, during the war, fall under your wording
              it is the retribution of the aggressor for the crime of attack.
              - After all, Turkey, without declaring war, attacked Russia in October 1914, inflicting a treacherous armed strike on ports and ships.
              hi
              1. XII Legion
                XII Legion 14 May 2018 09: 56
                +16
                Soldier
                the grasping goals of Russia in WWI were initially absent

                Yes you are right.
                Firstly, the Entente is a defensive alliance. Allied military activities began only after the hostile activity of Germany Here it was not about territorial increments, but about how to keep what you have.
                Straits agreements that appeared in March 1915, during the war

                And secondly, it really wasn’t planned before the war and, in general, six months of hostilities have already passed - the Strait Agreement was dated March 1, 1915. So this is Turkey’s punishment for its aggression against Russia, and, as it is rightly said, a treacherous blow (akin to the Japanese in January 1904 or the Germans in June 1941).
                I think, if Turkey entered the Second World War - we would have divided it as nice, even though the war is for us the Great Patriotic War.
                But it’s a pity that she didn’t enter wink
                1. soldier
                  soldier 14 May 2018 10: 09
                  +18
                  They can really say - as it is, the Russian operational plans provided for an invasion of foreign territory, in Galicia and East Prussia.
                  The answer is simple.
                  There is no need to confuse global goals (to confront the aggression of the German bloc and German hegemony in Europe) and the form of military operations (active, putting a database on enemy territory). After all, the best defense is offensive. Defensive war does not mean that you need to sit on the defensive, defensive wars can also be waged with the help of offensive actions.
                  However, the Red Army, I remember, planned to wage a defensive war not only with little blood, but also in foreign territory
              2. Olgovich
                Olgovich 14 May 2018 10: 17
                +3
                Quote: soldier
                It’s just that the actions of any empire are aimed at “imperialism.” What annexations after 1812 and 1945 - we know.

                The very definition of "imperialist wars" was introduced by Marxism. Therefore, I think that the concept of imperial war is not applicable to the non-imperialist USSR, at least on the basis of this.
                Quote: soldier
                And where is the edge of rationality and justice? Who will install it? And couldn’t it be like this - at first protecting one’s own land, and then robbing someone else’s - moreover disproportionate?

                This line is thin and unsteady, I agree. At each-OUR understanding of justice.
                But the general guidelines, as it were, are somehow imperfect, but there are, with a creak formed (and is now being formed, but it is not known when, after all, will be formed)) international law. Recall and very recent FIRST meeting of the peoples of the world, convened Russian Emperor in The Hague in 1899, 1907, where first it is formulated that assault, aggression is a crime, was the Charter of the LN, Nuremberg, there is the UN ..... TOTAL a little more than a hundred years have passed, the shortest term .....
                My personal opinion (in no way hated by anyone) is that Russia, in general, has always been right. And this is because, no matter how pathetic it sounds, Russia is the most, so to speak, conscientious among all ... Was and is. IMHO. hi
                1. soldier
                  soldier 14 May 2018 10: 24
                  +17
                  I agree with you hi
  3. Horseman without a head
    Horseman without a head 14 May 2018 06: 24
    +18
    Very factually interesting information.
    Thank you
  4. BRONEVIK
    BRONEVIK 14 May 2018 09: 18
    +18
    Thanks for continuing
    In the photo “Attack” you can see clouds of shrapnel tearing in the air - above the battlefield. A good answer would be to one hero who somehow could not decide in the comments on one article - shrapnel is torn in the air or not in the air smile
    The summer offensive of 1917 is an extra example of the fact that the technician cannot compensate for the lack of morale and will to win.

    So what is more important - technology or fighting spirit? Still - the spirit, but with the reasonable help of technology. The spirit is more important - as the Siberian shooters showed, in September 1914, without the support of the lagging artillery, the Germans drove the Germans back from Warsaw and the heroes of 1915 - fought with the Austro-Germans armed to the teeth with their silent artillery without shells. This was proved by the 1917 "brothers" - fleeing to the rear with only sound of shots, and refusing to attack - even if the hurricane fire of their artillery had already paved the way for them and made the lion's share of their work. Well, because it is not provided for at the rally)
  5. XII Legion
    XII Legion 14 May 2018 09: 59
    +16
    The summer offensive of 1917 is the highest step in the tactics of the offensive actions of the Russian army in conditions of positional war.
    Successful yes
    It was a pity that it was not possible to develop - objective reasons (the main one - the gradual loss of combat readiness by the bulk of the army) prevented.
    Thank you!