And personally, I consider him the great-grandfather of the Russian special forces.
Peter Kotlyarevsky was the son of a priest from the village of Olkhovatka, Kharkov province. Initially, and following in the footsteps of his father, he studied at the Kharkov Theological School.
Chance changed his fate: in winter, 1792 was visited by their house in Olkhovatka, hiding on the road from the snowstorm, Lieutenant Colonel I. Lazarev. Lazarev, who had just surrendered the battalion of the newly formed Moscow Grenadier Regiment, and traveling for a new assignment, really liked the clever son of a village priest who was visiting his father at that time. Wanting to somehow thank the host for the hospitality, Ivan Petrovich offered to take the little boy to his army as soon as he settled himself. Stepan Yakovlevich took the word from the officer that he would take care of the teenager as if he was his own son.
After a year, in March, 1793, a sergeant of the Kuban Eger Corps arrived from Lazarev and took the boy Peter to Mozdok. Lazarev commanded the 4 battalion of the Kuban Chasseurs Corps. Peter Kotlyarevsky was enrolled as a Fourier in the Lazarev 19 battalion in March 1793. A year later, in 12 years, he gets the rank of sergeant. In 15 years Kotlyarevsky, participates in the Persian campaign (1796) Russian troops and the storming of Derbent.
In 1799, he was promoted to second lieutenant and appointed adjutant to Lazarev, then already Major General and Chief of the 17 th Huntsman Regiment, accompanied him in going through the Caucasus Mountains to Georgia. Shortly before his appointment to Georgia, Ivan Petrovich Lazarev lost his wife and young daughter. The only close friend was Peter Kotlyarevsky. Ranger having marched past 36 days through the Greater Caucasus Mountains, 26 November 1799 entered Tiflis. The meeting of the arriving troops was accompanied by an extraordinary solemnity. Georgian King George XII, together with the princes and numerous retinue, personally met IP Lazarev with bread and salt outside the city gates.
In 1800, Kotlyarevsky took part in the reflection of the 20-thousandth detachment of Lezghins who had approached Tiflis and received the rank of staff captain. After the tragic death of Lazarev, the commander-in-chief in the Caucasus, Prince Tsitsianov, offered Kotlyarevsky to be his adjutant, but he decided to change his staff service to a front-line and achieved his goal: he received a company of his own 17 regiment of his own.
During the storming of Ganji, the strongest fortress of the Baku Khanate, the staff captain Kotlyarevsky goes ahead of his company. In this battle, he received his first wound: a bullet hit him in the leg at the moment when he climbed the outer fortification of the fortress. For the assault, Ganji Kotlyarevsky received the rank of major and the Order of St. Anne 3.
With the beginning of the Russian-Iranian war 1804 - 1813. Kotlyarevsky name thundered across the Caucasus.
In 1805, he and his company as part of the detachment of Colonel Karyagin defended Karabakh from the Persian invasion, took part in the battle on the Askarani River. A small Russian squad, outnumbered in 400 people and 2 guns, was cut off at their camp. Left to himself, Karyagin 4 of the day bravely defended itself against a ten-thousandth Persian detachment, great losses were aggravated by betrayal: more than 50 people led by Lieutenant Lysenko deserted, hunger and thirst greatly weakened the detachment, which also lost many dead and wounded. In this stalemate, Major Kotlyarevsky proposes a bold plan: at night, secretly or through, pass through the Persian troops and seize the fortified castle of Shah-Bulakh, under the control of the Persians, and hold to the last extreme.
The plan was very risky. Night military operations are considered the pinnacle of military art even today, to say nothing of those years. But the plan was crowned with complete success: the Persians simply did not expect such impudence from the Russians. Breaking through the Persian order, the Russian battalion went to the fortress. The detachment immediately knocked the garrison, which consisted of 150 Persians, and took the defense. The situation of the Russians has improved. The Persians, not hoping to take the castle by force, went to the siege. After 7 days, Karyagin received precise information that the main forces of the Persians were moving to the fortress. Aware of all the danger of remaining in Shah-Bulakh, Karjagin decided to make his way into the mountains to the fortress of Mukhrat. At first, the wounded were secretly transported there, and then the whole detachment, along with the guns, moved forward. The Persians noticed a retreat from the Shah-Bulakh Russian squad only when he was already 20 versts from the walls. When the path was blocked by the moat, the Käglyarevsky keeper, who were leading the way, descended into it, and from their bodies and guns, laid on their shoulders, organized a ferry over which their comrades and cannons crossed. Near Mukhrat the detachment was overtaken by a Persian detachment of about 1500 people, but this attack was easily repelled. Having taken refuge in Mukhrat, the Russians withstood the attack of many thousands of Persian troops for eight days until the governor of Georgia, Prince Tsitsianov, arrived in time.
By his actions with a small detachment, Karyagin held the entire Persian army until Tsitsianov managed to gather so many troops that he could move himself.
In 1807. 25-year-old Kotlyarevsky was promoted to colonel. The following year, he participated in a campaign in the Nakhichevan Khanate, in the defeat of the Persians at the village of Karabab and in the capture of Nakhichevan.
From 1809, he was entrusted with the security of all Karabakh. In the dowry battalion under his command, there are 2 headquarters officers, 9 chief officers, 20 non-commissioned officers, 8 drummers, 380 rangers (total 419 people) and 20 Cossacks.
When in 1810, the troops of Abbas-Mirza, the son of the Shah of Persia, invaded this region, Kotlyarevsky with a jaeger battalion moved towards them. Having only about 400 bayonets, without guns, he decided to storming to seize the strongly fortified fortress of Migri.
The Persians were completely confident in their defense. Only two roads led to Migri and both were fortified by the Persians. The fortress itself, in addition to the walls and 2. 000, the man of the garrison also had natural fortifications in the form of sheer cliffs, considered impassable. To attack such a fortified in the forehead was pure suicide.
But Kotlyarevsky did not stop it. Leaving the wagon train, at night (in general, night operations, this commander’s business card) along the mountain cliffs, he and his detachment walked around the fortress and attacked it from the rear. Having made a false attack from one front, he attacked from another and took it in a fit.
The outcome of the battle: 2 000 Persian garrison knocked out of an important strategic fortified point. In the detachment of Kotlyarevsky, lieutenant Rogovtsov and 6 rangers were killed, 29 people were injured, including Kotlyarevsky himself, who was wounded in his left arm.
Abbas-Mirza was stung: he had a keeper almost under his nose, seizing an important strategic center on Arax. Ahmet Khan was ordered to take the village of Migri back. Five thousand Persians besieged the fortress. Ahmet Khan was preparing for an assault, but the British advisers (to some extent without these "sworn friends") dissuaded him from doing so. A frontal assault on such fortified positions was insane. In addition, the Russian almost whole got all the batteries.
Having not decided on the assault, Ahmet Khan ordered the army to move back to Araks.
To his misfortune, Colonel Kotlyarevsky did not at all suit such an alignment. (How is this: the enemy will not go away beaten? Disorder!) He set off in pursuit and caught up with the enemy at the crossing, yes, yes, again he attacked at night and smashed the Persians utterly. Kotlyarevsky’s detachment was so small that an order was given: take no prisoners. All the booty and weapon Kotlyarevsky ordered to throw into the water. The outbreak of panic in the Persian army completed the rout. For this operation, Kotlyarevsky received the Order of St. George of the 4 degree, a golden sword with the inscription "For Bravery" and was appointed chief of the Georgian Grenadier Regiment.
Peter Stepanovich said the following about the secret of his victories: "I think coldly, but I act hotly."
Russia then had to fight on two fronts. In addition to Persia, which claimed to eastern Transcaucasia, Turkey was a strong adversary, whose interests were riveted to Western Georgia and the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.
In 1811, Kotlyarevsky was instructed to stop the advance of the Persians and Turks from Akhaltsikha, for which he decided to seize the fortress of Akhalkalaki. Taking with him two battalions of his regiment and a hundred Cossacks, Kotlyarevsky crossed the mountains in three days, covered with deep snow and at night stormed Akhalkalaki.
The Turks, if they expected the enemy, it was only from the south, where the slopes were more gentle and not at night. Kotlyarevsky strike from the north. The night assault was a success. The Turkish garrison was taken by surprise and almost completely destroyed, despite the desperate resistance shown. In the fortress 16 guns were taken, 40 pounds of gunpowder, two flags, a large number of weapons. On the morning of December 20, 1811, the Kotlyarevsky detachment took possession of the fortress, having lost 30 people killed.
While General Kotlyarevsky fought with the Turks in Akhalkalaki, things were less successful on the Persian border. In January, the Persians rushed to the Karabag Khanate in 1812 and in Sultan-Bad-Kerch surrounded the battalion of the Trinity Regiment, which, having lost its senior commanders and remained under the command of Captain Olovyanishnikov, laid down their arms. The entire Caucasian army was outraged by Olovyanishnikov’s surrender, and the commander-in-chief decided to send Kotlyarevsky to Karabag, instructing him “to restore the residents’s confidence in Russian weapons and blot out the Olovyanishnikov’s shameful affair”. The scourge of the Persians, Kotlyarevsky, began by clearing the whole of Karabag from predatory gangs and moving against Abbas Mirza. The very news of Kotlyarevsky’s arrival in Karabakh turned the Persians to flight. The army of Abbas-Mirza, having robbed everything that was possible, began hastily to retreat behind the Araxes. They also took part of the civilians with them. Kotlyarevsky tried to discourage the Persians from the civilian population and their property. It was not possible to fully implement his plans - during the retreat the Persians destroyed the bridge over the Araks, and heavy rains prevented the detachment from crossing to the ford. But Kotlyarevsky managed to smash two small Persian detachments, to take the village of Kir-Koch, which was considered impregnable, to return 400 civilians and 15 cattle heads to their homes. Although Kotlyarevsky himself was unhappy with the expedition, the new commander-in-chief, Marquis Paulucci (very pleased with the results), awarded him with the Order of St. Anna 1 degree and “rewarded” with an annual cash allowance of 1 200 rubles.
Then came the ominous 1812 of the city. Almost all the forces of the country were thrown into war with Napoleon, and in the Caucasus, Russian troops in a weakened composition continued to fight the Persians.
Commander Paulucci was recalled to Petersburg, and Lieutenant General Rtishchev was appointed in his place. Having entered the administration of the region in an extremely difficult and disturbing time, Rtishchev was unable to restore order, but on the contrary, he began to pursue a policy that worsened the situation even more. Rtishchev thought to keep the mountaineers in obedience through gifts and money. For what immediately ogreb. Chechen foremen assembled in Mozdok for peace negotiations were showered with gifts, but that same night, returning home, attacked Terek on the train of Rtishchev himself and ransacked him almost in front of the general.
The war with Napoleon made Petersburg look for ways to resolve the conflict in the Transcaucasus peacefully. From Rtishchev demanded to stop offensive actions and begin negotiations.
The Persians were completely insolent. Concentrating on the borders of 30 000 an army trained by English instructors and at the instigation of the same English, they invade the borders of the Talysh Khanate and take Lenkoran. Kotlyarevsky foresaw a similar scenario of events, suggested not to waste time negotiating and attacking the Persians, “for,” he wrote, “if Abbas Mirza has time to master the Talysh Khanate, it will make us such harm that cannot be remedied.”
Rtishchev, who tried his best to avoid bloody clashes, suggested a truce to the Persians and arrived at the border to speed up the negotiations. But as Rtishchev became more flexible, the Persians became arrogant and demanding and, finally, demanded that the Russian border be transferred to the Terek. The case could have ended badly, but Kotlyarevsky, taking advantage of Rtishchev’s temporary departure to Tiflis and demanding his permission in advance to act at his own risk, proceeded to offensive actions. October 19 1812, with his 2-thousandth detachment, he crossed the Araks.
Before the beginning of the offensive, General Kotlyarevsky addressed the soldiers and officers with a speech: “Brothers! We have to go for Araks and smash the Persians. There are ten of them - but the brave of you is worth ten, and the more enemies, the more glorious the victory. We go brothers and we will break ».
Having made a forced kilometer-wide 70 march, he attacked the main Persian forces that had multiple numerical superiority to 15. Thus began the famous Battle of Aslaundze.
Aslanduz or Aslanduz ford across the Araks, where the Kotlyarevsky detachment completely destroyed the Persian army, is located at the confluence of the Daraut-Chay River in the Araks. October 19 1812 at the head of the squadron with 6 guns Kotlyarevsky crossed Arax in 15 miles above the Persian camp.
In total, according to the statement, the detachment was: 17 th jäger regiment: 2 staff officer, 11 chief officers, 24 noncommissioned officer, 9 musicians, 306 privates (total 352 man), Georgian Grenadier regiment - 1058 man, sestn, sestn, sestn, sest, Sestn 215 man, Georgian Grenadier regiment - 20 man, sestn, sestn, sest, sestn, 85 man, Georgian Grenadier regiment - 3 man, sest, Sestn, Sest, Seast, 283 man, Georgian Grenadier Regiment - 16 man, Sest, Seast, Seast, Xt. Regiment - 228 man, 2221-I Artillery Brigade - XNUMX man, Don Cossack Regiment Krasnov XNUMX-X - XNUMX Cossack, Don Cossack Regiment Popov XNUMX-XNUMX Cossacks. A total of XNUMX people took part in the expedition.
On October 10, the main forces of Abbas-Mirza were pulled to Aslanduz. Under his command was 30 000 man with 12 guns. All the actions of the Persians were led by English instructors. The Persians planned to defeat Kotlyarevsky’s detachment and, through Karabakh, to help the rebel Kakheti. To divert Russian troops, Abbas-Mirza ordered the Erivan khan to launch a series of attacks on border posts, and the Pir-Kuli-Khan detachment in 4 000 moved bypass Karabakh to Sheki khanate. The actions of Erivan Khan and Pir-Kuli Khan did not give the proper result.
On the morning of October 19, 1812, Kotlyarevsky attacked the fortified positions of the Persian army on the right bank of the Araks. No one in the camp of the enemy suspected the approach of the Russians. Everyone was engaged in their everyday affairs: who rested, who was engaged in tactical training. Abbas-Mirza talked with English officers. Seeing the cavalry on the horizon (to disguise Kotlyarevsky let the cavalry militia of the Karabakh residents in front), Abbas Mirza told an Englishman sitting next to him: “Look, here’s some khan coming to visit me.” The officer looked into the telescope and replied: "No, this is not Khan, but Kotlyarevsky." Abbas-Mirza was embarrassed, but bravely remarked: "The Russians themselves climb on my knife."
On the hill was only the Persian cavalry, the infantry was located below, on the left bank of the Daraut tea. Assessing the weak side of the enemy's position, Kotlyarevsky directed his first blow at the cavalry and knocked it down from a command height. Russian artillery was sent here at a high pace, which immediately began shelling enemy infantry. Abbas-Mirza did not dare to attack the height and moved his army to Araks, in order to limit the movement of the Russians. But Peter Stepanovich divined the maneuver of the enemy and hit the Persians from the flank. The Persians, seeing their superiority in people and artillery, did not expect such a turn of events. There was confusion, and then an escape across the Daraut-Chay River, to the fortification built at Aslanduzsky ford.
The Russian troops got the artillery and the enemy's convoy.
Kotlyarevsky did not want to stop there. In the afternoon he gave his troops a rest. In the evening, Russian prisoners were taken to General Kotlyarevsky who escaped from the Persian camp. They reported on the collection of their scattered detachments by Abbas-Mirza: in the morning he was preparing to repel new attacks. And Kotlyarevsky decided to attack the Persians at night. A non-commissioned officer in captivity was ready to lead a detachment past the enemy's guns. Kotlyarevsky replied: "On the guns, brother, on the guns!" And he gave the disposition to the battle. At night, the Persians were attacked again. Seven companies of the Georgian Grenadier Regiment, having crossed the Daraurt River, went to the enemy from the mountains, the rangers' battalion under the command of Dyachkov moved round the Araks to strike from the opposite side, the reserve went down the Daraurta River. Cossack detachments were to cut off the retreat of the Persians.
In this order, the grenadiers and rangers, in the deepest silence, came close enough to the enemy's positions and with shouts of “Hurray!” They promptly rushed at bayonets. After persistent and short resistance, the Persians were put to flight. After a night storm, the Russian troops completed the complete defeat of the Persian army. Only 537 people were taken prisoners, the Persians killed had lost 9000 order. Even the British with the Iranian army were killed in the battle: the commander of the artillery, Major Leyten and Major Christie. Almost all the artillery was captured by Russian soldiers. The 11 of 12 guns made in Britain became trophies.
The losses of the Russian detachment amounted to 28 killed and 99 injured.
The report about the capture of Aslanduz began as follows: "God, hurray and bayonet gave here the victory to the troops of the most gracious sovereign." In a report to the authorities about the losses of the enemy Kotlyarevsky indicated 1200 people. To the question of surprised subordinates: why so few, because there are much more corpses, he, smiling, replied: “It’s in vain to write, we will not be believed anyway.” The guns of the English work became honorable trophies of the operation. Abbas-Mirza disappeared from the shameful captivity with 20 horsemen. For Aslanduz Kotlyarevsky received the Order of St. George 3 degree and the rank of lieutenant general.
Now it was necessary to knock out a seven-thousand-strong Persian squadron there from Lankaran and capture the Talyshinsky Khanate.
December 17 1812, the last glorious campaign of Peter Stepanovich began. On the way, he took the fortifications of Arqueval and December 27 approached Lankaran, surrounded by swamps and protected by powerful fortifications.
Kotlyarevsky, lacking artillery and shells, once again decided to resort to a night assault. Realizing the complexity of the task, he wrote these days: "I, as a Russian, have only to win or die." On the eve of the assault, an order was given to the troops, where it was said: "There will be no retreat. We must either take the fortress, or die all ... Not to listen to the end, it will not be."
The Lenkoran fortress represented the form of an irregular quadrangle on the Lenkoran river 80 wide sazhen. Its largest side, the length of 130 fathoms, was located to the south-west. The opposite northeastern side was 80 fathoms. In the corners - in the bastions - batteries were erected, the strongest of them fired approaches to the fortress from the north and west sides.
On the night of December 31 1812, the assault began. At five o'clock in the morning, the troops silently left the camp, but before they reached the designated points, they were already met by the enemy's artillery fire. Without responding to the shots, the soldiers descended into the moat and, setting the stairs, quickly climbed the walls. A terrible battle has begun. The front ranks of the attackers could not resist and were dropped, many officers, and between them Lieutenant Colonel Ushakov, were killed, and the number of Persians on the walls, meanwhile, was rapidly increasing. Then Kotlyarevsky had a personal example to lead the troops: he rushed into the ditch, stood over Ushakov’s body and encouraged people with several energetic words. At this time, a bullet pierced his right leg. Holding his knee with his hand, he calmly turned his head and, pointing the soldiers at the stairs, led them along. Inspired by the soldiers again rushed to the attack. Climbing the stairs to the wall of the fortress, the general was seriously wounded: two bullets hit him in the head and he fell. But victorious: hurray! already sounded above the fortress. Mutilated, the general was found among a pile of bodies storming and defending.
When the soldiers, who found their commander among the piles of dead bodies, began to mourn him, he suddenly opened the remaining eye and said: "I died, but I heard everything and already guessed your victory." With the hardest and painful injuries, the General Meteor survived.
The victories of Kotlyarevsky broke the Persians, who went to the conclusion of a favorable for Russia Gyulistan peace, according to which the Karabag, Ganja, Sheki, Shirvan, Derbent, Cuban, Baku khanates and a part of Talysh with the Lenkoran fortress were recognized for all eternity as belonging to Russia, and Persia rejected all sins to Dagestan and Georgia.
The general himself, who was awarded the Order of St. George 2 degree (for all history this award was received by a total of 131 people), suffering from wounds received, went home to Ukraine. For the amount granted by Alexander I, Kotlyarevsky first bought an estate near Bakhmut, and then near Feodosiya, where he was treated for wounds.
Legend has it that once he visited St. Petersburg, and at the reception in the Winter Palace, the king, taking him aside, asked confidentially: "Tell me, general, who helped you make such a successful military career?" “Your Majesty,” the hero replied, “my patrons are the soldiers whom I had the honor to command, and I owe my career only to them.” In response, Alexander lamented the fact that Kotlyarevsky was being quiet, unwilling to reveal the name of his patron, which offended the hero to the depths of his soul.
Pushkin in his "Caucasian Captive" devoted the following lines to Kotlyarovsky:
I will sing you, hero,
Oh, Kotlyarevsky, the scourge of the Caucasus!
Wherever you rushed thunder -
Your way, like a black infection,
Ruined, negligible tribes ...
You left your saber for revenge here,
You are not happy with the war;
Missing the world, in plagues of honor,
Eat idle you peace
And the silence of the household dol.
In honor of his accession to the throne in 1826, Emperor Nicholas I granted Pyotr Stepanovich the rank of infantry general and offered to head the Caucasian army. In particular, the emperor wrote: “I flatter myself with the hope that time has healed your wounds, and calmed me down from the work carried for the glory of Russian weapons, and that your name alone will be enough to animate the troops led by you. To frighten the enemy several times by you struck and daring to again break the peace to which you opened the first path by your exploits. I wish your feedback to agree with My expectation. I remain benevolent to you, Nikolai. ” But Kotlyarevsky refused. Old wounds did not give rest.
For many years he lived alone, tormented by his wounds. Having become sullen and silent, Kotlyarevsky showed consistent kindness and generosity to others. Having received a good pension, he helped the poor, especially from among his former warriors, who became disabled like him, they received a pension from him personally. Knowing that his name is often forgotten in comparison with the heroes of World War 1812, Kotlyarevsky said: "Russian blood, shed in Asia, on the banks of the Araks and the Caspian Sea, is no less precious than shed in Europe, on the banks of Moscow and the Seine, but bullets Gauls and Persians cause the same suffering. "He died in 1852 g
In the Georgian Grenadier Regiment, which bore the name of General Kotlyarevsky, on the daily roll-call the sergeant-major of the First Company of the First Battalion called: “General of Infantry Peter Stepanovich Kotlyarevsky”. The right-fingered private soldier answered: “He died in 1851, the heroic death from 40 of his wounds in the battles for the Tsar and the Fatherland!”
While Kotlyarevsky was still alive, the commander-in-chief in the Caucasus, Prince M.S. Vorontsov, erected a monument to him in Ganja, which he stormed in his youth.
In the famous Kazan Cathedral, where the grave of M.I. Kutuzov is located, 107 banners and standards obtained in battles with the Napoleonic army were placed. Among this number of trophies of the Patriotic War 1812 of the year, there were two banners captured near Lenkoran by the detachment of PS Kotlyarevsky, as recognition of his military feat and military genius.
30 October 1913, at the meeting of the Society of History Zealots, dedicated to the memory of General Peter Stepanovich Kotlyarevsky, Professor I. Kovalevsky said: “When the sun is shining, the brightness of the stars is not visible”. The thunder of battles of World War II on the fields of Russia overshadowed the amazing feats of Russian troops in the Caucasus. The professor finished his speech like this: “We are Russian, we need to learn feats not from the distant Greeks or Romans, but from ourselves. Kotlyarevsky belongs to the Russian national heroes, to whom is eternal glory and unforgettable memory. ”
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