The great Russian prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich, who himself seized power during the bloody strife, set aside a disturbing legacy. Russia was on the verge of collapse. The unit princes tore the country apart. Personal and group interests - the princely, boyar, trade elite of large cities, were placed above the national.
Yaroslav, trying to avoid strife, introduced a system of ladder (ladder). The hierarchy of cities and princely thrones was established. The first in rank is Kiev, the second is Chernigov, the third is Pereyaslavl, the fourth is Smolensk, the fifth is Vladimir-Volynsky. All sons received inheritance according to seniority. At the same time, Russia was not divided, remaining a common possession of Yaroslavichi. It seemed that the system is durable. Younger princes are subordinate to the eldest, Kiev, important issues are solved together. Commons are not for eternal use. The great prince of Kiev will die, he will be replaced by Chernigov, and the other princes will move up the stairs. When all the brothers die, the children rule the same way. First, Kiev goes to the eldest sons, the second-ranked sons followed him, etc. However, this system quickly began to disintegrate and caused a whole series of welfare and internecine wars.
Kiev after Yaroslav received Izyaslav - the weakest of the brothers Yaroslavichi. Although Svyatoslav and Vsevolod better suited to the role of the Grand Duke. Svyatoslav received Chernigov, Vsevolod - Pereyaslavl, Vyacheslav - Smolensk, Igor - Vladimir-Volynsky. Izyaslav Yaroslavich quickly came under the influence of his entourage and the boyar-commercial elite of Kiev. This led to the ruin of the treasury and increased tax burden on ordinary people. The boyars succeeded, the tiuns who collected taxes, money-usurers, and ordinary people suffered. Nobles from the entourage of Izyaslav cleaned up the hands of the land, the village and the village. The peasants, who yesterday were free tillers, became boyars. "Russian truth" changed in favor of the nobility. And then, according to the old laws, it turned out that if the boyar knocks against the rebellious smerd, the truth will be on the side of the common man. According to Russkaya Pravda, death should be avenged by death. "True Yaroslavichi" abolished blood feuds and the death penalty, replacing them with vira (fine). Boyars could pay off. And if a simple person breaks the law and fails to pay, he can be sold to pay his debt. Thus, under the Grand Duke Izyaslav Yaroslavich and his son Svyatopolka Izyaslavich, the situation of the common people in the Kyiv region deteriorated sharply. Social justice was violated, which caused a number of popular uprisings.
The board of Izyaslav, and he twice lost and three times occupied the Kiev table - 1054-1068, 1069-1073 and 1077-1078, was filled with strife and wars with external enemies. In 1054, a horde of Torks, rushing from the Pechenegs, weakened in previous wars with the Rus, came over Rus. The main city of the then southern border system was Pereyaslavl, the lot of Vsevolod Yaroslavich (father of Vladimir Monomakh). A small town lying on the left bank of the Dnieper, protected by high ramparts, a deep moat and oak walls, was among the first to take the blows of steppe inhabitants. As a result, all the childhood and youth of Vladimir Monomakh were spent in military science. He learned to manage personal squad and principality. The prince until the end of his days remained a professional warrior, the leader of the squad, and in case of serious danger and the people's militia. The authority of the prince among the warriors largely depended on his personal skills and military skills. At first, the prince's experienced uncle-wrestlers taught military work - the art of riding, the ability to own any type of weapons. At the time, there was no long maturation. For the first time, Vladimir went on a campaign at the age of thirteen. Having made his way from his native Pereyaslavl to far from the Dnieper to Rostov, through the lands of irreconcilable pagans-Vyatichi. And independently Monomakh began to rule at the age of sixteen in the city of Chernigov, one of the largest cities of Russia. Then he replaced his father in Pereyaslavl. At this time he became famous as a great commander, on whose shoulders lay the defense of the southern borders of Russia. As a result, Prince-Warrior Vladimir Monomakh managed not only to defend the borders of Russia, but also forced the Polovtsy to retreat.
Behind the Torks were Polovtsy. A long war began with this fragment of the ancient Scythian-Sarmatian population of the steppe. In Russia, these steppe dwellers were called Polovtsy from the word "chaff", straw - by hair color, Polovtsy were blond-eyed blond. They, like the Pechenegs and the Torks, were not Mongoloids, contrary to the common myth (like the future "Mongol-Tatars"). These steppe inhabitants, like the Rus-Russians, were Caucasians, heirs of the Great Scythia.
The original ladder system was broken very quickly. The oldest of Yaroslavichi, Vladimir, died before his father. After him in Novgorod, his son Rostislav ruled. And Novgorod was a rich city, a center of commerce and crafts. The Grand Dukes Izyaslav and their entourage decided to take Novgorod from Rostislav. Soon Vyacheslav and Igor Yaroslavichi died. According to the ladder, when the brothers die, their sons begin to move up the stairs. And Rostislav’s father, Vladimir, was older than Izyaslav. It turned out that the grand prince's nephew was fourth in the queue at the Kiev table and had to occupy him before his own sons Izyaslav. It is clear that this did not suit Izyaslav, his wife Gertrude and the prince’s inner circle. As a result, the case was turned in such a way that when Yaroslav the Wise made up his series and distributed districts, only five Yaroslavich brothers participated in it (Izyaslav, Svyatoslav, Vsevolod, Vyacheslav and Igor). And Vladimir at this time has already died. Therefore, Rostislav generally falls out of the system of a ladder. In addition, Izyaslav had the opportunity to delete the children of Vyacheslav and Igor from the ladder system. And their destinies - Smolensk and Vladimir-Volynsky passed into the direct control of the Grand Duke.
Thus, rogue princes appeared in Russia, that is, without destinies, the possibility of movement along a ladder. Rostislav was given the use of Vladimir-Volyn. So, there was a reason for a new strife. Rostislav was hurt. He - the son of the famous Vladimir Novgorod, became a simple vassal of his uncle, who can be moved at any time, wanted - gave Volyn, wants - selects. And the descendants of Rostislav could no longer claim Smolensk, Pereyaslavl, Chernigov and Kiev. Rostislav made an alliance with the Hungarian king. Soon, King Bela died and Rostislav was under attack. Then he captures Tmutarakan (she was part of the prince of Chernigov), and begins to collect troops. The big war was avoided. The Greeks, concerned about the actions of a desperate prince who could lead a squad to Chersonese, poisoned Rostislav.
However, another civil war began. The war of Yaroslavl with the Polotsk prince Vseslav Bryachislavich (Vseslav the Wizard). The warlike Vseslav in 1065 made a raid on Pskov, and in 1067, on the bank of the Cherekhi River, he defeated the army of Prince Mstislav of Novgorod Izyaslavich and occupied Novgorod. Novgorod was partially burned, part of the townspeople was taken prisoner, and the bells were removed from the Novgorod Sophia Cathedral. The bells, icons, and utensils of the Novgorod churches were taken to Polotsk. Three Yaroslaviches came against the Prince of Polotsk and ravaged Minsk. In the battle on Nemiga 3 March 1067, Vseslav was defeated and fled to Polotsk. Yaroslaviches did not equip his pursuit, ravaging the southern part of the Polotsk land. Four months later, Yaroslavichi invited Vseslav to the talks, kissing the cross, which would not do him any harm. However, Yaroslavichi broke the kiss of the cross, seized Vseslav and his two sons. The Polotsk prince was brought to Kiev, where they were put in a “cut” (prison).
1068, the Polovtsy defeated Yaroslavl in the battle on Alta. Kievans demanded Izyaslav horses and weapons, to fight again with the Polovtsy. Izyaslav refused, then 15 September 1068, an uprising broke out, during which the townspeople released Vseslav from the prison and elevated him to the grand throne. Izyaslav fled to Poland, where his nephew Boleslav ruled. Brothers Izyaslav Svyatoslav and Vsevolod did not support him. Grand Prince Vseslav Bryachislavich stayed only seven months. Learning that Izyaslav was returning with the Polish army, Vseslav did not dare to fight and fled. Kievans asked for protection from Svyatoslav and Vsevolod. Yaroslavichi agreed to return his brother to Kiev, provided that he did not bring the Poles and would not avenge the citizens. Izyaslav agreed, but part of the Polish army entered Kiev. In addition, Ahead of Izyaslav and Boleslav, his son Mstislav Izyaslavich arrived in Kiev and tortured many Kievites. Polish troops were bred around the cities, excesses began. In response, the Russians began to kill the Poles and Boleslav led the troops. Izyaslav took Polosk away from Vseslav, having appointed his son Mstislav there first, and after his death Svyatopolk. In 1071, Vseslav expelled Svyatopolk Izyaslavich from Polotsk and returned his inheritance. In the future, the war of Kiev and Polotsk continued.
Svyatoslav and Vsevolod, angered by Izyaslav’s policy, drove him out themselves. In 1073 - 1076 in Kiev, Prince Svyatoslav Yaroslavich reigned. Izyaslav again fled to Poland, but this time Boleslav did not help him and even robbed, reimbursing his previous losses. Izyaslav began to ask for help from Emperor Henry IV and the papal throne. Under the influence of the Pope, Boleslav was forced to make peace with Izyaslav and promise him help. After the death of Svyatoslav, Vsevolod did not lay claim to Kiev and returned it to Izyaslav.
Board of Vsevolod
In 1078, a new internecine war began. Their nephews, Oleg Svyatoslavich and Boris Vyacheslavich, rebelled against their uncles, Izyaslav and Vsevolod. Connecting with Polovtsy, they broke Vsevolod on the river. Sozhitse. Vsevolod ran for help to Kiev, returned with Izyaslav. In the decisive battle on Nezhatina Niva princes Izyaslav and Boris died. Kiev throne took Vsevolod, who ruled before 1093 year. Destinations in Russia once again redistributed. The Grand Duke Vsevolod did not offend the sons of the deceased Izyaslav - Svyatopolk left in rich Novgorod, Yaropolk gave all the Western Russia - Volyn and Turov principality. Left bank left for the children of Vsevolod. In Pereyaslavl villages Rostislav, Vladimir Monomakh in Chernigov. At the same time Vsevolod retained the management of Smolensk, Rostov-Suzdal land for Monomakh. Monomakh was the right hand of his father, his main assistant and commander. In fact, he then became the co-regent of the father.
Vsevolod was a sensible ruler, but in his old age he was often ill, did little to do business, and the approximate ones used it, the boyars continued to ravage the people. Seeds of contention were sown long ago, so civil wars continued. In 1079, Oleg and his brother Roman moved from Tmutarakan to Kiev again, but Polovtsy killed Roman, and Oleg was given to the Greeks. The fierce struggle with the Prince of Polotsk Vseslav continued. At the turn of 1070 - 1080-s, Vseslav conducted a campaign near Smolensk, after which Vladimir Monomakh conducted a devastating campaign against the Polotsk land, and then a second campaign with the Allied Polovtsy, during which Minsk was captured. At the beginning of the 1080s, two winter campaigns were conducted against the tribal alliance of Vyatichi. The land of the Vyatichi was finally incorporated into the Chernigov principality. The persistent and difficult war with the Polovtsy continued.
According to the calculations of the historian S.M. Solovyov, as far back as the reign of his father, Vladimir Monomakh conducted successful battles with the Polovtsy 12. Almost all on the border of the Russian land. These battles gave him the military glory and love of the people, who saw in the young prince a loyal defender of the land from the invasions of the steppe people and the opponent of princely strife who had ruined Russia no worse than the Polovtsy. Monomah was a real warrior prince. As he himself wrote in the Instruct: “All my trips were 83, and I don’t remember the rest of the small ones. With the Polovtsian princes, I concluded the world of 19 once during my father and after my father ... ” Over three decades - half his life, Vladimir had to spend in Pereyaslavl. There was then no hail in Russia that would so often be attacked by the steppe inhabitants. It was here that Monomakh understood the vital necessity of the unity of all the military-economic forces of the Russian state in order to repel an external threat.
Meanwhile, four more rogue princes grew up and matured in Russia: the son of Smolensk, Igor Davyd, and the children of the poisoned Rostislav - Rurik, Volodar and Vasilko. Davyd and Volodar seized Tmutarakan, expelling the grand prince's posadnik. But at the same time, power in the Byzantine Empire changed. The power was seized by the cunning and unprincipled Alexey Comnenus. He continued the Roman (Byzantine) policy toward Russia - to create the appearance of friendship and constantly harm. The emperor freed Prince Svyatoslavich from exile, cared for him, and concluded a secret alliance. Oleg pleaded vassal of Byzantium and for this he received material assistance, ships and soldiers. He suddenly landed in Tmutarakan and captured her. His relatives Davyd and Volodar expelled.
Davyd Igorevich seized Olesha at the mouth of the Dnieper, where he passed a trade route along the Dnieper from Kiev and to Kiev, robbed the city. And Rurik, Volodar and Vasilsko Rostislavichi scored squads from various freemen, waited until Uncle Yaropolk Izyaslavich left Vladimir-Volynsky, and captured the city. Grand Prince Vsevolod sent to restore order Monomakh, Rostislavich fled. At the same time, the Grand Duke of All Russia, Vsevolod, tried to solve the matter in peace. He gave Davyd Dorogobuzh in Volyn, Rostislavich allocated Carpathian cities - Przemysl, Cherven and Terebovl. Restored the rights of Svyatoslav's sons, Davyd gave up Smolensk, for Oleg recognized Tmutarakan. But the world has not come. So, Oleg, who was under the auspices of Byzantium, did not reckon with the Grand Duke. His Greek wife considered herself an "arthoness of Rus."
Yaropolk Izyaslavich, who returned Volyn, and did not think to be grateful. Joined the alliance with Poland. He was going to secede from the rest of Russia, and the pope was to proclaim him king. Then Poland and Rome were supposed to help Yaropolk seize Kiev, where Izyaslavichi supported the Moscow boyars. When the Grand Duke was informed about the betrayal, he sent Monomakh to Volyn. Yaropolk did not accept the fight, fled to Poland. Abroad, he did not receive support. The Polish king was engaged in a war with the Pomorians and Prussians. Taking advantage of the plight of Poland, the Germans also opposed it. As a result, Yaropolk repented and was forgiven. Volyn returned. But soon Yaropolk killed his own retainer. The destiny of the murdered Yaropolk the Grand Duke divided. Svyatopolk Izyaslavich, from whom Novgorod was taken, was given only the Turovo-Pinsk principality, and Volyn was given to Davyd Igorevich.
In 1093, Vsevolod died and the metropolitan boyars called not the best commander and co-ruler of Grand Duke Monomakh to the Kiev table, and his cousin Svyatopolk Izyaslavich, who in Novgorod was famous for money and greed. True, they invited him legally, the stairs he was the eldest prince. The boyars did not want to be under the strong and tough hand of Monomakh. Vladimir reigned in Pereyaslavl and Chernihiv with a firm hand, and the Kiev boyars knew this. Vladimir could take the capital Kiev by force and get the full support of the people, but did not do that. On ladder the primacy belonged to the children of the eldest of Yaroslavich, Izyaslav, and of them only Svyatopolk survived. Vladimir gave way and went to Chernigov.
To be continued ...