Military Review

Charity in the days of war and peace

68
Among the materials of the VO website there are a large number of articles, the authors of which, reporting, in general, interesting information, do not have the habit of indicating their source. And in principle, by and large, this is not required, because these are journalistic, not scientific publications. However, in some cases, references to sources are necessary. Even if readers will never check them and turn to them, but this is important from the point of view of the reliability of the facts cited. Well, let's take, for example, the theme of the “uncomfortableness” of the Russian Empire. Obviously, it was arranged not in the best way, otherwise it would not have collapsed in 1917 year. But ... asserting this, it should be borne in mind that there were separate particulars that give us reason to believe that “something” was very bad, something developed, but in an insufficient way. But in some areas even a lot was done.
For example, this applies to such a phenomenon as charity. Today, in the new economic conditions, this phenomenon is experiencing its next heyday, but it is interesting to compare, but “how was it under the tsar”? Several years ago, my graduate student Alexander Chudaykin became interested in this topic, having prepared a thesis for the degree of candidate. historical sciences, in which he collected very interesting facts about charity in the Penza province in the late XIX - early XX century. So…



Charity in the days of war and peace


“The publication“ Review of the activities of the peasant class Orphan Society of the 1 of the Zemstvo district of Penza district, from the founding of the 30 Company April 1895 in April to 1 in January 1898, ”raised the painful issue of helping orphans. The author of the material, an unnamed Zemsky head of the Penza district, describes the catastrophic situation of children of orphans of the peasant class. “Orphanhood in all classes is a terrible calamity and grief, but no where it is not as hard as in peasant life, however, the orphan peasant will not die of starvation; but only because there is no one to take care of his health, no one to think about his upbringing, and only with rare exceptions among them do not go out people who are exterminated, embittered and sometimes vicious, ending orphaned boys, and girls are even worse ”[1]. The author complains that Zemstvo chiefs pay little attention to solve this problem: “It’s not a word that Zemstvo’s leaders should and can be said to be the highest guardians of orphans, but is it conceivable to the Zemstvo chief to follow the life and development of orphans scattered throughout the site why his worries are reduced only to the preservation of material crumbs belonging to unhappy children ... Serving over 20 for years in peasant and rural institutions, all of the above was observed with great sadness [2]. This fact influenced the fact that the Society for the Care of Orphans was created. As the author writes: “But God is not without mercy, but the light is not without good people, and to gather a modest charitable society, which, according to the charter approved in December 1894 by the Ministry of the Interior, 30 on April 1895 opened its actions, and now after more than three years at the expense of the Society, about 20 orphans are raised and nurtured, and during all this time not only there was no shortage of anything, but there is now a small saving [3]. The author cites other examples of the achievements of the Society. “For clarity of the Company's actions, I consider it a duty to provide the following information, drawn by me from reports approved by the general meeting of members ... Full members annually making at least 3 p., 100 people of different classes of both sexes, including 12 peasant rural societies” [4 ]. Thus, the author of the article defends the principle of social justice, and not only sums up the activities of the Society for the Care of Round Orphans, but also criticizes those who are responsible for helping orphans for their passivity in this matter.

The article “On the charitable activities of Prince Obolensky on beautification of Nikolskaya Petrovka” is devoted to the special case of charity known in the period under study. This article describes the activities of Prince A.D. Obolensky in the field of charity in the village. Nikolskaya Petrovka Gorodishchensky district. Here is what the author says about this fact. “Nikolskaya Petrovka, Gorodishchensky district. This village has long been famous in the province and outside its crystal factory, now owned by Prince A.D. Obolensky. Prince and Princess A.A. Obolenskaya made it a significant cultural center of the Gorodishchensky district; they spend significant funds on setting up educational and charitable institutions for workers and local peasants in Petrovka: their cares are arranged and they are used to keep a hospital, a pharmacy, one of the most populous in the province of primary schools (more than 200 students with 4 teachers), a needlework school for girls, folk library and folk readings with light paintings. This year, a new building was built for the school: according to the beauty of architecture, vastness, convenience of location of all the rooms, its position on the bank of a beautiful pond is the best school building in the province and could serve as an ornament not only for the county, but also for the provincial city together with the outhouse for teachers' apartments extends up to 20 thousand rubles [5]. 2 September took place lighting the building. It is absolutely clear that information about such a school has gone beyond the limits of Gorodishchensky district. The talk of the peasants about the extraordinary school house in Petrovka has already spread far into the villages - we had to hear it not only in many villages of the Gorodishchensky district, but also in the Mokshansky and Saransk counties [6]. The author informs us about the further development of the school. “In view of the fact that the population of Petrovka is not content with the course of the elementary school, the prince and princess Obolensky intend to transform their school from the beginning of the next school year into a two-class department of the Ministry of Public Education” [7].

This material is the author's article A.F. Selivanova "Charity in the Penza province in 1896 g." The author points out that “The Department of Institutions of the Empress Maria collected information about the charitable institutions of Russia for the Nizhny Novgorod exhibition, and recently published them. From a charitable collection, we extract some information about the Penza province. It included 29 charities and institutions, and was favored by 1146 people. In addition, in a night shelter in Penza, overnight stays of about 45 were used by thousands of people. Of the people being regarded by 1146, there were adult 764 people and 382 children. The charity societies were 3, and they were mainly engaged in issuing benefits to those in need. In addition, these societies contain at their own expense: the almshouse 1, the 1 vocational school and the 1 orphanage. The funds of these societies consist of capital 23 350 p., Private contributions - 1050 p., Miscellaneous income and donations 6300 p. and manuals 675 p. ”[8]. The article also describes the growth dynamics of charities. “The earliest founding of charitable institutions of the province belongs to 1845, and most of all they were founded in the nineties. From all of this brief review, it is clear that the number of charities is not enough. In the past three years (1897-1899) we see that the number of charities in the province is increasing, and they are expanding. 20 and 11 charitable societies of them were opened at educational institutions ... Every year at least 200 thousand rubles are spent on charity in the Penza province. It is impossible not to wish that city precinct guardianships would open in Penza and other cities, as in Moscow, Kharkov, etc. ”[9].

In 1904, two notes were posted “About donations for military needs, in connection with the beginning of the Russian-Japanese war”, where it was reported that “only a rumor about the start of hostilities in the Far East reached villages and villages, rural societies of the four volosts of Gorodishchensky Voronovskaya, Shugurovskaya, Borytyanevskaya and N. Bornukovskaya counties immediately began collecting gatherings to discuss the funds that they could donate to the needs of the war ... Since over the last three years, almost all rural societies in the second sector have saved their income oval reserve capital, totaling ... extends to 10000 p., donations to the needs of the war, without causing any taxation, did not present difficulties, and expressed themselves in the total amount of 4500 p., in addition, the peasant women of these volosts, wanting to make and 35000 arshin canvas, towels, felt boots, underwear, etc. collected their contribution to the aid of the valiant army. With donations from the Zemstans, the head of the Province, together with the petition of the peasant societies, threw their loyal feelings and readiness to stand up for Tsar-Batyushka and Holy Russia [10] to the feet of his imperial majesty. In another note, it was reported “Pupils of the Penza 1-th male gymnasium donated to the cash desk of the management of the Russian Red Cross 100 p. to help the wounded and sick soldiers in the Far East, and, moreover, the gymnasium employees agreed on a monthly basis to deduct 1% from the salary to the same Society and to the same needs until the end of the war, and in February 1904 was transferred to Mr. Treasurer Red Cross Society 20 and 21 February, under the receipt for the number 20 and 21 "[11]. Vedomosti also reported that “the ranks of the Penza-Simbirsk administration of Zemsky and state property, as well as the local ranks of the Penza and Simbirsk provinces decided to deduct 2% of the salary received for this war [12].

The remaining publications of the PGN 1906 were civil in nature, which in no way affects their relevance. In this regard, of great interest is the article "On assistance to the starving in Mokshan". The material tells about the activities of the Mokshansky district committee of the All-German organization for the aid of starving people. This is what is reported: “The county committee of the all-German organization provides assistance to the starving population of the county at 65 points, with the exception of canteens, opened by Mrs. Andreeva, about which there is no information to the committee. Assistance is provided to 4250 persons and mainly children, old people and patients of all ages. In some places, canteens are arranged where they get: soup with butter or corned beef, millet porridge with butter and 1 a pound of bread per eater, in other places, baked bread is distributed from 1,5 to 2 pounds per person per day, and in the third, flour is delivered for 30 pounds for adults and 20 pounds for children for a month ... ”[13]. The provincial charitable committee provided great assistance in this matter. “Since January, the provincial charitable committee has been released on 8000 p. Issued to 6745 p. 23 K. and consists on the face of 1254 p. 77 Q. ”[14]. However, the author of the article warns that despite such significant help, hunger can happen again and on a much larger scale. “Due to large stocks of bread in public stores, generous loans from the treasury and timely assistance of the Zemstvo organization, last year’s crop of bread was not particularly sensitive for the population ... but it’s scary to think what will happen this year. From Easter to the present, there was not a single rain. The scorching sun burned all the grass; the rye has become bent and begins to bloom, and yet it has grown 10 vertices from the ground, and the spring ones, in most cases, have not ascended, and where they have ascended, they are not encouraging. If it does not rain on these days, then we can say with certainty that there will be a terrible famine, both for people and for livestock ”[15]. In this regard, it should be emphasized that the threat of famine in the Penza province remained almost constant.

The publication also published materials informing about quite original facts of charitable activities. For example, the article “Happy Brides” tells about a case when a certain amount was donated to an unknown benefactor for marriage to several girls. Vedomosti reported on this issue: “On June 24 at 11 hours of the day, in the hall of the City Duma, with the Cathedral, a funeral service was performed for an unknown benefactor Ivanov, who donated 20 thousand rubles, to give benefit to poor brides from residents of Penza on leaving the marriage. After this was given the lot for the right to receive benefits 45 girls. According to the draw, this right was obtained: the daughter of the workshop Evdokia Vasilyevna Alekhina 16 years old, the daughter of a peasant Ekaterina Vasilyevna Sirotkina 18 years, the daughter of tradesman Matryona Grigorievna Okorokova 18 years and daughter tradesman Elena Vasilyevna Razekhova 23 years. Truly, an amazing case, when charitable assistance was provided to girls who do not have the means to collect dowry.

The theme of the spread of begging, constantly rising on the pages of the publication, was covered in the article "Penza poor". Regarding the rampant spread of this social phenomenon in the provincial center, the author writes: “In your newspaper, it has been repeatedly said that Penza in recent years has been attacked and besieged by beggars and all beggars who poison the citizens. Not only on Moskovskaya Street, but also on Lermontovsky Square, even on other streets you are constantly stopped, then drunk some, then “retired clerk”, then “administratively expelled” or “escaped from exile”, then simply hooligan-rasshibaylo , around which you will even be afraid to take out your wallet during the day, then the teacher “burned out from Syzran, and now that year has not been able to reach any city, although he lacks a few kopecks.” And here is a well-dressed gentleman, he has, you see, he has bread for bread, but heels are not enough for tea. There are holy fools: either with their crooks, or with their heads tied, or even on their stomachs, crawling along the sidewalks of Moscow Street. Here, with an ax and a saw, an unemployed worker - he needs to “bread and stay” [17]. The author believes that the internal affairs bodies can only partly affect the rectification of the situation. “We are ready to ask, what can the police do with this evil?” Yes, almost nothing. Is that stop too annoying beggar. In fact, imagine that the police will enter into all their rights and one day will detain all beggars at once. That's fine, the philistine will think. But let me, and then what? Police detain, say, a 100 man. In the area they are dismantled. It turns out, for example, that 50 of them are nonresident, and the rest of 50 are Penza commoners. The police will send non-resident groups by stage, at their place of residence, and the local authorities will be sent to the petty-bourgeois government for further orders. By law, the philistine government must watch over the poor and weak members [18]. According to the author, such rampant poverty is related to the fact that “... in our city there is no authority that would specifically manage the cause of fighting begging and would unite in this respect the activities of public and charitable institutions. Meanwhile, the creation of such a body is very necessary ”[19]. The article also criticizes the activities of charitable institutions “... many private charitable societies operate in Penza. Only we do not have such a beautiful in the idea of ​​an institution, as a house of diligence. But the activities of all these societies and institutions are not distinguished by mutual consistency and integrity. Meanwhile, the unification of the activities of all these public and charitable institutions is absolutely necessary. Only by being brought into the system and directed to one common channel, their activity will bear fruit, and will reach its goal ”[20].

In the article, the author refers to the experience of other cities in the fight against begging. “To combat begging in St. Petersburg and Moscow, there are special committees for the analysis of beggars. The structure of these committees includes representatives of city, district and class institutions, as well as representatives of charitable societies. Police detain all beggars on the street and send them to a committee to review the beggars. There they are really disassembled: those who really cannot work and have nothing, go to the poorhouse or receive monthly allowances, and the parasites are brought to justice, and those who come will certainly be sent to the capital with the prohibition of returning to the capital [21]. The article proposes a number of repressive measures to combat begging. “Of course, there can be no radical struggle with begging until decisive legislative measures are taken in this regard. Most beggars are healthy and able-bodied people who simply do not want to do anything. They chose poverty as their profession not because of need, but as a result of laziness and moral promiscuity ... To fight such beggars, of course, we need not charity, but repression, for which appropriate laws are necessary. It is necessary to subject all able-bodied parasites to imprisonment and forced labor in special workhouses ”[22]. It is received in the article and the society as a whole for being too soft to such a phenomenon as begging. “A big fault in the development of poverty falls on our society, the sober and healthy views still penetrated very weakly into the mass. Instead of them, liberal manilovshchina and the tendencies of false philanthropy, which in reality is cowardice and great evil, reign everywhere [23]. The article is summarized by the following sentence: “Establishing a committee in Penza to review the beggars would improve the situation in this respect, since then the population would know that the committee examines the situation of all the beggars, and those who really need and cannot work get necessary help. And if the population knew, it would be less patronized by vagrancy and would less encourage it, treating it with greater intelligibility than nowadays to the beggars stuck on the street. ”

P.S. Thus, it is obvious that many of the tasks of the past were solved in the same way as today, that is, they are shifted onto the shoulders of the public ... And many of the phenomena in society have not survived for more than 100 years!

1. Penza provincial news. "Overview of the Society for the Charity of the Orphans of the Peasant Class 1 of the Zemstvo District of Penza County, from the founding of the Company from April 30 1895 to January 1 1898." No. 60. 1898. C.3.
2. Ibid.
3. Ibid.
4. Ibid.
5. PGV "On the charitable activities of Prince Obolensky on the improvement of Nikolskaya Petrovka". No. 224. 1898. C.3.
6. Ibid.
7. Ibid.
8. Selivanov A.F. "Charity in the Penza province in 1896." PGV No. 218. 1899. C.3.
9. Ibid.
10. PGV "Donations for military needs, in connection with the beginning of the Russian-Japanese war." No. 54. 1904. C.3.
11. PGV "Donations for military needs, in connection with the beginning of the Russian-Japanese war." No. 54.1904. C.4.
12. Ibid.
13. PGV "On assistance to the starving in Mokshan". No. 110. 1906. C.2.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid.
16. PGV "Happy Brides". No. 136. 1908. C.3.
17. PGV "Penza poor". No. 145. 1908. C.2.
18. Ibid
19. Ibid.
20. Ibid.
21. Ibid.
22. Ibid.
23. Ibid.
Author:
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  1. Vard
    Vard 8 May 2018 05: 41
    +2
    The general principle of charity ... They give fish ... And not a fishing rod ... Thus, tightly killing the desire to fish ...
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 8 May 2018 05: 58
      +2
      What’s the house of industriousness? Where did they work forcibly? How is a work house in England? Here is a stroke. About the dowry. For 5000 gave four. And they could have 1000 --- 20 girls.
      1. kalibr
        8 May 2018 06: 33
        +4
        Forced in the system of charitable organizations, no one could work in principle. It is quite accessible even to the modern Russian citizen. So before you put the "strokes" you just need to think a little about what you read. And a dowry ... but they could have not given it at all. "See me other girls!"
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 8 May 2018 08: 46
          0
          “Haha, I’m strangers to girls!” [/ Quote] ----- Simply, if we are talking about the poorest ones, then there would be 20 applicants. But I do not know what the rubles were, what the size of the dowry could be. For example, another stroke. I used to think that bourgeois people are those who are richer, but not merchants. But it turns out that it’s, like, all who are not merchants, not workers, not peasants, and then really, they can be different, right down to the poor.
          At the same time, the article shows that begging, or begging, was a serious problem.
          1. kalibr
            8 May 2018 10: 33
            +3
            Rubles were as follows: 1,50 - gymnasium cap (1905), 50 cop - fifty dollars - 2 chicken, 5 eggs, 2 franzolka buns. Salary - warrant officer - 25 p. Loader - 14, first-hand turner in St. Petersburg - 40 rubles, workshop in Penza -28 p. cool lady without lessons - 30 p. General (minimal) 4000 p. In 1901, Korney Chukovsky began to be published as a journalist in the newspaper ODESSA NEWS. So for the first article on a philosophical topic (!) He received an 7 fee. On them, he bought decent pants and a shirt!
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 8 May 2018 11: 16
              +1
              Quote: kalibr
              ...... So for the first article on a philosophical topic (!) He received a fee of 7 rubles. On them, he bought decent pants and a shirt!
              5000r ---- so a lot of money, that's what I wanted to know. Here the question arises ---- and who went out with such dowries? After all, there were some kind of rules on this account of the population, and they seemed to have announced the dowry loudly. ? In his environment, naturally. I’ve read a book for a long time about the village, there they gave pillows, blankets .... And Chekhov also wrote a story about the dowry ..... And Pomyalovsky wrote about the ratio of money to products, like bursachs fell for 3 kopecks with a company .... Also read that money was preferable to all. At this level, of course.
            2. Mikado
              Mikado 8 May 2018 11: 36
              +2
              Ikonnikov-Galitsky, our St. Petersburg publicist, wrote that the janitor's annual salary at the table and in the second half of the 19th century was about 100 rubles. (eh, remember exactly under what king!). True, the course, as I understand it, was unstable. hi
              1. kalibr
                8 May 2018 15: 06
                +2
                So after all, the janitor of St. Petersburg ... was oh, what a man! With a badge! He monitored not only cleanliness, but also order. All the janitors were also in the states of the detective police and were just “reporting”. What about earnings? Gathered, you, Nikolai, let’s say ... to Paris, call the janitor - "Bring me, honey, I have a passport!" That - "Glad to try!" He’ll go to the police station, he will report everything about you and - you will have a patchport to your apartment, and you will be safe! Again on the day of the angel he is to you: "Be healthy!" and you give him fifty dollars no less. Christmas tree ... Who will bring you? Janitor! To bring furniture - who organizes loaders? He ... again, wash the floors, whom to hire, who will say and recommend the "good girl"? All of it! You go to work ... He is to you - "Our respect to you ..." and a hand to his cap. A trifle, but nice.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 8 May 2018 15: 16
                  +3
                  All the janitors were also in the states of the detective police and were just “reporting”.

                  Moreover, at one time they almost belonged to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. True, during the formation of ministries under Alexander I, they pushed so much into the structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs that they could grab hold of their heads. That is, almost "all internal affairs" of the country, including health care and Good Doctors personally. Then, of course, gradually duties were cut and redistributed.
                  The janitor also obeyed the quarterly. Moreover, when detaining the same street criminals, the wipers played a crucial role with their help. Then the whole world grabbed the thief. fellow
                  He’ll go to the police station, he will report everything about you and - you will have a patchport to your apartment, and you will be safe!

                  with passports in the second half of the 19th century there was a separate saga. Half of those who were in pre-trial detention facilities .. were those who came to work and who had an expired passport! The passport system was then very slow, and if you wanted to get it quickly .. you should have given the local one to your local clerk! hi
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 8 May 2018 19: 12
                    +4
                    She is still awkward. I'm changing my passport. An hour ago, the call from the MFC: "oh, and we mixed up the number .... Could you come in?" Well your leg !!!!!!! What if I’m already in Belarus ?, what if you broke off the best love in my life? What if I already passed passport control in Pulkovo?
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 8 May 2018 19: 52
                      +4
                      What if I already passed passport control in Pulkovo?

                      You would then, Anton, like that Good Doctor from The Adventures of Italians in Russia, fly around the world, and no country would accept you. laughing Even before dyutik with alcohol would not be allowed! request
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 9 May 2018 05: 53
                        +1
                        This is a comedy, there is a tougher film on this plot: "Terminal", with Tom Hanks in the title role.
                2. Monarchist
                  Monarchist 8 May 2018 16: 33
                  +4
                  You are right about this even Ilf and Petrov have, when the grief locksmith took to repair the gate and deprived the janitor of his earnings: he opened the gate to the residents, and they gave him a coin. After the revolution, ALL wipers collaborated with the OGPU-NKVD. I referred my friends to the House Book, and there was the NKVD instruction 1934 (?): The landlord (janitor) was required to register each tenant and pyry. Khrutsky mentions that the janitors were the first militia assistants, and the current janitors .... it’s good if Russian, and if what a guest worker who in Russian doesn’t
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 8 May 2018 20: 08
                    +3
                    it’s good if it’s Russian, and if what sort of a guest worker who in Russian doesn’t

                    Unfortunately, then, it seems, the profession of a janitor was much more respected. I look at my yard .. Migrant workers, by the way, are not visible! hi Two puny men and ... women, ours! Why should a woman do men's work? Here we have it .. post-perestroika mentality, s .. hi And, pay attention, their work is perhaps the most inconspicuous, and the most important. What would happen to us if there were no janitors? I always say hello and wish you a good day! soldier yes respect!
      2. bober1982
        bober1982 8 May 2018 07: 41
        +3
        Quote: Reptiloid
        What’s the house of industriousness? Where did they work forcibly?

        The author of such an innovative idea, a kind of social technology, like the House of Diligence, was Father John of Kronstadt, who published an appeal in the newspapers, urging him to pay attention not only to the abundance of beggars, but also to solving this problem.
        According to the priest, the poor needed to be given the opportunity to earn an honest living, and for this to provide them with common housing, teach them craft, provide work.
        And such a house was created for the first time in Kronstadt.
        1. kalibr
          8 May 2018 07: 48
          +3
          Well, you understand that under the king everything was bad. Absolutely! It was an absolute evil, which must be emphasized by all means. There was one absolute evil and it ... fell apart! There was a second absolute good ... But for some reason it also fell apart! How scary to live! But now we have equally and evil and good, maybe so little by little and friendly?
          1. bober1982
            bober1982 8 May 2018 08: 05
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            maybe so little and tight?

            Probably unlikely, in my opinion - not susceptible, if only the houses of industriousness in an open way.
            By the way, Father John developed a whole poverty classificationwhich is well known .......poverty from birth, poverty from various disasters, from illness, from ............
            This is absolute evil, millennia pass - nothing changes.
          2. Reptiloid
            Reptiloid 8 May 2018 09: 16
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            ...... now we have both evil and good equally, maybe so little and soft?
            What are you talking about, Vyacheslav Olegovich! The evil empire has broken up! Now the long-awaited ideal time has come, there is no evil and there can be no right capitalistic pensions, and salaries as well.
            But I was interested in the figure of 45000 in relation to the rooming house. So homeless. The figure is big. But it turns out that there should be even more in Petersburg.
            Moreover, there are more homeless people than there are places in a shelter.
            1. kalibr
              8 May 2018 10: 27
              +1
              Dmitry, do not joke like that, it can be very misunderstood. I have already written more than once that changes in society are taking place slowly, that 3 (three!) Generations of people need to be replaced, who must live in approximately the same conditions and be carriers of the same culture. Now those who were born in 1991 year to 27 years. They are just having children. Here they will be adapted to modernity at 80%. What we have in society today at 80% is the consequences of 74 years of the “scoop”, because the carriers of his consciousness have not gone anywhere. As for the good and the bad, it is always and everywhere. There was fascism in fascist Germany, but the roads are good !!!
              1. Reptiloid
                Reptiloid 8 May 2018 11: 30
                +2
                Of course, I could argue with you, but I won’t, because it’s a pre-holiday day. People should have some tact. But let me remind you that Victory in the Great Patriotic War is the USSR !!!! It is the USSR.
                In addition, I am interested about the money of RI, a dowry, as a form of charity. So I know about the current charity in St. Petersburg. But not all from people, not from newspapers.
          3. Monarchist
            Monarchist 8 May 2018 16: 38
            +1
            B. Oh, oh you and an ulcer. Look, otherwise you’ll get into GepeU. It’s a joke, but seriously, some comrades don’t take your causticity
        2. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 10 May 2018 00: 30
          +1
          Quote: bober1982
          And such a house was created for the first time in Kronstadt.

          I forgot to tell this to an interested person ---- my relative from Kronstadt. here's what happened: she went on various matters on the Petrograd side and things did not work out. Once it turned out to be on the embankment of the Karpovka River, opposite the St. John’s Monastery. (It is connected with John of Kronstadsky). There was a bell ringing just. She turned, prayed, asked to manage her affairs. Somehow, everything began to be done by itself, quickly, without problems. Things turned out so that soon moved to a good new 100-meter apartment in Kronstadt. Kronstadt is small and not far from the cathedral. It was 8 years ago.
          It should be added that when I was little, I was in the building of this monastery with my grandmother. These were the 90s. I can’t say for sure what was there, but 100% it was an administrative institution, I remember, they sat in a queue for a long time. Here is a story.
      3. Vard
        Vard 8 May 2018 08: 02
        +3
        Well then, LTP in the Soviet era ... the drunks and parasites raised a love of work there ...
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 8 May 2018 09: 49
          +2
          Quote: Vard
          Well then, LTP in the Soviet era ... the drunks and parasites raised a love of work there ...

          In Soviet times, parasites were accustomed to work in the ITK, as an example - the famous poet and parasite (according to the authorities), Joseph Brodsky.
          There were finished alcoholics in LTP, it was impossible to accustom them to work in these institutions, people were thus simply isolated.
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 8 May 2018 09: 53
            +2
            Quote: bober1982
            There were finished alcoholics in LTP, it was impossible to accustom them to work in these institutions, people were thus simply isolated.

            And Raisa Maksimovna generally put her brother-child writer in a psychiatric hospital, still, it seems, the poor fellow lives there.
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 8 May 2018 10: 10
              0
              Quote: mordvin xnumx
              And Raisa Maksimovna generally put her brother-child writer in a psychiatric hospital, still, it seems, the poor fellow lives there.

              And from this place, in more detail please! Dear Vladimir.
              1. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 8 May 2018 10: 15
                +1
                AIF. "Prisoner of the Gorbachev family." An article four years ago, true.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 8 May 2018 10: 27
                  +4
                  last week he seems to have passed away. I saw something like this in the news. Briefly without reading.
                  1. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 8 May 2018 10: 33
                    +1
                    Quote: Mikado
                    last week he seems to have passed away.

                    Yeah, I found it. Therefore, he wrote:
                    Quote: Mordvin 3
                    sort of
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 8 May 2018 10: 49
                      +2
                      General secretaries generally sometimes, unfortunately, were not lucky with relatives. What can you do, we are all mortal and subject to passions .... request
                      1. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 8 May 2018 10: 51
                        +2
                        I would say that this writer was not lucky with relatives.
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 8 May 2018 06: 27
      +2
      Quote: Vard
      The general principle of charity ... They give fish ... And not a fishing rod ... Thus tightly killing the desire to fish...

      If you read the article, you would see that we are talking about those who Could not “fish”: about orphans, weak, crippled, starving.

      By article:
      “Thanks
      large stocks of bread in public stores, a generous loan from the treasury and timely assistance from the Zemstvo organization
      last year’s bread shortage passed for the population not particularly sensitive

      This phrase expresses the essence of a successful anti-hunger policy: the state, community, zemstvo, and, I add, charity, together managed to ensure that after 1891 there were NO starvation deaths in Russia during the years of malnutrition.
      The thief this system was destroyed, the other was not created, which led to huge millions of starvation deaths and cannibalism in Russia in the middle ... of the 20th century, and this is in a country in which this has never happened before.

      The article is interesting as a cast of the then everyday life of an ordinary Russian city, thanks.
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 8 May 2018 09: 43
        +3
        Quote: Olgovich
        that after 1891 of starvation deaths in Russia during the years of the shortage, it was NOT.

        Zhbankov wrote something completely different.
        "so far we only hear about palliatives, and not a word about the radical fight against hunger." This is the 7th Congress of Doctors in the 1899th Year.
        And the results of the 9 congress literally drowned out two companies of troubadours.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 8 May 2018 10: 20
          0
          Quote: Mordvin 3
          Zhbankov wrote a completely different

          Give his words about the millions who died of starvation, cannibalism and corpse eating.
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 8 May 2018 10: 25
            +2
            I wrote somewhere about corpse eating? Do not misinterpret. Maybe where it is, but ... The Russian National Library for the Works of Zhbankov is "temporarily unavailable." True, there was an eatery in Moscow, where they fed children meat, pretending to be perfect veal.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 8 May 2018 18: 32
              0
              Quote: Mordvin 3
              I wrote somewhere about corpse eating? Do not misinterpret

              belay You wrote it
              Zhbankov completely different I wrote.
              in response to mine
              after 1891 of starvation deaths in Russia during the years of the crop shortage -NOT was.
              ?
              WHAT is different?
              Quote: Mordvin 3
              Maybe where it is, but ... Russian National Library for the Works of Zhbankov "temporarily unavailable"

              Op-pa: Zhdankov said, but it’s not known what. lol
              Quote: Mordvin 3
              . In Moscow, there really was an eatery, where fed the children meatposing as a selective veal.

              It’s wonderful that children were fed meat. yes
              1. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 8 May 2018 18: 40
                0
                Quote: Olgovich
                You wrote it
                Zhbankov wrote something completely different.
                in response to mine
                after 1891 of starvation deaths in Russia during the years of the crop shortage -NOT was.

                Starvation and carnivore are not the same thing.
                Quote: Olgovich
                Op-pa: Zhdankov said, but it’s not known what.

                Yes, here’s hunting you to poke your nose into the source, but it doesn’t work out for "technical reasons", you will not read the others, will you?
                Quote: Olgovich
                It’s wonderful that children were fed meat.

                Gentlemen were fed. Meat killed children.
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 9 May 2018 18: 28
                  0
                  Quote: Mordvin 3
                  Starvation and carnivore are not the same thing.

                  So WHAT, after all, did the “other” Zhdankov write?
                  Quote: Mordvin 3
                  Yes, here’s hunting you to poke your nose into the source, but it doesn’t work out for "technical reasons", you will not read the others, will you?

                  There is nothing to poke, this is your problem. No one has ever, even in Soviet times, found anything like it.
                  Quote: Mordvin 3
                  Gentlemen were fed. Meat killed children.

                  To what kind of fiction did you go down .... request
                  1. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 9 May 2018 19: 10
                    +2
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    To what kind of fiction did you go down ....

                    Memoirs of a senior official. But which ones - I will not say. Out of harmfulness. So that. repeat
                    1. Olgovich
                      Olgovich 10 May 2018 11: 32
                      +1
                      Quote: Mordvin 3
                      Memoirs of a senior official. But which ones - I will not say. Out of harmfulness. So that.

                      as Americans: we have evidence, but we will not show it. yes
                      Vicious experience ..... lol
  2. BAI
    BAI 8 May 2018 13: 23
    +2
    Everything stated in the article is understandable, but does not give an overall picture. What has been done is a lot or a little? Here it is necessary to show more, but how many people in general needed help?
    And charity was different. According to Gilyarovsky, it can be concluded that many merchants treated charity as indulgences - at first they sinned, then atone for the patronal holidays in the church, atone for sins, upon leaving the church - scatter the poor with money without looking and not counting - a kind of specific merchant chic, etc. d.
    1. kalibr
      8 May 2018 14: 52
      +3
      Yes, that’s exactly what it was. This is a kind of mentality. As for the overall picture, too, is true. But you won’t give it all right away.
  3. Curious
    Curious 8 May 2018 13: 55
    +6
    For example, this applies to such a thing as charity. Today, in the new economic conditions, this phenomenon is experiencing its next heyday, however it is interesting to compare, and "How was it under the king"?
    As soon as a wording like “under the tsar” appears in the text, one can state with absolute certainty that the discussion will turn into a “class confrontation”. What is characteristic, if in the epoch of the USSR many of the debaters lived on both sides, then nobody lived in the epoch of “kissel banks and milk rivers” of the Russian Empire, but the Adler’s motive of “striving for excellence” translates into a kind of “crystal baker’s movement,” gathering under its banners both people of sufficiently developed and primitive "hallelujahs," who are trying to compensate for their unfulfillment in today's life with dreams that they would be something there under the king.
    Therefore, it is obvious that articles on this topic should be preceded by at least a brief educational program. In this case, it would be worth, in my opinion, to begin with what is charity as a social phenomenon in general and its socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-religious, socio-political prerequisites. And then, if the reader was not biased, but thirsting for knowledge, he could find out that the social function of charity is to compensate for the distortions in social relations, which lead, not at their own will, to separate categories of the population from accepted living standards, which limits their possibilities of consuming public goods and self-realization.
    That is, charity is the reaction of society to the costs of its own life, and the presence of charity in society indicates that community is far from ideal. Therefore, charity is an integral part of the economic formation, and not some abstract highly moral phenomenon. Charitable activity requires the application of the same managerial and entrepreneurial talents as the acquisition of capital, and is also subject to the general socio-economic laws, like any free entrepreneurial activity. Therefore, charity in different countries has its own history and specific culture, which is influenced by many factors .
    Therefore, you need to start "from the stove." And then it’s possible about Penza. and even about Musokhranovo, where they also had their benefactors. As for me, with this approach, historical science will begin to fulfill one of its functions - the function of social memory, and not the primitive function of "social sketch."
    1. tasha
      tasha 8 May 2018 15: 43
      +1
      Thank you and respect for the first paragraph. Just for the sake of justice, let’s also include there those who aspirated “everything was” about the Soviet era. That no one was offended ... wink

      It remains only to wish that in discussions on a historical theme each side does not forget one phrase by I.V. Stalin, which was brought in by W. Churchill in his memoirs:
      “Prime Minister Stalin says,” Pavlov translated, “that all this relates to the past, and the past belongs to God.”
      1. Hantengri
        Hantengri 8 May 2018 19: 47
        +1
        Quote: tasha
        Thank you and respect for the first paragraph. Just for the sake of justice, let’s also include there those who aspirated “everything was” about the Soviet era. That no one was offended ...

        Well, if all the authors and commentators, including Shpakovsky himself, adhered to the principle proclaimed here by him:
        Well, let’s take, for example, the topic of “failure” of the Russian Empire. It is obvious that it was not arranged in the best way, otherwise it would not have collapsed in 1917. But ... arguing this, it should be borne in mind that there were certain particulars that give us reason to believe that “something” was really bad, something was developing, but in an insufficient way. But in some areas just a lot was done.
        and in relation to RI, and in relation to the USSR, then ... But we have what we have. Unfortunately.
    2. Monarchist
      Monarchist 8 May 2018 16: 55
      +3
      Acute, but true. There is a lot of literature on the history of charity in Russia. I can only remember the Radugins now, and if you delve into the memory of the "attic" (as Livanov used to say in the t / s Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson) there’s still something
  4. kalibr
    8 May 2018 14: 54
    +3
    Quote: Curious
    what is charity as a social phenomenon in general and its socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-religious, socio-political premises.

    You are right, but the article about charity was from the very beginning here. And every time I do not want to start “over”.
  5. tasha
    tasha 8 May 2018 15: 32
    +3
    P.S. Thus, it is obvious that many tasks of the past were solved in the same way as today, that is, they are passed on to the public ...


    The historical part is always interesting. Only you have any conclusions.
    Suggest methods of state struggle with an individual who every day asks for money from passers-by for a sober bum. He has the documents in order, he receives a pension. Your suggestions?

    And many phenomena in society turned out to be out of existence for more than 100 years!

    Not for 100 years, but probably more. When in Russia drew attention to the problem of "orphans and wretched"?
  6. BAI
    BAI 8 May 2018 16: 43
    +2
    I read the article again (when there is no ardent anti-Soviet, it turns out really interesting) and I want to note this.
    Under Soviet rule, in the small town of Zagorsk, Moscow Region (now Sergiev Posad) and the surrounding territory, there were (and are now):
    1. Boarding school for deaf-blind children.
    2. Boarding children with cerebral palsy.
    3. Boarding lepers.
    Thanks to the photogenicity of children, against the background of which Yeltsin’s pictures are so good and the patronage of Yeltsin (these children can be used very profitably and successfully in PR companies) now has a large number of charitable contributions and does not have material problems, which cannot be said about other institutions (2 and 3).
    The question arises - 100 years ago, charity was from pure altruism, or were there attempts to derive any material or political benefit from it?
    1. BAI
      BAI 8 May 2018 17: 04
      +2
      Somehow there was a failure,
      there is a second question, how generally before the October Revolution the problems of the above categories of people were solved - were there state programs, charitable programs, or one way - beggary?
      It is easy and pleasant to collect the dowry of young pretty girls, but how was it with the unpleasant in appearance diseases?
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 8 May 2018 18: 30
        0
        Quote: BAI
        It is easy and pleasant to collect the dowry of young pretty girls, but how was it with the unpleasant in appearance diseases?
        and I remembered the film Cruel Romance. There, too, the philanthropist-philanthropist provided the dowry. Everything is clear, you can’t say clearer, but this is what a contemporary wrote.
      2. Curious
        Curious 8 May 2018 18: 40
        +3
        The question arises - 100 years ago, charity was from pure altruism, or were there attempts to derive any material or political benefit from it? there is a second question, how generally before the October Revolution the problems of the above categories of people were solved - were there state programs, charitable programs, or one way - beggary?
        Your question draws on an article, and not one, since charity in the Russian Empire is a vast topic.
        In short, you can take for example the Office of the Empress Mary. It was formed in 1797 after Emperor Paul I instructed his wife Empress Maria Fyodorovna to show patronage and concern for
        Petersburg and Moscow Educational Houses.
        The department of the institutions of the Empress Maria carried out its own activities in the following areas.

        1. Charity of both illegitimate children and children abandoned by their parents. Annually, more than 20 thousand illegitimate children and up to 500 people of so-called “refuseniks” were taken into the care of St. Petersburg and Moscow Educational Houses. In addition, up to 80 thousand children were left in the districts who remained in the care of their homes until they reached 21 years of age. More than 100 schools were kept to receive education in the process of inpatient maintenance of children. A nursery was opened for infants in 10 cities of Russia.

        2. The charity of poor children. This activity was carried out in shelters that existed in many cities. They contained up to 14 thousand children. As part of the elementary school, they were taught literacy and various crafts.

        3. The charity of the deaf and dumb. This type of charity was in a special school. It simultaneously raised up to 250 children of both sexes with literacy and various crafts.

        4. Adult charity was carried out in 36 almshouses. They annually contained up to 4 thousand elderly, weak and physically disabled people of both sexes.

        5. The provision of medical care. To this end, the Office of the Empress Maria maintained 40 hospitals with 4 beds. In them, up to 200 thousand patients received inpatient medical care during the year, and up to 24 thousand patients received outpatient care.
        The second example is “The Guardianship of Empress Maria Alexandrovna on the Blind.” In 1906, trusteeship had 27 branches and 6 committees in different regions of Russia. The total number of members of the guardianship was 7, the budget of the Guardianship exceeded 034 million rubles.
        1. BAI
          BAI 8 May 2018 19: 30
          +1
          Charity of the deaf. This type of charity was in a special school. It simultaneously raised up to 250 children

          Very interesting point. Where was the school located? In Zagorsk, a deaf-deaf-mute boarding school was created from scratch or on the basis of an existing one?
          1. Curious
            Curious 8 May 2018 21: 11
            +1
            You are asking good questions. A special educational institution for deaf-blind children in Zagorsk was created in 1963 by the famous Soviet psychologist and defectologist Alexander Ivanovich Meshcheryakov, who, together with Ivan Afanasyevich Sokolyansky, created a scientific system for teaching deaf-blind children.
            As for the "Guardianship of Empress Maria Alexandrovna on the Blind" - the right word, there is a lot of material, look at the beginning for the corresponding article in Brockhaus and Efron (vol. XXIVa), or http://encblago.lfond.spb.ru/showObject.do?object
            = 2811804742.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 8 May 2018 21: 18
              +1
              Me here .. "Comrade Communists" forced me to go to poetry .... recourse Sorry! request There is no limit to my respect! good but..

              Ah, Victor Nikolayevich, you are a naughty man!
              With love for experience, with your pure knowledge.
              Such a boulder has not yet been created,
              What would you not have shifted your thoughts of thought!
              good drinks

              I can write in such a syllable. I can Japanese. I can mow under Homer. Do you have orders? hi I wait! soldier
              1. Curious
                Curious 8 May 2018 22: 03
                +4
                "I can Japanese. I can mow under Homer. Do you have orders?"
                There is an order for tuyug. Can you
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 8 May 2018 22: 15
                  +1
                  There is an order for tuyug. Can you

                  Tuyug I did not study.
                  Did not say, did not measure! stop
                  Today I finished my work,
                  And he believed in happiness. fellow
                  1. Curious
                    Curious 8 May 2018 22: 36
                    +2
                    You are in the poem Thunder-stone, block!
                    Thank you very much for the verse!
                    Talent pita with you Niagara rushing!
                    Let Falcone find his.
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 8 May 2018 22: 43
                      +2
                      "Let it be" on "let"You should be replaced,
                      The syllables of the verse will accelerate this request
                      After all, it’s nice to say anything to us,
                      So that muses fly according to words! love (MV Lomonosov, hell knows what year)
                    2. Mikado
                      Mikado 8 May 2018 22: 51
                      +2
                      What glory to give, so would have looked in PM.
                      There are no good poems there for you fellow
                      This is creativity, but I don’t boast about it,
                      Yes, here I am so cool without embellishment!
                      repeat
                2. Mikado
                  Mikado 8 May 2018 22: 38
                  +2
                  Tuyug wants him.
                  Funny.
                  I would have thought of the happiness of the proletariat!

                  (Heiko Karlamarxazaki, 1591, death hokku)
            2. BAI
              BAI 8 May 2018 21: 46
              +2
              It turns out to be a long and interesting story.
              https://cyberleninka.ru/article/v/istoricheskiy-o
              pyt-sotsialnogo-prizreniya-gluhonemyh-detey-v-dor
              evolyutsionnoy-rossii

              The deaf-blind story has long roots

              For some reason, the authors did not at all highlight the participation of the church.


              Thank you for advising me to look at the history of the issue.
              Those. the history of the boarding school in Zagorsk went in a spiral - from the 16th century to the 20th.
              But the school in Pavlovsk was not the only one.
              1892 A parish school for the deaf-mute was established in Raspberries

              Of the Kiev province by the parish priest Moses Moiseevich Yavorsky, who dedicated the service to the deaf and mute under the influence of contrition about their own children born deaf and dumb.

              Desiring to give them an affordable education, he visited schools in St. Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw. But they turned out to be dear to the poor priest.

              And he decided to open a school in his parish, but one in which, in addition to his children, other poor children could be raised.

              On November 1, 1897, he opened a school for the deaf-mute in the village of Maksimovichi of Radomysl Uyezd, where he served. A few years later, the school moves to a well-maintained building in Raspberries.

              there were others.
  7. Monarchist
    Monarchist 8 May 2018 16: 45
    +2
    Quote: Mikado
    General secretaries generally sometimes, unfortunately, were not lucky with relatives. What can you do, we are all mortal and subject to passions .... request

    A comrade Mordvin believes that the writers were unlucky with relatives. So you have to say "famous people are not lucky with relatives. They need to be given" milk for harm "(" Ivan Vasilyevich changes the profession of "Bunsh manager")
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 8 May 2018 18: 47
      +1
      Quote: Monarchist
      A comrade Mordvin believes that the writers were unlucky with relatives.

      Deftly, you and Olgovich are putting everything upside down. laughing It was about a specific writer. Well, keep a tip, Brezhnev also had a relative-writer, he wrote fairy tales about partisans, although he fought the whole war on the Tashkent front. tongue Only he, unlike Titarenko, has grown to big ranks.
    2. Hantengri
      Hantengri 8 May 2018 19: 30
      +1
      Quote: Monarchist
      A comrade Mordvin believes that the writers were unlucky with relatives.
      So we must say "famous people are not lucky with relatives.
      They "need to give milk for harm" ("Ivan Vasilyevich changes the profession of" Bunsh's manager ")

      And, if you recall how unlucky it was with relatives, all of these, the Rurikovich, the Gedeminovich, the Platagenets, the Capetians, the Habsburgs, Valois and other decent people ... lol Thugs, well, without exception, were that your Chikatilo! So it was necessary, poor fellow, to live by the principle: "Slaughter your neighbor until the far man stabs you!" (c) (almost). laughing
    3. BAI
      BAI 8 May 2018 19: 37
      +1
      famous people are not lucky with relatives.

      I would not say. Let’s look at our stage - all around are solid relatives. Talent, so to speak, is clearly inherited:
      Pugacheva - daughter - grandson.
      Piekha - daughter-grandson, etc.
      I strongly suspect that the children of Kirkorov will be great singers.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 8 May 2018 19: 54
        +3
        Let’s look at our stage - all around are solid relatives.

        As Kotische says: "Yeah." Or is this Mordvin-Vladimir saying? I do not remember, do not judge strictly!
        Let's look at our bunch of "politics - big business." Everything is the same! drinks
  8. kalibr
    9 May 2018 17: 20
    +1
    Quote: Monarchist
    Monarchist (Labinsky Glory) Yesterday, 16: 38 ↑
    B. Oh, oh you and an ulcer.

    Alas! I suffered in life from ... and in my old age I do not want to continue the banquet.