Military Review

Iron heroes of Lutsk

30
We wrote about the confrontation of the Russian 4 of the Iron Rifle and German 20 of the Steel Infantry Divisions in the Kiselinsky battle (see Broken steel), when the Russian shooters fought off the vanguard of the "fire brigade" vanguard - an elite unit of the Kaiser army, who arrived in Galicia to rescue an Austrian ally. Now let us recall the earlier episode of the combat path of the glorious 4 of the Iron Rifle Division - one of the elite front-line units of the Russian army of the First World War. An outstanding feat of the division was participation in the Lutsk 1916 breakthrough.


There was a breakthrough preparation.

The first day the Russian artillery carried out artillery preparation, striking the enemy’s defensive positions, and on the night of 23, in May, she wore shrapnel fire - preventing any damage that had been done before. Under the cover of artillery fire were transferred to the river. Osinische battalions 13 th and 14 th rifle regiments.

From 4 hours of 23 on May, the artillery continued to smash the enemy’s first lane, ending the destruction - and earning the recognition of shooters, with a huge rise waiting for the desired minute of their attack.

The plan of an artillery attack was carried out as per notes. It was necessary only to regulate the time and tension of the fire, to transfer the fire of one group to the aid of the neighboring group, to direct fire on the Zabolottsy to promote the 15 Infantry Division, to fight the battery, etc.

Russian artillery worked so selflessly, skillfully and systematically, that in 29 hours everything that was created by engineering and months of Austrian work was reduced to dust.

In 9 hours to the accompaniment of hurricane fire of their artillery, the arrows rushed to the attack.



The commander of the 13 Infantry Regiment Colonel P. P. Nepenin moved the 3 battalion to assault and, instantly breaking through both lines of the enemy defense, 1 battalion entrenched in the captured positions, and 2 battalions attacked to the south - striking the Austrians on the flank and til. By the 11 watch, the 1-I band of enemy defenses, up to and including the “labyrinth,” was in the hands of iron shooters.

Iron heroes of Lutsk
P.P. Nepenin

The artillery of the commander of the 2 division of the 4 rifle artillery brigade of colonel V. F. Piskorsky concentrated fire on the second lane.

And with the powerful assistance of this fire, the 13 th regiment secured its right flank with a ledge (the 15 th regiment was delayed), attacked swiftly again - and by the 11 watch 30 minutes took possession of the second band of enemy fortifications, before which to the 13 watch and entrenched.

The two strong counter-attacks of the arrived in time 13-th Landwehr division - from Pashchashevo and Bakorinsky forest - were repelled by the friendly efforts of the shooters and artillery.



The lightning-fast and beautiful maneuver of the 13 Infantry Regiment, full of valor and tactical art, ensured all further breakthrough success and culminated in the capture of serious trophies: 59 officers and more 1500 lower ranks of prisoners, 12 guns, 9 machine guns, bombers, etc.

The 13 regiment lost 19 officers and 1078 shooters.

The 2 battalions of Colonel Keller's 14 Infantry Regiment were faced with a minor task — and the enemy’s fortifications in front of them were not sufficiently destroyed. Nevertheless, the valor of the shooters and the initiative of the regimental commanders, having exceeded the task, did a lot. Three companies transferred to Zhornyshche, despite the insecurity of the left flank and the strongest fire from the cemetery redoubt, stormed the front of the enemy along with the left flank of the 13 regiment, captured the first lane south of the "maze", hit the south along the trenches, and then seized the second lane with height 111. In the 15 hour, two companies of the first battalion, attacking a powerful cemetery redoubt from the south and north, captured it during a bayonet attack, and poured along the Austrian lines, sweeping away the enemy and pursuing to the valley located east of Zabolottsy.

In this glorious battle, where one and a half battalions of shooters showed an inimitable rush, it was taken: prisoners - 55 officers, more than 1000 lower ranks, 5 guns, 7 machine guns and bombers. Losses: 2 officer and 328 shooters.

The commander of the 15 Infantry Regiment, Colonel Ya. V. Safonov, threw two battalions into the front line assault, and under the deadly fire of the Austrians, they captured two lines of enemy fortifications. But further advancement stopped: the right flank of the 15 regiment in the front page met three lines of trenches and an extremely strong system of rendered ring fortifications opposite the heights “B” and “C”.


Ya. V. Safonov

With the height of 6 embracing and not attacking the 110 rifle regiment, the flank of the 15 was struck by a strong fire.

It took a new art strike, the influence of the reserve battalion in the battle line, interaction with the 6 rifle regiment - and a number of brutal bloody attacks. Colonel Ya.V. Safonov declined the doubly proposed reinforcement by the division reserve — and with the last pressure of the right-flank battalion seized the group of fortifications, destroying the enemy.

By 17 - 18 hours Division entrenched on the line 112.5 - 108 - 110 - 111 - 94.0, routed the enemy, mastering all lines of its fortifications and capturing officers 147, 4441 lower rank, guns 29, 26 machine guns, mortars and huge production.

The commander of the 16 Infantry Regiment, Colonel N. P. Biryukov, with the assistance of Colonel V. F. Piskorsky's division (who moved into the sphere of enemy fire), hit the Austrians on the southern edge of the Rozhansky Forest and at the crossroads. And one battalion overcame the Selischensky forest and attacked the Austrians to the west of the latter - three times. A hot battle ensued on the whole front, in which the battalions of the 16 Infantry Regiment, attacking valiantly, fighting off a series of counterattacks and skillfully maneuvering, overthrew the enemy, took prisoners to 1500, and in 12 hour went to Tung de Pona fortifications.


N.P. Biryukov

The division of Colonel V.F. Piskorsky openly, on the highway, accompanying the shooters, rushed to the stake. Teremenskoy.

With the 12 clock, the 4 rifle, having an 2 regiment in the battle line, launched an attack on the extraordinarily heavily fortified Lutsk tete-de-pon (several lines of trenches, and in front of them - from 3 to 16 rows of wire obstacles, a mass of concrete structures, etc. d.) on the front of the Bush - Teremno - Pidhaitsy. The shelves met by the strongest rifle and artillery fire were dug round.

In order to accelerate the decoupling, in 13 hours 20 minutes, the commander of the 1 brigade, Major General S. L. Stankevich, with the 15 rifle regiment and the 40-m mortar battalion (later the 3-th 11-th heavy division was also attached) Front of the 14 Rifle Regiment. S.L. Stankevich united command of units in his hands. The front of Colonel N. P. Biryukov was reinforced by the 18 heavy battalion.


S. L. Stankevich

After artillery preparation in the 16 watch, Colonel N. P. Biryukov again moved the regiment to attack. With the support of 15, the company’s auto-bullet platoon rushed forward, but, met with deadly fire, lay down at the wire barriers.

But the frontal attacks of the 16 rifle rifle chained the forces and attention of the Austrians.

S. L. Stankevich transferred the 15 th Infantry Regiment to the count. Zimnik, deployed the troops of his group and after the powerful fire of all the batteries of the 1 division of the 4 rifle artillery brigade of colonel MF Shkadyshek in the 18 hour, attacked (with the support of the 6 rifle regiment) the enemy.

This skillfully directed and swift strike, which decided the fate of the battle for tete de pont, took the strongest fortifications of Gusche and Teremno - moreover, the 14 Infantry Regiment captured over 2000 prisoners. The Austrians fled in disarray to Lutsk.

By the end of May 25, Lutsk is in Russian hands.

4-I Iron Rifle Division of 5 days of bloody fighting took place 60 km away, and it spoils steel: 268 officers, 11300 lower ranks, 29 guns, 40 machine guns, mortars, mortar rounds and huge production (large rifles warehouses, bullets, shells, hand grenades , rockets, a lot of gas masks, barbed wire, steel shields, telephone sets, camping kitchens, packs, thousands of carts with weapons, entrenching tools, fodder and food, large stocks of equipment and other property - for example, 820 tons of coal).

Total division losses - 47 officers and 4329 shooters.

And it was the iron arrows, moving in the vanguard of the advancing Russian troops, seized the city, which gave the name of the whole operation - Lutsk, writing a new brilliant page in the chronicle of the victories of the Russian weapons.
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  1. Streletskos
    Streletskos 10 May 2018 07: 12
    +17
    Fighting Path of the Glorious Rifle Division
    Thanks to the author for another page of Russian weapons prowess
  2. kipage
    kipage 10 May 2018 08: 16
    +18
    The coherence of all links of the divisional mechanism is noteworthy.
    Running like a clock.
    Regiments interact with each other, with divisional and heavy artillery attached.
    In the case of a hitch, other forms of maneuver are used.
    And - the result
    1. soldier
      soldier 10 May 2018 08: 58
      +21
      The name of the director is having started gene-lieutenant A.I. Denikin. For distinction near Lutsk he received a unique award - the St. George's weapon, decorated with diamonds (VP ​​22.09.1916).
      1. Cheburator
        Cheburator 10 May 2018 10: 00
        +18
        Yes, A. I. Denikin is a brilliant front-line commander.
        You can also recall S. D. Markov.
  3. soldier
    soldier 10 May 2018 09: 11
    +21
    The fate of the commanders of regiments and artillery divisions of the 4th Infantry is interesting.
    Y. V. Safronov died in January 1918 in Kiev - after the capture of the city by Muravyov’s troops. N.P. Biryukov was shot in 1919 in Odessa. Only P. P. Nepenin was "lucky" - he died his death in Yugoslavia.
    The fate of the artillerymen Shkadyshek and Piskorsky is unknown.
    Brigade Commander S. L. Stankevich - participant in the White Movement, died of typhus in 1919 in Taganrog.
    The potential of such personnel after the WWII wasted.
    Here you can cite 2 phrases of G.K. Zhukov, one devoted to the officer corps of the RIA, and the second to training in the RIA (in relation to the cavalry training course through which G.K. Zhukov went through):
    1)
    Remembering the joint work with the officers of the old army, I must say that for the most part they were honest, conscientious and devoted to the motherland sons of our people. When they had to give their lives in battles with enemies, they did it without flinching, with dignity and military prowess.

    2)
    Evaluating now the training command of the old army, I must say that, in general, they were well trained in it, especially with regard to combat training. Each graduate was fluent in equestrian affairs, weapons and methods of training a fighter. It is no accident that many non-commissioned officers of the old army after October became qualified military leaders of the Red Army.
    1. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx 10 May 2018 10: 05
      0
      Quote: soldier
      The potential of such frames after the PMV wasted

      These cadres were first beaten by the Germans in WWI, then by the Red Army in the Civil. And somehow they did without them and then.
      And whoever wanted, who made the right choice, then later during the Great Patriotic War, quite the contrary, he beat the Germans.
      1. Cheburator
        Cheburator 10 May 2018 10: 09
        +21
        These shots beat Germans and Austrians in WWI
        Also.
        And the Red Army, too, was beaten by the Germans, until they learned to fight.
        And all because of the huge abyss due to the elimination of personnel, loss of continuity and previous combat experience.
        1. soldier
          soldier 10 May 2018 10: 20
          +19
          By the way, the Civilian Officers Corps fought on both sides.
          And largely thanks to this, the Reds won. It is enough to recall the new tactics of Yegorov (the future marshal of the Soviet Union), used by him to slow down Denykina’s All-Union Trip to Moscow in 1919
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 10 May 2018 09: 35
    +5
    An outstanding feat of the division was participation in Lutsk breakthrough of 1916

    In my opinion, this operation name is much more correct.

    Absolutely necessary, I think, is the mention of the glorious Russian commander ANTON IVANOVICH DENIKIN, which created in 1914, the Iron Brigade (then the division) and spent it on the roads of glory for two years.
    1. soldier
      soldier 10 May 2018 09: 44
      +18
      Dear Olgovich!
      I agree with you, but I wanted to clarify something.
      In my opinion, this operation name is much more correct.

      That's right, the Lutsk breakthrough is one of the stages of the offensive of the Southwestern Front in 1916.
      Absolutely necessary, I think, is the mention of the glorious Russian commander ANTON IVANOVICH DENIKIN, who created the Iron Brigade (then the division) in 1914 and led it along the glory roads for two years.

      Anton Ivanovich Denikin is one of the glorious commanders in Russian military history, and one of the outstanding commanders of the 4th Infantry. But he did not create it. The 4th brigade appeared much earlier. She became iron at Shipka in 1877.
      By the way, Denikin on the Way of a Russian officer provides very interesting data on the Shipkin period.
      1. rkkasa xnumx
        rkkasa xnumx 10 May 2018 09: 58
        0
        For the lack of truly great victories in the last hundred years of its existence, the Bulko-Khrustam have to look for the successful actions of the RIA, at least at the level of divisions, and against far from the most powerful opponents.
        1. Cheburator
          Cheburator 10 May 2018 10: 10
          +21
          And you do not need to seek out.
          A lot of examples of victories at the level of corps, armies and fronts.
          But the wise men, opposing the 2 wars-zadolbali.
          Probably consider themselves smarter than Marshal Zhukov
          1. soldier
            soldier 10 May 2018 10: 16
            +20
            The Austrians were a strong adversary. It was the Russians who broke them. And then they later managed to act actively on our front, in the Balkans, in France (4 divisions), regularly beat the Italians.
            By the way, story 4 of the FSW is an excellent example of successful actions both against the Austrians (Lutsk) and against the Germans (Kiselin).
        2. Dart2027
          Dart2027 10 May 2018 19: 42
          +2
          Quote: rkkasa 81
          it is necessary to search for successful actions of the RIA, at least at the level of divisions, and against far from the most powerful opponents

          That is, essentially nothing to argue?
          1. rkkasa xnumx
            rkkasa xnumx 10 May 2018 19: 45
            0
            Quote: Dart2027
            That is, essentially nothing to argue?

            Who mind what creature? Try to formulate a question in Russian.
            1. Dart2027
              Dart2027 10 May 2018 21: 13
              +2
              Quote: rkkasa 81
              Who mind what creature

              BEING 1, aa, cf. The essence, the internal content of something., The essence 1. C. business. Understand with. a question. Speak to the point (touching the essential).
              Explanatory Dictionary Ozhegova. S.I. Ozhegov, N.Yu. Shvedova. 1949-1992.
              Quote: rkkasa 81
              Try to formulate a question in Russian.

              Try to learn Russian.
      2. Cheburator
        Cheburator 10 May 2018 10: 05
        +18
        soldier
        Lutsk breakthrough - one of the stages of the offensive of the Southwestern Front in 1916

        Naturally, the offensive of the SWF included a series of army operations. Lutsk breakthrough - operation of the 8th army, and only in the period May 22-25.
        The offensive of the SWF continued (with pauses) until 31
        The 4th Zheleznoy brigade was still on Shipka in 1877. By the way, Denikin on the Way of a Russian officer provides very interesting data on the Shipkin period.

        Let us give the floor to A. I. Denikin himself (The path of a Russian officer):
        The 4th Rifle Brigade became famous in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. The beginning of her fame refers to the famous passage of the gene detachment through the Balkans. Gurko and glorious battles at Shipka, where the brigade came with a forced march to the rescue of the exhausted and bleeding garrison and defended the pass. Since then, it was called Zheleznaya, as its military neighbors called it, and this name came into use throughout the Russian army and was recognized in the words of the Highest Rescript addressed to the commander of Field Marshal Gurko, who was later the chief of the 14th Infantry Regiment.
        Saying goodbye to the brigade, gene. Gurko said: "History will appreciate your exploits, .. The days spent with you, arrows, I believe and will always be considered the best days of my life."
        After 38 years, I could repeat the same words ...
        In peacetime, the brigade was in the Odessa military district, which was considered secondary in the sense of demanding service, and stood in Odessa - a city with a special psychology, with a speculative character and an international population. Of course, none of the participants in the Turkish war remained in the brigade, only its chief, the general. Bowalf was the same lieutenant Bowalf, who once with his company on the grains of Cossack horses was the first to break into Shipka ...
        And so, when the world war began, the iron arrows proved that they did not waste the spiritual heritage of the glorious fathers. So tenacious military traditions.
        Fate connected me with the Iron Brigade (division). For two years she walked with me through the fields of bloody battles, writing quite a few glorious pages in the annals of the Great War. Alas, they are not in official history. For the Bolshevik censorship, which gained access to all archival and historical materials, dissected them in its own way and carefully etched out all the episodes of the brigade's military activity related to my name ...
        The position of the brigade (division) in the 8th army was completely special. Iron shooters almost did not have to take part in positional standing, sometimes long and boring. Usually, after a bloody battle, Brusilov was withdrawn to the “reserve of the army commander” only in order to be thrown into someone else’s help in the heat of battle, in a breakthrough or in the chaos of the retreating units, after two or three days. We often suffered heavy losses and changed fourteen corps in this order. And I am proud to note that the Iron Division has earned the honorary title of "fire brigade" of the 8th Army. "
      3. Olgovich
        Olgovich 10 May 2018 10: 32
        +4
        Quote: soldier
        Anton Ivanovich Denikin is one of the glorious commanders in Russian military history, and one of the outstanding commanders of the 4th Infantry. But he did not create it. The 4th brigade appeared much earlier. She became iron on Shipka in 1877ode.

        You are right, but Iron division transformed from the brigade and became its commander A.I. Denikin.
        1. soldier
          soldier 10 May 2018 10: 43
          +19
          Yes, the reform (an increase in the number of battalions in the rifle regiments (in 1914, each regiment had 2 battalions each) and the deployment of brigades in the division) took place when he was his brigade commander. So the practical activities were conducted by A. I. Denikin.
          hi
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 10 May 2018 11: 35
            +4
            Quote: soldier
            conducted by A.I. Denikin.

            Actually, I wanted to note that when talking about the glorious deeds of the Iron Division, one cannot fail to mention its commander, A.I. Denikin.
            1. soldier
              soldier 10 May 2018 12: 37
              +19
              Actually, I wanted to note that when talking about the glorious deeds of the Iron Division, one cannot fail to mention its commander, A.I. Denikin.

              You are right.
              But the author said this in a previous article - Broken Steel (about Kiselin). Perhaps he thought that all of this is already remembered - focusing on the analysis of the details of this battle.
              And he (this battle) preceded Kiselyin, so of course it was necessary to mention. But nothing - we made up drinks
              1. XII Legion
                XII Legion 10 May 2018 13: 20
                +18
                the author said this in a previous article

                That's right. In the previous article, it was said about the chief, and in this - the regiment commanders. In the complex, both articles constitute a review of the 4d bd in May-June 1916, although this should be the first chronologically.
                As for the names of the stages of the offensive of the Southwestern Front, the question has been structured for a long time.
                Indeed, on May 22, 1916, 4 armies went on the offensive - the 8th, 11th, 7th and 9th. Each has its own direction.
                The breakthrough for the 8th army was Lutsk, for the rest - Sopanovsky, Yazlovetsky, Dobronoutsky.
                And this is only May. And then more.
              2. BRONEVIK
                BRONEVIK 10 May 2018 21: 07
                +15
                Given the increased (and logical) interest in Anton Ivanovich - a selection of photos as applied to him and the entrusted brigade (division).
                1. BRONEVIK
                  BRONEVIK 10 May 2018 21: 08
                  +15

                  Really - military officers
                  1. BRONEVIK
                    BRONEVIK 10 May 2018 21: 09
                    +15

                    After the capture of Lutsk
                    1. BRONEVIK
                      BRONEVIK 10 May 2018 21: 10
                      +15

                      very honorable duty
                      1. BRONEVIK
                        BRONEVIK 10 May 2018 21: 10
                        +15

                        Parade of winners
  5. XII Legion
    XII Legion 10 May 2018 13: 22
    +18
    Detailed and informative article.
    The Russian army consisted mainly of such excellent formations. And the successes of the divisions turned into the successes of corps and armies.
    Thank you!
  6. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 10 May 2018 14: 27
    +18
    Great Combat Division
    Thank you for the article good
  7. BRONEVIK
    BRONEVIK 10 May 2018 21: 14
    +15
    BRONEVIK,

    Valorous zaddiv.
    By the way, the 4th Iron Rifle acted very well afterwards.
    For example, an archival document that we recently added calls its trophies in only one day — July 26, 1916 — machine guns, 3 officers, and 600 lower ranks.