Military Review

"Condenser" and "Transformer". About almost mortars

47



Many people remember the old bearded anecdote about would-be artillerymen who really wanted to shoot at Moscow from their grandfather's cannon? Only here the caliber of the projectile was slightly larger than the caliber of the barrel. So the godfathers decided to hammer the shell with a sledgehammer. The result is predictable.

Do you remember the end of this joke? "Well, godfather, if after a shot we have such destruction in a barn, then imagine what is happening in Moscow now?" And I remembered this anecdote because the statement about the joke share in each joke is valid here. At least, in the family of mortars there really were such "electrical appliances".

Those interested history the development of mortars, we already realized that today we will talk about the most powerful mortars ever produced. About "Capacitor" and "Transformer", which is better known under the name "Oka". Weapons, which even today impresses with its terrible power and size.

At the beginning of the article, it is necessary to clarify the reasons for the general need for such tools. Moreover, from the height of today's knowledge, for many readers it is not entirely clear the desire for large calibers.

Probably, it will sound strange, but today they (readers), not even knowing about it, express that point of view, which served as the main reason for the closure of heavy-duty mortar projects. Why do we need large calibers if there is a lighter weapon - missiles? Nikita Khrushchev rubs his hands ...

In fact, there is more than enough logic here. And even Khrushchev is not much in business. However - in order.

To begin, let us return to the time when the development of super-powerful weapons had just begun. That is, by the middle of the last century. Mankind has already realized and realized the power of atomic weapons in practice. Although, to be honest, the authors could not find confirmation or refutation of the claim that the "Capacitor" and "Transformer" were created specifically for shooting "atomic mines".

It is possible that this idea came later. Already during the test or a little later. In any case, work on these monsters (and we don’t have another word) began BEFORE atomic weapons passed from promising developments to the category of weapons.

So, atomic weapons became weapons and quickly ceased to be a political factor, but moved into the category of strategic factors.

Yes, it was necessary to deliver it to the territory of the enemy with something. Given the dimensions of the first atomic bombs, the only delivery method was aviation. Fortunately, heavy (strategic) bombers could pick up such ammunition without difficulty.

However, the continuous improvement of atomic weapons led to a decrease in the size of such bombs. Now it is possible to create bombs of low power and relatively small dimensions. Can you imagine what opportunities opened up before commanders?

Take the situation that was typical of the Second World War. Two opposing groups of troops, equal in strength. But the enemy "dug into the ground", created powerful engineering structures, minefields and defense in depth. What to do?

And here the low-power nuclear weapons come to the aid of the commander. The bomb in 500-1000 kilograms weighing completely change the balance of power. It is doubtful that when such a bomb is applied, for example, according to the location of a brigade or division, this unit will retain its combat capability. Of course, do not save.

Yes, the damaging factors of nuclear weapons then were not particularly interested in the military. Their study has just begun. The main thing was to perform a combat mission. But as always.

Who was the first to come up with the idea to create a weapon capable of delivering a small atomic charge to the enemy’s location is unknown even today. Therefore, we will proceed from the primacy in the creation of nuclear weapons.



Not that America is ahead of the rest, yet we were basically in the role of catching up in matters of murder. What we personally think is more than a compliment to the Soviet Union.

In any case, the use of bombers in the positions of the rapid reaction forces was inexpedient and even dangerous. Nobody canceled the fighters and air defense, and, accordingly, the landing of the atomic "gift" on its territory too.

American designers began to look for delivery options. Taking into account its own capabilities, industry capabilities and customer requirements. As often happens, the Americans did not "reinvent the wheel." At their disposal was the documentation of several weapons of very large caliber at once.



In the year 1952, in the course of research and development in the USA, the T-131 atomic cannon with a caliber of 280 mm is adopted.



The design of this gun was launched in the 1949 year on the basis of a special power 280-mm gun. In 1950, a prototype was made under the symbol M65, which was put into service after the tests. A total of 20 such guns were produced.

Here it is necessary to make a small digression concerning both American and Soviet weapons. We specifically use both gun names. The fact is that in the conditions of the Cold War, both we and the Americans in every possible way secret their own development. М65 is today known as Т131, “Transformer” as “Oka”. There was such a time.

The guns T131 entered service 6 formed artillery battalions. The 3 guns on the battalion and the 2 guns were used for testing. The 5 battalions were sent to Europe at the disposal of the command of the US Army 7. Until 1955, the T131 were the only ground weapons capable of firing nuclear weapons. The battalions were disbanded in 1963 after the closure of the program.

A little bit about the tactical and technical characteristics of the guns.

"Condenser" and "Transformer". About almost mortars


Caliber: 280 mm
Barrel length: 12,74 m
Mass in the stowed position: 78 308 kg, in the combat position - 42 582 kg
Length in the combat position: 11,709 m
Width: 2,743 m
HV angle: 0 / + 55 degrees
Angle GN: -7,5 to + 7,5 degrees.

Cannon carriage. Transportation speed to 55 km / h on the highway. Clearance 914 mm.

So, 25 May 1953, in the desert of the state of Nevada, fired the first shot of the semi-stationary "Nuclear Annie" М65. Already by name you understood that this was the first atomic shot from an artillery system. Shot, 25 seconds of waiting, atomic "mushroom" ...



Probably worth mentioning about ammunition. The first US nuclear missile was T124. Weight - 364,2 kg, caliber - 280 mm, initial speed at max charge 628 m / s. The range of 24 km, the minimum range - 15 km. KVO at max range - 130 m. Nuclear charge W-9. 15 power kt. For the year (from April 1952 to November 1953), 80 shells were manufactured. Dismissed in 1957 year.

In place of the T124 came the T315 projectile. Weight - 272 kg, caliber 280 mm, nuclear charge W-19. Power 15-20 CT. Initial speed 722 m / s. Range to 30,2 km. Released 80 shells.

And what about us? And we, as always: “catch up and overtake!”.

By the time it turns out that way. And this is caused by a completely different approach to the very concept of design. We proceeded from the task of precisely destroying the enemy in deeply echeloned and equipped defense. And in this case, the mortar is more effective. Although, from the height of today's knowledge, talking about the effectiveness of using nuclear weapons is somewhat complicated. But again, this was 60 years ago.

Our intelligence worked on the "great" and extracted data from the American tests. Achievements Americans carefully studied and identified the shortcomings of the system. First of all, weight. Agree, for 80 tons for the system a bit too much. The Americans "dragged" their gun with two powerful Peterbilt trucks.

Further, the gun for a long time was brought into the combat position. Depending on the coherence of the calculation from 3 to 6 hours. At that time, unloading, assembling, adjusting and bringing the weapon to the battle was included.

But also the complexity of a design traditional for the American weapon in general. Preparation of the calculation number takes a lot of time. In combat conditions, this time simply will not.

Work to create the world's largest mortar began in the early 50-s. It should be noted that the task was immediately on two different mortars. 420-mm mortar 2B1 ("Transformer") and 406-mm self-propelled unit 2А3 ("Condenser-2П"). Several defense enterprises of the USSR participated in the development - Kolomenskoye SKB of machine-building, design bureau of the Kirov factory, factory "Barricades".

In 1957, the first experienced Transformer was released. And almost immediately, and "Condenser".



Both cars had a unified chassis. Developed "Object 273" at the Kirov plant. The chassis was superior in strength to all available analogues in the world. The engine was taken from a heavy tank T-10, from there the operating time on the chassis. Diesel V-12-6B, 12-cylinder, 750 l / s, liquid-cooled. It allowed to reach speeds of up to 30 km / h and had a power reserve of 200-220 km.



An 420-mm mortar with an 47,5 barrel length, almost 20 meters, was installed on the Oka (“Transformer”)! Mina weighed 750 kg! Charging was done only with a special crane. The firing range of the Oka reached 45 km. By the way, the great weight of the mines did not allow the “Oka” to transport more than one ammunition.



In other matters, the calculation of 7 people also could not boast of traveling on a self-propelled mortar. In addition to the driver of course. To move the calculation had on the truck, after the mortar. On a special machine drove mines. Plus, the normal phenomenon for any time is security. She still got a cavalcade ...

It was also necessary to direct the gun with the help of the driver. Horizontal guidance was made by turning the entire installation. But the exact guidance was made already electric. Both cars are the same in this respect. Just on the "Condenser" was installed 406-mm gun CM-54.

Meanwhile, both cars, even without participating in hostilities, inflicted a “defeat” on a potential adversary by their appearance. By the year 1957 was produced by 4 instance of the mortar "Oka" and self-propelled gun "Condenser". And all the cars took part in a military parade on Red Square ...



The reaction of "friends" was predictable. Shock! Cars have caused a stir! The Americans not only lost another advantage, but also somewhat lagged behind the USSR. It was then that the "duck" about the cardboard Soviet technique appeared, which we hear today in relation to our "Armata", Su-57 and other revolutionary developments. Fear spawned a lie! But more about that below.

Now about TTX.

Self-propelled 2А3 "Condenser-2П" with a gun 406-mm CM-54.



Weight: 64 tons
Length with gun: 20 m
Width: 3,08 m
Height: 5,75 m
Firing range: 25,6 km
Crew / crew: 7 man
The number of produced machines: 4 pieces.

Self-propelled mortar 420-mm 2B1 "Oka".



Combat weight: 55 tons
Length: 20,02 m
Width: 3,08 m
Height: 5,728 m
HV angle + 50 ... + 75 degrees
Firing range: 1 – 45 km
Crew: 7 people
The number of cars produced - 4 pieces.

And now about the "cardboard duck", which even today can often be heard from fans of the West.

"Condenser-2P" Americans call daddy mortar, "papa-mortar". What is today called the information war has always been. And the western man in the street could inspire the thought of the "carton". But experts understood that the weapon was acting.

Why do Americans, even experts, believe in fake? Yes, simply because if this is not done, you will have to recognize the advantage of Soviet engineers over Western ones. In the "Condenser" are used components and assemblies, which at that time were not in the world models of armored vehicles.

Starting with the chassis. Above, we wrote about the chassis of the heavy tank T-10M. The designers did not just use the latest developments, but also "fitted" them under the new weapon! And the eight-wheeled chassis with hydraulic shock absorbers? They not only helped to move smoothly, but extinguished some of the recoil energy.

And the gun? The huge mass of 406-mm guns simply could not be mounted on the chassis. The weight of the ammunition for the gun reached a monstrous figure. RDS-41, a Soviet atomic weapon with an 14 CT charge, was almost 600 kg in weight! And this monster “flew” on 25,5 kilometers! Imagine the effect of such a gap. 14 kilotons on the front ...



But to talk about the ACS, as a machine held, it is impossible. Let us quote the historian of armored vehicles, artillery officer Anatoly Simonyan from his interview with the “Star”:

"The monstrous recoil force worked such terrible things that the project was almost wrapped up. The gearbox after the shot fell off the bindings, the engine after the shot turned out to be not where it was placed, communication equipment and hydraulics - literally everything refused. Every shot of this car, in fact, it was experimental because after each such volley the car was studied for three to four hours down to each screw for weakening the metal. This is not to say that the installation itself rolled back seven to eight meters ago. "

"Capacitor" has become a deterrent weapon. Paradoxically, this ACS could compete with the rocket armament that existed at that time. Strange, but it was enough to transport the ACS in any area - that's all. The situation calmed down by itself.

Approximately the same effect and had the "Eye". Again we quote the specialist, military historian Nikolai Lapshin:

"The 2B1 shot was called a strategic trump card in the negotiations. Why? Well, probably because one shot could change not just the balance of forces in the upcoming battle, but also, for example, change the balance of forces in general in the area of ​​operation. Imagine the accumulation of enemy forces, which mine arrives with a nuclear charge and weighs more than 600 kilograms? I think there will be no witnesses left, not even one of the members of the surrender who will gain from it. "

Active-reactive mine "Oka", 420-mm mine "Transformer" really amazed by its size. Human's height! More than 600 kg of weight. Distance to 50 kilometers! With this huge power!

And in the conclusion of the article I want to return to the anecdote with which we started. What happens "at home" after the shot "Oka". Well, first of all, the shot itself. Personnel, even in headphones, almost lost hearing for quite a long time. And the next seismic station recorded an earthquake. Lung.

Today, such systems can only be seen in museums. We abandoned their development in 1960. Americans in 1963. It's a pity. Imagine how international relations would change if there were a few, but modernized Transformers and Capacitors on the borders.

However, our story about huge mortars does not end there ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Mortars: the evolution of large caliber
Daily rival Kalashnikov assault rifle
His Majesty weapons of mass destruction
47 comments
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  1. ty60
    ty60 1 May 2018 15: 44
    +6
    by the 80s of the last century, tactical nuclear munitions fit in the munitions of Akatsiya. Now in the Coalition and Mstu. It has become much more powerful
    1. Borik
      Borik 2 May 2018 16: 32
      +1
      It was an excellent scarecrow to scare all vultures.
      1. Vladimir 5
        Vladimir 5 2 May 2018 17: 58
        +5
        You are right, this was only a scarecrow for intimidating parades, but by no means operational models in service. We also drove mock-up missiles on Red Square, which never took off samples — there was an information war, as they would say now. Only the author should have recalled in the introduction that the Germans fired at Paris with an extra-large caliber back in WWI. And to recall the defense of Sevastopol with our coastal batteries, later the Germans drove Big Berts and other monsters in response. Such was the mountain pierced and the main ammunition depot in the cave blown up, after which the capture of Sevastopol became mute. The Germans were the main masters in siege calibers, and under Sevastopol large hummingbirds worked to the fullest ... And a fly in the ointment, so our designers never created field artillery larger than 203 mm, not counting the mortar ...
        1. ICT
          ICT 2 May 2018 20: 27
          +3
          Quote: Vladimir 5
          Such was the mountain pierced and the main ammunition depot in the cave blown up

          since childhood, I remember like they blew themselves up
        2. albert
          albert 2 May 2018 22: 20
          +12
          Quote: Vladimir 5
          And a fly in the ointment, so our designers never created field artillery larger than 203 mm, not counting the mortar ...

          Br-5. Go to Wiki and get enlightened. what kind of animals
        3. konstantin68
          konstantin68 3 May 2018 17: 58
          +10
          Quote: Vladimir 5
          so our designers never created field artillery larger than 203 mm, not counting the mortar ...

          Here, dear expert, the key word is "field". The answer is simple - it is not needed.
          Soviet artillery of WWII times surpassed German artillery. But for you, they are of course always "experts."
        4. Vladislav 73
          Vladislav 73 5 May 2018 23: 29
          +5
          Quote: Vladimir 5
          super large caliber

          210 mm is an extra large caliber ?? belay
          Quote: Vladimir 5
          Big Berts

          But I thought that Sevastopol was bombarded by the railway Dora and the self-propelled mortars Karl, and here the Big Bert turns out .... fool Apparently, the Germans directly teleported from Verdun 1916! laughing Woe-historian, I don’t even want to comment on your balcony anymore ... negative
          Quote: Vladimir 5
          hummingbirds

          At least learn the Russian language, if history and artillery materials for you are a "Chinese letter"! wink yes
  2. Grid
    Grid 2 May 2018 16: 25
    +7
    Many people remember the old bearded anecdote about the mountain-gunners who really wanted to shoot at Moscow from the grandfather’s cannon?

    And this is not a joke nichrome, this is a story from the series "Sandro from Chegem" Fazil Iskander. Well, he’d rest on the same shelf with the solzhenitser.
  3. faiver
    faiver 2 May 2018 16: 27
    +2
    it’s absolutely not a pity that the development of huge mortars has stopped - in fact a disposable machine and frankly not cheap ...
  4. Same lech
    Same lech 2 May 2018 16: 38
    +2
    Interesting article!
    Thanks to Roman and Alexander for her. hi
  5. Fedor egoist
    Fedor egoist 2 May 2018 16: 49
    +7
    Thanks for the photo.
    Now I know what the main gauge of a battleship on a tank chassis will look like)
    1. sergo1914
      sergo1914 2 May 2018 21: 12
      +1
      Quote: Fedor Egoist
      Thanks for the photo.
      Now I know what the main gauge of a battleship on a tank chassis will look like)


      This is how it will look


      If by article. They gave us a practical shot from this practice. H.ren stood 50 meters from the armored camera from which they fired. A week later, the overwhelmed went. POWER.
  6. Curious
    Curious 2 May 2018 17: 10
    +21
    “To begin with, let’s go back to the time when the development of super-powerful weapons had just begun. That is, by the middle of the last century. Mankind has already understood and realized the power of atomic weapons in practice. Although, to be honest, the authors could not find confirmation or refutation of the statement that the "Capacitor" and "Transformer" were created specifically for firing "atomic mines."
    It is possible that this idea came later. Already during the test or a little later. In any case, work on these monsters (and we have no other word) began BEFORE atomic weapons moved from promising developments to the category of weapons specifically. "

    The authors continue to delight the reader with amazing discoveries.
    In 1955, when, in accordance with a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of November 18, 1955, work began on the 2B1 Oka self-propelled mortar and the 2A3 Condenser-2P self-propelled gun, the United States had 1565 bombers and 4750 nuclear bombs with power from 50 Kt to 20 Mt. In the same year, the B-52 TB is adopted for service. All this is within the framework of the concept of "nuclear retaliation." In 1955, the thermonuclear charge of RDS 37 with a capacity of 1,6 Mt was already tested in the USSR. If almost 5000 nuclear bombs are not yet weapons, but only a promising development ...
    As for the fact that the authors did not find material that the super-guns were created for nuclear weapons, this gap is easily filled. In order not to copy-paste very large material, I offer readers the article "Tsar-shell for atomic artillery".
    There is no doubt about the qualifications of the author of the article. Academician D.V. Shirkov became the youngest laureate of the 1958 Lenin Prize, awarded for the development of nuclear weapons.
    The article was published in the journal Science First Hand in 2010. Link to the article https://scfh.ru/papers/tsar-snaryad-dlya-atomnoy-
    artillerii /.
  7. Maximys
    Maximys 2 May 2018 17: 12
    +1
    Interesting article, thanks to the authors.
  8. svp67
    svp67 2 May 2018 17: 14
    +1
    It's a pity.
    No, it’s not a pity ... Rocket Complexes are more accurate and long-range, and most importantly more quickly
    1. Tomato
      Tomato 2 May 2018 23: 03
      +3
      You are absolutely right, Mr. Marshal. Although Khrushchev was an extravagant man, he was right in giving priority to missiles, to the detriment of other military branches. As history has shown, it was rockets that were the main deterrent.
  9. san4es
    san4es 2 May 2018 17: 17
    +5
    there was a need for such tools
  10. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 2 May 2018 17: 45
    +6
    The topic is interesting. The article is chaotic, superficial. The first charge of the 406 mm caliber was developed in Arzamas-16 (now Sarov) in KB-11 in 1955, it seems. I’ll find a picture, lay it out, it (charge) solemnly lies there in the museum.
    1. Curious
      Curious 2 May 2018 18: 03
      +11

      VNIIEF Museum of Nuclear Weapons in Sarov. From left to right: the first domestic atomic (1949) and serial atomic (1953, top) bombs, the world's first hydrogen (thermonuclear) bomb (1953), an artillery shell with a nuclear charge (1956)
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 2 May 2018 18: 08
        +3
        Thanks, now I will not rummage through old files. By the way, the picture is long-standing, between the 15 and 17 the hall design has changed a lot, in my opinion, it has deteriorated so much - the walls were draped with black.
        1. Paranoid50
          Paranoid50 2 May 2018 21: 08
          +5
          Quote: Aviator_
          the design of the hall has changed a lot, in my opinion, it has deteriorated so much - the walls were draped in black.

          Black is it. good And the light is crimson. yes Need appropriate surroundings - the exhibits are hellish. wassat fellow
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 2 May 2018 22: 02
            +2
            No, this change did not add much tragedy, it was just idiotic - in the general arms section they put the cardboard border guard at full height, in general, the girls designers frolic.
            1. Paranoid50
              Paranoid50 2 May 2018 22: 04
              +6
              Quote: Aviator_
              In general, designer girls frolic.

              Ugh on them - and they have already made their way here, alternatively gifted. am
  11. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 2 May 2018 18: 30
    +4
    To give an order for the Ministry of Defense (with the stamp 000- for db, which they drink from the Potomac): hand out all tactical nuclear weapons under the personal responsibility of the platoon and company. Here the fun will come at all headquarters from Brussels to the last tent of the Texan brigade in Poland that did not have time to turn around!
  12. Alf
    Alf 2 May 2018 20: 14
    +2
    In! Be afraid, adversary!
  13. Doliva63
    Doliva63 2 May 2018 21: 52
    +5
    Itself is not a "lace", it was interesting. But here it is:
    "Two opposing groups of forces, equal in strength. But the enemy" buried in the ground ", created powerful engineering structures, minefields and deeply layered defense. What to do?" - did not like.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  14. Old26
    Old26 2 May 2018 22: 06
    +6
    Those who are interested in the history of the development of mortars have already realized that today we will talk about the most powerful mortars ever produced. About the "Capacitor" and "Transformer", which is better known under the name "Oka". A weapon that even today strikes with its terrible power and size.

    In fact, the authors somewhat exaggerated, calling both "Capacitor" and "Transformer" mortars. The 406-mm SM-54 "Condenser-2P" (GRAU 2A3 index) was still not a mortar, but a cannon. But the 420-mm 2B1 Transformer (aka Oka) - with a mortar. There was another 406-mm self-propelled active-reactive gun S-103 (2A4), but it was never carried along Red Square

    Quote: svp67
    No, it’s not a pity ... Rocket Complexes are more accurate and long-range, and most importantly more quickly

    No, Sergey! Still a little sorry. A sort of monsters, felt power. Even now in a museum you look at it with bated breath (knowing about its existence). And then on Red Square - it was generally a SHOCK and ANNUAL laughing

    Quote: Vladimir 5
    They also drove mock-ups on Red Square, which never took off samples

    It was like that. For several years, they regularly carried mock-ups of “global” GR-1 missiles, carried RT-15 and RT-20 which were not in service, and carried the Dal anti-aircraft system, saying that these were anti-missiles ...
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 3 May 2018 01: 53
      +2
      Quote: Old26
      . There was also the 406-mm self-propelled active-reactive gun C-103 (2A4)

      That's right! There was such a device!
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 3 May 2018 02: 03
        +4

        Only ... about the caliber "some problem": according to one data, 420-mm ..... according to other data-406-mm .... the 280-mm version was designed.
        There was another interesting project: self-propelled guns D-80 (535-mm)

        Mortar option ...

        The option of "no recoil" ....
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 3 May 2018 06: 00
          +1
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          Only ... about the caliber "some problem": according to one data, 420-mm ..... according to other data-406-mm .... the 280-mm version was designed.

          Well, this is in the book of Shirokorada Atomic Ram of the twentieth century. By the way, it describes not only Soviet, but also foreign means of delivery of nuclear weapons.
        2. Vadim237
          Vadim237 4 May 2018 16: 56
          +1
          Such a mortar is needed now in service - one, it will replace 20 tulips in terms of fire, and the firing range in the region of 60 - 70 kilometers is actively reactive.
  15. Earnest
    Earnest 3 May 2018 02: 33
    +4
    And now about the "cardboard duck", which even today can often be heard from fans of the West.
    "Condenser-2P" Americans call daddy mortar, "papa-mortar". What is today called the information war has always been. And the western man in the street could inspire the thought of the "carton". But experts understood that the weapon was acting.
    Why do Americans, even experts, believe in fake? Yes, simply because if this is not done, you will have to recognize the advantage of Soviet engineers over Western ones. In the "Condenser" are used components and assemblies, which at that time were not in the world models of armored vehicles.

    She didn’t shoot anywhere, it’s a mortar, although no, she shot, but only once.
    From the recollections of the technical opponent of the project, the head of the testing department of the Kirov Plant, OKBT, Leningrad, Yury Mikhailovich Mironenko:
    "... Among the overwhelming majority, as they say, of designers from God, the OKBT had a considerable number of lazy people, hack-workers and figures who, by chance sweating, were in a hurry to appear to the authorities. In my opinion, the weakest link before Albert Kazimirovich Dzyavgo arrived there, earlier worked in the Kolomenskoye KBM with the famous B.I. Shavyrin, there was a settlement department.I will only talk about two cases in which I had to voluntarily take part as an opponent to personally verify my complete technical illiteracy .
    The first case was a vivid example of the carelessness of the work of the counters, who "not enough" took into account the length and the huge dynamic pullback force acting on the tracked chassis when firing an 406 mm rifled gun. This without any calculations was visible when looking at the 271 object, but the meters, apparently, were staring in the opposite direction at that time.
    The 271 object (SAU "Condenser-2П") made its first and last shot at the Rzhev artillery range a couple of kilometers from tram ring No. 10.
    So, a self-propelled gun in a firing position. Crew, designer, testers and military in concrete shelter meters in 40 from the gun. Shot! The impression, as Arkady Raikin said, is specific, and even too much. Visibility is zero. Everything that covered the earth in a radius of 50 meters is in the air. And the 64-ton self-propelled monster that fired the 570-kilogram shell is not visible. The nerves of the lead engineer of this object can not withstand stress, and he rushes to the place where the machine should stand.
    Four people, and I am among them, follow the same path. As we move forward, the dust gradually dissipates and we, involuntarily slowing down, stop in deep thought at the sight of what remains of the formidable self-propelled guns. In order not to completely upset the “leader,” I decide to get out of sight. He and without me - “opponent”, was not sweet.
    Structurally correcting the “mistakes” made in the process of creating the 271 object was useless, although they were undertaken. In the end, the work was completed with a shot and the stage of “combing” prototypes for participation in parades on Red Square. In the 1960 - 1963 years, at military parades in Moscow, they marched alongside the stands for “guests” and made an indelible impression on “some people” (see photo). This was a US response to information about their creation of the 280 mm atomic gun.
    There was a cold war, and both warring camps misinformed each other as best they could.
    In this particular case, an unconditional victory was won not only over a probable opponent, but over a historical, evil and treacherous enemy. It is only a pity that the many years of work of talented workers of the Volgograd factory "Barricades" and the Leningrad "Kirov factory" ended to no avail.
    But, as they say, a negative result is also a result. Thanks to the experience gained from the results of this work, the unique 203mm self-propelled artillery mount “Peony” (2С7) was adopted by the same factories and design bureaus in record time.
    In the creation of Peony, I was no longer an “opponent”, but a direct participant, for which in 1975 I was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor.
    Made in metal and donated to me by the Kirovsky Zavod, a copy of the self-propelled guns "Peony" has been standing in my apartment in the most prominent place for many years. "
  16. shinobi
    shinobi 3 May 2018 10: 59
    +2
    Large-caliber mortars perform the same function as the OTRK. The bottom line is a point strike on a well-protected target. The advantage over the OTRK is the price of the ammunition. The disadvantage is the insufficient range of destruction. Marine calibers are, of course, overkill, but 150-200 mm on a self-propelled the chassis still perform very well.
    1. nikoliski
      nikoliski 3 May 2018 13: 39
      0
      Where do they show themselves? Any powerful MLRS (Tornado, for example, or a Chinese A100 with a range of up to 180 km) surpass saushki not only in range, but also in damage per minute (Sau will give 2 shots, SMERCH 12 shells and will leave to escape from return fire) about accuracy over long distances - the tornado is probably more accurate than the artillery gun (in new missiles the sensors help to correct the flight) so the time for these "big bert" is irrevocably gone (well, if anyone has gigantomania like Hitler or Saddam, they might like big guns, but more efficient all the same missiles) - it’s better to shoot with an iskander with an ammunition speed of 2 km per second + maneuvering up to 20 g than to shoot a projectile with a ballistic (and therefore predictable) trajectory at a speed of 700 m s (which means it can even be intercepted by a melee air defense system, for example, a shell , which knocks down targets to 1000m with a rocket "on the move."
      1. Alf
        Alf 3 May 2018 20: 18
        +1
        Quote: nikoliski
        it’s better to shoot with an iskander with an ammunition speed of 2 km per second + maneuvering up to 20 g than shoot a projectile with a ballistic (and therefore predictable) trajectory at a speed of 700 m s (which means it can even be intercepted by a melee air defense system, for example, an armor that shoots targets down to 1000 m with a rocket "on the move."

        Question-For whom? Did many Tulip shells bring down perfumes?
        How much does the Tulip mine cost and how much is the Iskander rocket?
        1. nikoliski
          nikoliski 4 May 2018 09: 19
          -1
          In Chechnya, the Tochka U missiles were repeatedly used (there were cases of a complete collapse of the building where they settled, imagine storming an entire school, no matter how many children were killed there, and that’s all (the Tochka U range is 120 km, 50 km, then glonassa and we didn’t have any sparklers) A tulip with a range of 13 km, an open cabin (which means you can’t use it next to the enemy, it’s far from an armored Sturmtigr), you need to adjust the target to the same 13 km and it’s not the fact that it falls (quo unlike more missiles) the truth is there is an adjustable daredevil, but with it the mortar will still remain competitive, otherwise it would have long been withdrawn from service.
        2. nikoliski
          nikoliski 4 May 2018 09: 43
          -1
          It is necessary to prepare for a big war with a formidable rival (NATO, or China), after the Second World War, we did not fight with any country that had normal air defense, the Navy, the Air Force, missiles (at least medium-range tactical like Israel) to bomb from above the barmalei in Syria there are no Patriots, no fighters of their own, no Merkava tanks with the KAZ Trophy, this is completely different than fighting even with such a small country like Israel (I’m sure if the war starts, if without WMDs, ours will lose to the Jews and all these victorious reports about alleged successes in Syria replaced by terrible reports and thousands of coffins, we won’t be able to beat Israel, now we’ll actually have 10% of the USSR’s fleet with us, where will we get the marines there to 5 operational BSF BSF? They will be drowned by Jews who have a fleet that can repel the attack of the Egyptians or Turks. Il76 if they try drop the assault, they will be shot down on the approach, the only way out is to accumulate strength in Syria (hoping that the Jews will not throw them like an Iranian warehouse with small EPR missiles) then try to invade the Golan (but in due time I can important then Syria, which had 2500 tanks, could not repel them) and now I don’t know how we could have succeeded F35, Merkava with a trophy and a guided missile Lahat with a range of up to 8 km (our brass knuckles up to 5 km) excellent training of Israeli soldiers fighting for the survival of their state , I think we have no chance ... So we need to invent new “prodigies” to be in good shape (it’s possible to recall Tesla’s work and come up with some kind of electric superbomb, some people seriously believe that the “fall of the Tunguska meteorite” has nothing to do with meteorites (they didn’t even find a pebble), but it happened in parallel with the work of Nikola Tesla, who after them stated that he had made a terrible weapon, but would destroy it in order to save the world. Americans, if you make a similar generator that creates a monstrous electric disturbance at the right point on the planet, it will be stronger than a tactical atomic bomb and then cleaner for soldiers to which will seize this territory.) So, to summarize, Putin chose the right direction, relying on the latest developments, we would gradually turn into junk army of Ukraine while other countries are doing something fundamentally new Ukrainians weighted armored personnel carriers of 60 years with the military-industrial complex level Barmalei ...
          1. max702
            max702 5 May 2018 23: 25
            0
            Here the problem is not how to fight with Israel and the like, but for what? any war must pay for itself; otherwise it makes no sense. What is valuable in Israel? Nothing! Shitting! That’s basically all .. By the mind, you don’t have to go there by conventional means (by the way, the Khrushchev said to the bourgeoisie in the 60s, “Do you think we will fight with tanks and planes? Not a damn! England will have two missiles, France and Germany three each ..” ) And so there are a dozen warheads of cruise missiles of 100 kT, and all there is no such state for 10-15 minutes .. And there is no problem for other science ...
    2. strannik1985
      strannik1985 3 May 2018 13: 48
      +1
      If you are about Tulip, then it has a big drawback, a big time leaving OP. In a war with a normal army capable of counter-battery combat, this can be a big drawback, but there isn’t in a war with barmales. In Chechnya, the 24th division of high power was a sort of lifesaver, traveled throughout the republic.
  17. nikoliski
    nikoliski 3 May 2018 13: 21
    -1
    The missiles came to replace them and quite naturally (Iskander is many times more effective than any cannon) - range, accuracy (with glonass hovering, the missile is able to get into a separate balcony of a high-rise building, or into the hatch of a missile shaft) by the way why the author did not tell (or do not know ?) that when these "wunderwaffles" were tested, then the chassis strength was only a few shots, further from the exorbitant recoil, the chassis failed
    1. Vladislav 73
      Vladislav 73 5 May 2018 23: 44
      0
      Quote: nikoliski
      By the way, why the author did not tell (or didn’t know?) that when these “wunderwaffles” were tested, then the running strength was only a few shots, further from the exorbitant recoil the running gear failed

      You don’t know that in the article it was written in black and white:
      But to talk about the ACS, as a machine held, it is impossible. Let us quote the historian of armored vehicles, artillery officer Anatoly Simonyan from his interview with the “Star”:
      "The monstrous recoil force worked such terrible things that the project was almost wrapped up. The gearbox after the shot fell off the bindings, the engine after the shot turned out to be not where it was placed, communication equipment and hydraulics - literally everything refused. Every shot of this car, in fact, it was experimental because after each such volley the car was studied for three to four hours down to each screw for weakening the metal. This is not to say that the installation itself rolled back seven to eight meters ago. "
  18. sleeve
    sleeve 3 May 2018 19: 19
    +2
    No no no. Well, please, gentlemen, experts. The article is for guidance only and looks more like a newsletter. Very framework and quite informative for them. But here is the further reasoning. Well, after all, everything is at hand, in the end the same wiki with competent requests. There was a feverish search for means of qualitative defeat in the tactical link. The reciprocal development of high-powered weapons was carried on the “old yeast” of the Stalinist artillery “send”. Having developed such monsters, their presence was justified by the nuclear filling of ammunition. However, in those years OTR also appeared, to whom these idiots hopelessly lost in the old toy “price-effectiveness. And yet ... Before you say,” and we haven’t invented it yet, “must we answer“ but we needed it ”? By and large, one of the proofs of the effectiveness of the flight of Russian design thought can be considered that the "products" with the "age" of 40-50-70 years are still in service. This also applies to air defense systems and tanks and artillery ... (I'm not talking about AK .... just do not say).
  19. Kibb
    Kibb 3 May 2018 22: 55
    0
    It is simply impossible to explain that the USSR simply did not have time to make a special charge in a smaller caliber - they did it 10 years later, but it was necessary to make new guns and special charges (made), that's all ...
  20. BAI
    BAI 4 May 2018 09: 27
    0
    1.
    Width: 30,8 м
    Height: 57,28 м

    Authors need to be more careful with commas.

    2. And here is how the "Capacitor" describes a person who was directly related to it:
    The first case was a striking example of the carelessness of the work of the testers, who "not enough" took into account the length and the enormous dynamic pullback force acting on the tracked chassis when firing a 406 mm rifled gun. This without any calculations was seen when looking at the object 271, but the counters, apparently, were staring the other way at that time.

    Object 271 (self-propelled guns "Condenser-2P") made its first and last shot at the Rzhev artillery range a couple of kilometers from tram ring 10. Tram stopped near a large grocery store, and its visitors clearly heard shots of everything that was tested at the training ground. There was also a certain order of behavior of civilians during the first tests of new models of large-caliber guns - citizens were forcibly “on a frequent call” driven into special shelters located near the store.

    So, a self-propelled gun in a firing position. Crew, designer, testers and military in concrete shelter meters in 40 from the gun. Shot! The impression, as Arkady Raikin said, is specific, and even too much. Visibility is zero. Everything that covered the earth in a radius of 50 meters is in the air. And the 64-ton self-propelled monster that fired the 570-kilogram shell is not visible. The nerves of the lead engineer of this object can not withstand stress, and he rushes to the place where the machine should stand.

    Four people, and I am among them, follow the same path. As we move forward, the dust gradually dissipates and we, involuntarily slowing down, stop in deep thought. at the sight of what remains of a formidable self-propelled gun.

    http://www.voenmeh.com/memo.php?part=9
    In general, this book is very interesting for the history of Russian tank building. The author - MIRONENKO Yuri Mikhailovich.
  21. Abram
    Abram 5 May 2018 10: 44
    0
    "Not that America is ahead of the rest, but still we were mainly playing catch-up on the issues of murder. That, in our opinion, is more than a compliment to the Soviet Union." hmm? winked and today, the Russian Federation has stepped forward in matters of murder, at least with its "unavailable analogs" "status-6". compliment us? smile
  22. xomaNN
    xomaNN 6 May 2018 11: 14
    0
    The Great War Bluff also succeeded in the alarming 50s. And now, in 2018, the mighty “military toys” illuminated at the May 9 Parades will help cool off “hot cowboys” like a crazy ramp am
  23. panzerfaust
    panzerfaust 16 May 2018 20: 34
    0
    Yes, there were interesting parades!