Military Review

Six Day War. Part of 1. Prelude

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Usually, everything that is written about this war fits into one phrase: “In the morning of 5 on June 1967, the Israeli Air Force operation began, which destroyed the Arab coalition Air Force in a few hours, after which Israel defeated the Arab armies left without air support ". However, only in fairy tales, having looked at the window and scratched his beard, you can call your governor and go to war with some Burlandia or Philippponia. Well, and then the thing is known: either the chest in the crosses, or the head in the bushes. It's simple. In life, it does not happen. Wars are the result of accumulating contradictions, wars ripen like fruits on a tree and do not start by themselves, and their causes are thoroughly researched, studied and analyzed by military historians for years after completion.


Six Day War. Part of 1. Prelude


A year ago, Israel celebrated the 50th anniversary of the victory in the Six Day War, which occupies a special place in stories of the state. The triumph of 1967 of the year, with all the pathos of the word, radically changed the situation in the Middle East, affecting both the attitude towards Israel in the World and the Israeli society and the Jewish people in general. It can be said without exaggeration that the geopolitical map of the modern Middle East is a direct consequence of these six days that shook the world.

The beginning of this war was the result of a number of factors, and none of the political and military leaders, either in the Middle East or outside of it, controlled the situation completely. At the same time, this war cannot be called an accident either. Paradoxically, the most important of the Arab-Israeli wars was the result of fatal discrepancies between the true interests of the Israeli and Arab leaders and the policies that they voluntarily or unwittingly enforced. Consider how the distribution of political and military forces in the Middle East and beyond in the 1967 year looked like in a historical retrospect.

For the first time, the world saw Egyptian ballistic missiles, openly and proudly presented on display at a parade in July 1962 on the occasion of Revolution Day.



These missiles could hit "any target south of Beirut," as the Egyptians stated. There was no boast in these words, the German scientists designed the missiles. (Read more on the HE in article by Kirill Ryabov "Egyptian projects of ballistic missiles".) Israel as a whole was aware of the Egyptian successes, but annoying rattling was serious weapons. The fact is that Israel had nothing of the kind at this time, except for experimental meteorological rockets. So, in July 1962, the Israelis "discovered" that they did not have missiles, and their enemies had them.

At that time there were two schools of military thinking in Israel. One school assumed the further development of the army in the direction of introducing new technologies and developing nuclear weapons. These were the ideas of Shimon Peres and Moshe Dayan.


Shimon Peres and Moshe Dayan


They believed that instead of a conventional arms race, they should try to outrun enemies as weapons. Another school was pushing for a further build-up of conventional weapons. So thought Yigal Allon and Israel Galili.

Igal allon


Israel Galili


In fact, in these disputes, the question was decided where to send the fixed assets from the military budget.



Ahmad Abdel Nasser was silent about the Israeli nuclear program. First, the Egyptians knew that they had overtaken Israel in the field of missiles. Secondly, since 1961, Egypt has quietly tried to engage in its atomic bomb. Therefore, Nasser did not stutter on the Dimona reactor, and the Israelis "did not notice" Egyptian research.

By the middle of 1966, the Israeli Kutuzov - Moshe Dayan did not know what to do. He left the army for years of service, he left the government out of devotion to Ben-Gurion, and sat his pants in the chair of the Knesset deputy from the opposition faction. Continuing to live in the art of war, the retired general decided to keep up with life and went to Vietnam as a simple correspondent to learn the latest methods of warfare.

Moshe Dayan in Vietnam


Yes, the Vietnam War was in full swing, and the Americans cordially showed the famous commander everything they could. Several times Dayan landed from a helicopter in the jungle and fell into serious alterations, but when you lose an eye in battle, you gain valuable combat experience in vain not to hang out. From Vietnam, Dayan returned without a scratch.

He could see a lot and realized that the Americans could not win the Indochina war. Dayan wrote with envy in his memoirs about the army of American helicopters; some of them cost 3 million dollars, unimaginable money for the Israeli army. He saw that the most effective method of war was the raiding of heavy high-flying bombers, and that soldiers should be deployed by helicopters. Neither helicopters, nor heavy bombers to Israel were suitable, too expensive. Israelis are used to fighting as economically as possible. Dayan wrote that he had to watch the battle, during which the Americans fired more shells on the enemy than all of Israel’s artillery for the entire War of Independence and the Sinai campaign combined. Having been in the best military laboratory of 60's, Dayan returned to Israel full of impressions and interesting ideas. The near future showed that this trip was made oh so not for nothing.

In the meantime, Yitzhak Rabin worked as chief of the operations department of the general staff and by the year of 1964 he had served as chief of the general staff.



Ariel Sharon was out of work after the 1956 war, was appointed head of the infantry school and pulled this strap for four years. Only shortly before 1967 was he transferred as reserve commander tank brigades.



David Elazar, another future chief of staff, met the new 1967 year as commander of the Northern Military District. Prior to this appointment, he commanded the armored forces of the Israel Defense Forces.



On the demilitarized Sinai Peninsula, UN soldiers were sunbathing and it was relatively quiet, while on the Syrian border, a rare day went by without an artillery duel. The Syrians turned the Golan Heights overhanging Lake Kinneret into a powerful fortress with many kilometers of long-term firing points. Hundreds of Soviet cannons, anti-aircraft guns and Katyusha rocket launchers were installed on the line. For many years, the Syrians fired from above from above the Israeli agricultural settlements clearly visible below, obstructed fishing on Lake Kinneret (Tiberias), etc.

Panorama. Left and right - Israel. More to the right - the demilitarized zone and Syria


They could shell a significant part of the north of the country, from Metulla and Kiryat Shmona to the shores of Lake Galilee and to the south. Especially it went to Israeli farmers. Syrian artillerymen hit their tractors like moving targets. The tractor had to be sheathed with armor. Israel was the only country in the world where the land was plowed on armored cars. In early 1967, the Syrians began to send saboteurs to Israel through the territory of Jordan. They mined Israeli roads adjacent to the Israeli-Syrian border. Israel responded with military operations against sabotage bases. The situation escalated, and in April episodic clashes between Israeli and Syrian aviation.

Israeli response to the shelling and air raids followed with enviable regularity, but both governments felt the edge of what was permitted and these constant border incidents did not escalate into a full-scale war, although the Syrian leadership was asleep and saw the Syrian flag over Haifa.

For a full-fledged war with Israel, Syria needed dope outside. By the year 1967, she received this dope, or rather two at once, from Nasser and from the Soviet Union.

In 1967, the Soviet people, under the wise leadership of the Communist Party, which is getting stronger from day to day, is preparing to worthily and solemnly celebrate the 50 anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution. The leader of the party and the people, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, who celebrated his 60 anniversary six months ago and was awarded the Gold Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union for this occasion, replaced the modest Khrushchev's “first secretary” with a more appropriate hero — the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. Voluntarism in economics and politics, thank God, is finished, the Leninist Politburo is staffed with loyal leaders, suitable for party leadership cadres. The loud slogans of the previous leader, such as “Catch up and overtake America” or “The current generation of Soviet people will live under communism!”, Delicately, quietly removed - the country is already at the top of its power. Why catch up with America if we have long overtaken it, and the whole world is watching how Soviet rockets iron the space.

Quote from the essay by Yuri Okunev "A six-day chord of the history of the biblical scale", written eleven years ago to the 40 anniversary of the Six-Day War:

“The main thing is a centralized, comprehensive party leadership. And, of course, it is necessary to strengthen party work abroad. Expensive, however, it is worth - currency funds. To maintain the apparatus of one French Communist Party, 2 has to transfer a million dollars a year, and even so much to publish and buy up this newspaper, L'Humanite. But it’s not for nothing that this is what wave the comrades in Europe raised against American aggression in Vietnam. Comrades Andropov and Grechko report: Americans are getting bogged down in Vietnam. It is necessary to increase the help to comrade Ho Chi Minh so that he would refuse any peace talks with the imperialists. Expensive it all costs in currency. What is there "Jumanite" - a trifle. The content of the Cuban comrades costs 1 a million dollars daily, but here, of course, loyalty to the Leninist cause is a real and enormous return in Latin America and Africa.

And also - the content of the Hero of the Soviet Union Nasser, as his there, Gamal Abdel, flies in a pretty penny. Both the planes were delivered to him, the ships, the cannons, and the newest tanks, and the army of advisers — all at our expense, and everything is small. Comrades from the Central Committee report: over the past 10 years, we have supplied the Arabs with weapons for 2 billion dollars - 1700 tanks, 2400 guns, 500 jets and 1400 advisors. And more than half of all this - Nasser. Clearly, Nasser wants to be the leader of all the Arabs, and this will not work without a victory over Israel. It is impossible not to support the Egyptian and Syrian comrades - in any way they adhere to the socialist orientation, although they do not want to be real communists, like Fidel Castro. But - our people, and the Americans showed the ass with the British. We must help them and indicate the right way - let Israel be punished. Then all over the world it will be clear to all who is more profitable to stick with - us or the Americans. The Zionists are holding on to America, they are crawling ahead of all world imperialism - it's time to give them a shot. Americans chatter about democratic freedoms, and we, without much chatter, give weapons to those who are against imperialism and Zionism. And our Jews will have a good lesson. Comrade Andropov reports: nationalistic sentiments among the Jews have increased, already, like that, talking about emigration to Israel. This is an undermining of the foundations, and even such secret thoughts should not be allowed to dare to leave the USSR, countries of developed socialism. So they decided with comrades Suslov and Andropov to ensure the decisive actions of Egypt and Syria against Zionist Israel. Then even in a nightmare, gentlemen, the Zionists, your Israel will not dream of you ... ”


Nasser was ready to meet the Soviets. In 1966, he signed an agreement with Moscow, according to which the Russians got access to ports on the Mediterranean and Red Seas and three Egyptian airfields. On the Mediterranean Sea, Soviet ships stood in Port Said, Alexandria, and Mersa Matruh, and in the Red Sea, the USSR had a base at Ras Banas. In exchange, Moscow pledged to increase the supply of weapons and provide military specialists. This did not solve, however, the financial problems of Egypt. By 1967, the country has slipped to bankruptcy. The balance of payments deficit reached 0,5 billion dollars, and foreign debt - 1,3 billion dollars. For those times, the money is quite considerable, and for Egypt it is very heavy. Before the war, the Egyptians had to sell a third of their gold reserves, but nevertheless they could not make all their payments to the International Monetary Fund.

In the Israeli-Syrian confrontation of the USSR, the UN supported all resolutions condemning the use of force by Israel, and vetoed all similar resolutions against Syria. Since the United States took a neutral position, the anti-Israel resolutions in the UN passed, but there was no anti-Syrian one. However, the Syrians were their worst enemies, for 17 years in this country occurred 13 military coups. 23 February 1966, the government, dreaming of the complete destruction of Israel, burst into power. The power in Damascus was seized by an extremist Baath party faction. Back in the 1920s, the Syrian Michel Aflak went to Paris, he read Kant, Hegel and Marx and began to create the intellectual foundation of the Arab Renaissance Party - Baath. By the 1960 years, the Baath bizarrely mixed in itself socialism, nationalism and pan-Arabism, mixed up with irreconcilable hostility towards Israel. To the war with Israel, Syria was led:

President Nureddin Al-Atassi

Prime Minister Yusuf Zuejin


Defense Minister Hafez Asad (Papa Bashar Assad)


The activities of the Soviet Union in the Arab countries especially sharply intensified in the first year after the Baath Party came to power in Syria. As Kosygin said in a speech to Moscow on 8 on June 1966, this activity was aimed at enhancing Syrian-Egyptian cooperation and preparing the basis for other Arab countries to join the bloc, “having thrown off colonial oppression and in new conditions continue to oppose imperialism and reaction ". Reaction meant all those countries (Saudi Arabia, Jordan) and organizations in Arab countries that refused to pursue pro-Soviet policies.


Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers Alexei Kosygin


The flow of messages about the "growing Soviet-Arab friendship" made Israeli analysts worry. Every month brought new news. The opening of direct air communication between Moscow and Beirut was held on 14 on June 1966. A Soviet government delegation led by Deputy Foreign Minister Jacob Malik visited Algeria to participate in the Algerian national holiday 3 of July of that year. At the same time, the delegation of the Soviet Committee of Solidarity with the Peoples of Africa and Asia arrived in Beirut. (It was indicated that the delegation would discuss issues related to the “strengthening of the solidarity of peoples in the struggle for peace against imperialism and colonialism”, TASS, July 5). Egyptian Deputy Foreign Minister Ahmad Piki visited the Soviet Union at the invitation of the Soviet Foreign Ministry on July 13. The Moroccan Foreign Minister arrived on a visit to the Soviet Union at the invitation of Foreign Minister Gromyko on July 17. Almost immediately after him, on July 27, the Prime Minister of Iraq arrived at the Soviet Union at the invitation of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers Kosygin. This Arab summer ended with the fact that on August 21 a delegation of the Arab Socialist Unity Party arrived in Egypt from Egypt. The purpose of the visit is “familiarization with the practical work of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union”.

In September, a delegation of the Egyptian Friendship Society with the Soviet Union visited Moscow for the first time, and after that a congress of friendship societies and cultural ties with Arab countries opened. At the same time, September 20-22, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union Semenov visited Egypt (Pravda, September 26). October 9 ended the visit to the Soviet Union, the Minister of Labor of Kuwait. Leaving Moscow, he, in particular, said: “The purpose of my visit is to establish economic ties with Soviet specialists” (Izvestia, October 10). Even with the Moroccan monarchy, "the unification of the Arab peoples on an anti-colonial and anti-imperialist basis" was discussed. At the end of October 1966, the Komsomol delegation visited Tunisia, and the Soviet delegation headed by Deputy Foreign Minister Malik visited Algeria again.

The Arab-Soviet friendship grew stronger throughout the fall. Finally, on November 22, in connection with the signing of the treaty on defense between Egypt and Syria with the support of the USSR, Pravda said that this treaty plays not only a deterrent role, but also represents a cohesive factor, laying a solid foundation for a block of progressive, read pro-Soviet countries. At the same time, on November 22, the Egyptian Prime Minister Amer arrived on an official visit to the Soviet Union. November 30 was followed by an agreement between the Soviet Union and Jordan on the construction of a hydropower station on the Yarmuk River. The same day, the Soviet delegation arrived in Algeria to open a direct air link between Moscow and Algeria.

Observing the broad maneuvers of the Soviet Union, but being very politically cautious, America nevertheless began to sell weapons to Israel after President Eisenhower left the White House. The new president, John F. Kennedy, was located pro-Israel.



In 1962, Israel finally received Hawk anti-aircraft missiles, and from 1965, the United States began supplying tanks to Israel. By this time, the Arab countries were already crammed with Soviet weapons. The American jet fighters A-4 "Skyhawk" Israel received only in 1966 year.

Nasser, the charismatic leader of the 31 million Egyptian people, with all his pan-Arabic ambitions, was a cautious man. He was about 50, and for a politician it is youth. At the same time, he was the oldest among all Arab leaders! In Israel, it was time for the reign of older politicians. Nasser wanted war with Israel, but cautiously believed that only by 1969, Soviet instructors and Soviet weapons would make his army able to fight the IDF on an equal footing (as experience has shown, this turned out to be possible only in 1973). Covered after the UN 1956 war at Sinai, Nasser was more involved in global projects in the Arab world. So, 1 February 1958, Egypt united with Syria in the United Arab Republic, the UAR, which lasted until 28 September 1961, and fell apart because the Egyptians regarded Syria as a minor northern province of Egypt. In 1962, Nasser intervened in the civil war in Yemen and even sent Egyptian troops to the Arabian Peninsula. As for Israel itself, by 1966, the Syrian government was more aggressive than the Egyptian one. The Syrian radical anti-Israeli regime rebuked Egypt for an inadequately hostile (!) Stance against the common enemy. These reproaches took effect and finally led to the conclusion of the 4 in November of 1966, a defensive treaty between the two countries, hotly approved by the USSR.

As for Jordan, the socialist Nasser did not cherish love for the monarchical regime of this country. Indeed, 31-year-old King Hussein ibn Talal ibn Abdullah ibn Hussein al Hashimi, a friend of the West, did not fit into the Naser pro-Soviet Middle East.



Hussein, the grandson of King Abdullah, ascended the throne to the young. After Abdullah was killed by a Palestinian fanatic in Jerusalem, the throne passed to 17-year-old Hussein, who was then studying in England, in Harrow. He did not have a love for the Palestinians, although they became citizens of his country. He was with his grandfather at the 20 Al-Aqsa Mosque in July 1951, and his grandfather was killed before his eyes. One of the bullets hit the medal on the chest of the young prince, and the only way he was not injured.


King Abdullah I ibn Hussein


After cooling relations with England in 1956, King Hussein found himself in difficult circumstances, which the Americans took advantage of. They unobtrusively put a financial leash on the monarch in order to have a friendly regime in the middle of a troubled region. From 1957 to 1977, Hussein secretly received money from the funds of the CIA, some of which was spent on his security service, and some on maintaining the royal standard of living. Now, in 1966, the king was quite tolerant of Israel and would have been even more tolerant if not for Nasser and the Palestinian national liberation movement. Nasser harassed Hussein for a pro-Western orientation, calling him an "Amman courtesan" and a "TsRUshny dwarf". The short and frail Jordanian king, next to the broad, broad Nasser, looked really small.



The Jordanian radio snapped that Nasser, having covered himself with a UN pillow from Israel, is easy to argue. Jordan, at least, gave the Palestinians full citizenship, while the Egyptians in Gaza kept Palestinians in second grade. The Syrians also whispered to Nasser that only after the peace-loving king would be replaced on the throne of Jordan by a more aggressive person, a war with Israel would become possible.

Even before American shipments, Israeli pilots flying French-made Mirage fought successfully in the north with brand new Syrian MiG-21. Israeli pilots inflicted the most severe defeat on the Syrians on 7 on April 1967. As usual, Israeli aircraft flew in order to destroy the positions of heavy artillery in the Golan Heights. The Syrian pilots rushed to the aid of the artillerymen. The air battle was on the space between Damascus and the Golan Heights. Residents of the Syrian capital could see the Israelis shoot down their planes. In total, 6 Syrian MiGs were shot down in this battle without loss by the Israeli Air Force. It was a shame. The next day, the Syrian regime declared: “Our well-known goal is the liberation of Palestine and the elimination of Zionist existence there.” At a meeting with a high-ranking Egyptian delegation, Prime Minister Mohammed Sidqi Suleiman and commander of the air force, General Mohammed Sidqi Mahmoud, Syria invited Egypt to consider a joint attack plan codenamed Rashid, in which Syrian forces would strike northern Israel with the ultimate goal of seizure all of Galilee and Haifa, and the Egyptian troops - in southern and central Israel.

In an effort to maintain their Syrian bridgehead at all costs, the Russians several times hinted to Israel in a rather sharp way the possibility of "grave consequences" in the event of its "provocations" against Syria. And on April 21, 1967, two weeks after the Israeli Air Force shot down six Syrian fighters, Deputy Soviet Foreign Minister Yakov Malik quite roughly warned the Israelis that they put at risk the very existence of their state.


Jacob Malik


Already in January, 1967, the Israeli Prime Minister Levi Eshkol was forced to openly warn the Syrians: "I cannot exclude the possibility that we will have no other way but preventive actions."



The 7 air battle of April could be seen as a foreshadowing of even more severe punitive actions. Panicked, the Syrians moved their heavy artillery directly into the demilitarized zone. The Israelis responded by bringing their border garrison to combat readiness. Finally, on May 11, Jerusalem informed the UN Security Council that if Syrian provocations continued, Israel "would consider it right to resort to self-defense." And at that moment, the Russians, deeply concerned about the safety of their favorite Arab protégé, committed the most pernicious mistake since their intervention in Middle Eastern affairs ...

13 On May 1967, the Egyptian government received official notification from the USSR government that Israeli troops were preparing an attack on Syria, and that for this purpose, the Israeli border is concentrated from 11 to 13 Israeli brigades. This message was made in Moscow, in a personal conversation between the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR N.V. Podgorny and the head of the Egyptian parliamentary delegation to the USSR, Anwar Sadat.


Nikolai Viktorovich Podgorny


Anwar Sadat


The same message was previously brought to the attention of the Prime Minister of Israel, Levi Eshkol, the USSR Ambassador Dmitry Chuvakhin, and also in a personal conversation. Eshkol replied to the ambassador that his sources of information are most likely not entirely correct. He offered him a joint trip to the north, so that the ambassador could personally verify that there was no concentration of Israeli troops there. Since the trip could have been done in just a couple of hours, it would have been impossible to hide 30-40 thousands of people and 3-4 thousands of cars in 20 km wide spaces, the offer looked convincing. However, Chuvakhin knowingly served in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR since 1938, almost 30 years. Absolutely calmly, he replied that his business was not to check the messages of his government, but to bring them to the attention of the Israeli prime minister - after which he interrupted the conversation and bowed.

Israel has not started mobilization of troops yet, and 12 may not have “concentration of troops” yet. By transmitting this kind of "intelligence information" to Egypt, the Soviet Union pursued a definite goal: to achieve the deployment of Egyptian forces in Sinai, thus creating a threat to Israel from the south. Nasser was in a difficult position of a strong partner who does not intercede for a weak partner who is beaten. He decided to send several military missions to Syria. On the same day, the chief of the General Staff of the Egyptian army flew to Damascus to establish proper coordination between the armies of Egypt and Syria.

This did not cause much alarm in Israel. The head of Israel’s military intelligence, General Yariv, notified the Prime Minister that it was most likely a demonstration - like the one the Egyptian army was already conducting in 1960, and also in support of Syria.

He considered the probability of a war to be low. According to the forecast of intelligence, the readiness of the Egyptian army was supposed to be at the end of 1970, after the completion of the program of military supplies from the USSR.

Moreover, it was difficult to imagine that Egypt would start something serious before reaching an acceptable settlement in Yemen. There was a war in which Egypt was involved in the most tactile manner, not only politically. 8 Egyptian brigades were fighting in Yemen, Egyptian aviation bombed the positions of Yemeni royalists, even using chemical weapons.

The Egyptian guests did not find, however, anything alarming in the so-called "concentration of Israeli troops." Nevertheless, Nasser decided to go on a certain escalation of the crisis. Oddly enough, one of the reasons for this was the deteriorating financial position of Egypt. The Egyptian ruler hoped that Moscow’s economic and military assistance would help him out of the situation, and this dependence on the Soviets did not allow him to ignore their request to make a gesture towards the new Syrian leadership. Sending the Egyptian troops to Syria would have required too much time, and therefore Nasser decided instead to concentrate most of his army in Sinai. He hoped that this step would weaken any possible Israeli threat to Syria, satisfy the Russians, lead the Americans into confusion and, perhaps once and for all, silence the critics of his “passivity” from the Arab camp. Therefore, 15 May in Egypt was declared a state of emergency. The first vice-president of the United Arab Republic (as Egypt was then called), the commander of the armed forces of Egypt, the Hero of the Soviet Union, Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer, in violation of international armistice agreements, moved an army of seven infantry and armored divisions to Sinai, a thousand T tanks -54 and T-55 and five hundred heavy guns.


Abdel Hakim Amer


The personal envoy of President Nasser immediately left for Damascus in order to reassure the Syrian brothers: Egypt is ready to throw all its military resources into battle, “in order to destroy the Israeli air force and occupy the territory of Israel”. Marshal Amer at this time personally received in Cairo a parade of valiant Egyptian troops, defiantly passing along Cairo boulevards, right under the windows of the American embassy, ​​heading straight from the parade to the Sinai desert for the last and decisive battle with the Zionist enemy.

The conversation with the Soviet ambassador was unpleasant. The situation on the Syrian-Israeli border was really bad. Therefore, Eshkol proposed to the Chief of the General Staff of Israel - Yitzhak Rabin, at that time, to reduce the military parade, which was to be held on Independence Day, 15 on May, to the absolute minimum.



On May 15, an unusually modest military parade took place in Israel, in which, against custom, no tanks or airplanes participated, but simply passed several infantry units. The situation somehow did not have to festive celebrations. The absence of military equipment at the parade, however, was very much noticed by the Arab press - although this observation was interpreted not at all as Eshkol hoped. Arab newspapers have come to the unanimous opinion - everything that can shoot is already on the Syrian border.

Already during the parade ceremony, Eshkol received a note from the military department: the number of Egyptian troops at Sinai increased from 30, and thousands to 60, and continued to increase.

After a meeting at the Ministry of Defense, it was decided to start a partial mobilization.

On the morning of May 16, the Indian general, the commander of the UN forces in Sinai - Major General Indian Indar Jeet Richai, received a notification from General Fawzi with a request to remove his units from the Egyptian-Israeli gate to "... not interfere with the actions of the Egyptian army In the event that Israel undertakes aggression against any Arab country ... "


General Mohammed Fawzi


In Sinai, 978 Indians, 795 Canadians, 579 Yugoslavs, and also Swedes, Brazilians and Norwegians quietly carried the Sinekura. Altogether, UN troops on the peninsula had 3373 military personnel.



The commander was greatly puzzled as he read the message. The brigadier General Mukhtar who brought the letter on his own added that the Brazilians and the Swedes would roll off this night. Upon learning of this, the UN Secretary-General, 48, a quiet old former teacher U Thant, urgently invited his deputy, Ralph Bunch, and Egyptian representative Muhammad Al-Kony.


U Tan


Ralph Bunch


First, U Thant delivered a lecture to the Egyptian on the diplomatic protocol: the state cannot turn to the military in the field, but must send its demands directly to the general secretary. Later, at the suggestion of Bunche, the Secretary General informed Al-Kony that the UN could not agree to "half measures": either its forces would continue their mission without any obstacles, or they would leave Egyptian territory altogether. Both UN officials were confident that Nasser would not want a complete evacuation of international forces and therefore would go backwards. Unknowingly, the gullible Burmese U Thant played on Nasser. His desire was immediately granted. At noon 17 on May, Egyptian Foreign Minister Mahmoud Riad notified him in a kind letter to the Secretary General that the Egyptian government had decided to "terminate the activities of UN troops both in Egypt and in the Gaza Strip ..."

Then something happened that had not and still has no analogues in the history of international organizations. Without any consultation with anyone, U Thant agreed to fulfill the request of the Egyptian government. This highly dramatic decision was made with unheard of, truly cosmic speed - the answer was delivered to the Egyptian government in 75 minutes after receiving its request. Abba Even, Israeli Foreign Minister at that time, in his memoirs, expresses complete amazement at the fact that the UN, known for its bureaucracy and slowness, was capable of such swift actions. One gets, however, the impression that he was surprised in vain - this impromptu looked very well prepared.

In fact, try to imagine that an important, even extremely important document should be read, should be comprehended, the answer should be formulated, should it finally be printed (immediately, without a draft?), And even should be delivered to the addressee - and all this in 75 minutes!

Even noted that neither with Israel, nor with the states that supplied their troops to the UN troops in Sinai, did not consult in any way. However, meetings with some countries have undoubtedly taken place. India, for example, as well as Yugoslavia, not only immediately expressed their full consent to the withdrawal of their parts, but even began to carry out this withdrawal without any delay, without even receiving any, at least official, instructions from the UN Secretariat. So the fact that they did not consult with Israel is understandable. What is absolutely incomprehensible is that U Thant did not gather the Security Council, did not immediately notify the General Assembly, did not speak with any of the ambassadors of countries with a permanent representation on the Security Council and, by the way, having a veto right there.

What is even more interesting is that none of these powers wished to come forward with the initiative of convening a session of the Security Council, to which they had an inalienable right.

The actions of the Secretary General were criticized only by the USA and Canada, and then privately.

This was later explained by the fact that Western countries sympathized with Israel, but believed that in the General Assembly Asian and African countries would automatically support Egypt as a prominent member of the Non-Aligned Movement. I wanted to avoid confrontation.

And the Security Council was blocked by the Soviet Union, which already expressed the opinion that “there is no crisis, and Israeli provocations are to blame for the exacerbation of the situation ...”

On the same day, May 17, two Egyptian MiG-21 flew at high altitude above the reactor in Dimona. They stayed in the Israeli sky for only five minutes and left in the direction of Jordan. Intercept them did not have time. (There are conspiracy studies that are trying to prove that reconnaissance flights over the Israeli nuclear center were made at that time by an experimental and top-secret MIG-25, which officially went into serial production only in 1972 year. At that time, in the West there was no analogue to this car, which received the designation Foxbat (“The Bat”) in the NATO classification. Israeli pilots who knew MIG-21 like their five fingers immediately understood that they were dealing with a completely different machine: the planes flying over Dimona went on at such a height and with such a speed that the fighters who had risen to intercept would have no chance to catch up with him.) Around the Dimona quickly put additional missiles "Hawk".

In the evening of May 18, the blue and white helmets left their barracks in Al Quuntilla and El Hamra. Egyptian troops immediately took their place. Then, which was even more disturbing, the Egyptians demanded the evacuation of a small garrison of UN soldiers located in Sharm el-Sheikh and guarding the Straits of Tirana. As a result, the entire structure of international observation collapsed exactly a house of cards.

U Thant expressed a desire to visit Cairo, in order to “get acquainted with the situation on the spot.”

Why he decided to go there after his so famous, and so inexplicable decision, and not before, for example, it also remained unexplained.

On May 10, Egyptian diplomats advised him, apparently, as a token of gratitude, to postpone the visit until he received an official invitation.

On May 19, the Soviet Ambassador to Israel visited the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Israel, Even, at his request. He explained to the minister that the matter was not at all in the movement of the Egyptian troops to Sinai, but "... in Israeli politics, continuously and without any need exacerbating the already difficult situation ...", and made a bold assumption that "... mines on Israeli roads, adjacent to the Israeli-Syrian border, in fact, put the CIA agents ... "

After the publication of Nasser’s decision on the withdrawal of UN troops and the immediate response of the UN Secretary General, who agreed to the complete withdrawal of all UN troops, two stages can be distinguished, characterized by different Soviet positions. At the first stage, the Soviet Union took this message with a certain anxiety, refraining from any assessments of the decision of Egypt. At the second stage, the Soviet Union at the official and diplomatic level spoke in support of the Egyptian decision. The newspaper Pravda published a statement by the Soviet government on the situation in the Middle East, which, inter alia, stated:

“The United Arab Republic, fulfilling its allied obligations on joint defense with Syria, has taken steps to curb aggression. Considering that the presence of UN troops in the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula in this situation would give Israel advantages for conducting military provocations against Arab countries, the UAR government appealed to the United Nations with a proposal to withdraw these troops from this area. ”
The fact that the presence of UN troops in Gaza and the Sinai Peninsula was the guarantor of the prevention of aggression against any of the parties, no one even bothered.

Late in the evening on May 21, yielding to the insistence of his cabinet and other Arab governments, Nasser made a fateful decision. At dawn, two Egyptian submarines, a destroyer and four missile boats proceeded through the Suez Canal into the Red Sea. The following day, Nasser made a statement:
“The Strait of Tiran is part of our territorial waters. No Israeli ship will continue to pass through it. At the same time, we prohibit the delivery of strategic goods to other countries through this strait to Israel. ”


For Israel, this meant a deadly threat. The port of Eilat after the 1956 war of the year served as an Israeli outlet to Asia and Africa. In the 1966 year, about a million tons of cargo passed through it, almost 30% of all Israeli raw material exports. It became the main oil port of Israel, and an oil pipeline was built from it to Ashkelon. Nasser was fully aware that his step could not be interpreted in any other way than casus belli - a declaration of war, since the maritime powers had already confirmed the principle of the freedom of international navigation in the Gulf of Aqaba as early as 1957. Even the Russians were amazed at the fact that Nasser was at risk of war: by publicly supporting his actions, behind the scenes they expressed their irritation at the fact that this step was taken without consulting them.

Accordingly, 22 May Eshkol turned to the Knesset for advice on what to do. The general tone of the speeches of members of parliament was this: we do not want war, but if we have to fight, let no one be offended. Jaber Muaddi, a member of the Druze faction, said that the Druze of Israel is ready to join the army and defend the country. He was not afraid to say from the tribune of the Knesset that the closure of the Straits of Tirana is tantamount to declaring war on Israel. And in Cairo on this day announced a military alliance with Iraq.

All eyes turned to the United States. The Americans skillfully pulled time. Perhaps they sincerely believed that there was still time for diplomacy, but the Israelis thought that there was no time. From 1961, the US ambassador to Israel was Walworth Barbour, who by 1967 had managed to recognize everyone and everything. When he finally became convinced that Israel would fight, he telephoned Washington State Department and reported. Barbour was instructed to ask the Israelis to postpone the start of the war for 48 hours, while the Americans will try to settle the straits issue by peaceful means. Friends, said Even, let's not repeat the mistakes of 1956 of the year and quarrel with the Americans. Uncle Sam requests 48 hours, let's give him 48 hours.

23 May, King of Saudi Arabia Faisal said in London that the forces of his kingdom would help repel Israeli aggression. The pendulum of war has already swung.

By noon, 23 in May, mobilization in Israel was already in full swing. The bus service was discontinued because all vehicles were put at the disposal of the army. The streets are empty, cafes and theaters, too; school hours were reduced; across the country citizens were digging trenches in a hurry; Civil Defense Headquarters delivered fire extinguishers and first aid kits to the bomb shelters. The children helped sand the bags. The question of the possibility of street fighting was seriously discussed.



Thousands of Israelis rushed to pay taxes in advance, knowing that the government would need money; at the same time, various donations from the public, including jewelry and wedding rings, poured into the Ministry of Defense. On the eve of the war, the Israelis believed that the very existence of the state was under threat. In public parks, sites for 10 thousands of graves were prepared and this was considered insufficient.

On the same day, May 23, at 13: 33, US President Lyndon Johnson summoned Walter Rostow, state security adviser, and directly asked him what were the real chances that Egypt would clash with Israel; and how can this all turn out for the USA?


Johnson and Rostow


Rostow sighed heavily and began to bend his fingers. First, he bent over Israel:

* Israel sincerely believes that its existence is under threat and that war is the last historical chance.

* Israel sincerely believes that terrorism can be stopped only by force.

* Israel sincerely believes that its geography gives it only one chance to win the war - to deliver a preemptive strike.

* Israel is well aware that the alignment in the UN is against it and that the Arabs have now consolidated both their military forces and their diplomatic efforts.

* Israel believes that America has nothing to offer Israel right now instead of the idea of ​​a preemptive strike.

* And finally, how can America give Israel ferroconcrete guarantees to ensure its security in case the Jews do not start a war, and their diplomatic capabilities are completely exhausted?

Johnson frowned, but Rostow continued to bend his fingers about Egypt:

* Egypt yearns to pay for defeat in the 1956 war of the year.

* The political and economic situation in the country is not brilliant.

* Nasser is forced to maintain his prestige and position of the leader of the Arab world.

* Egypt would be glad to economically milk the USSR and the USA at the same time and at the same time play on the contradictions of the great powers.

In general, summed up Rostow, the war will be.

To be continued ...

Sources:
Shterenshis M. Israel. The history of the state. 2009.
Tenenbaum B. The Unsuspected Arab-Israeli War of 1956. 2011.
Okunev Yu. A six-day chord of biblical history.
Arab-Israeli wars. Arab look. 2008.
“Israel after 40 years”, Aaron S. Klieman, 1990, Pergamon, New York.
“Arabs in War”, Kenneth M. Pollack, 2002, Nebraska University.
“Israel's Wars”, Ahron Bregman, 2003, Ruthledge, New York.
Wikipedia articles, Cyclopaedia, etc.
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  1. Grandfather
    Grandfather April 29 2018 04: 27
    +14
    who cares, here’s the video, but there’s also the movie “5 Days in the Sinai” - you can watch it, they look at the conflict a little differently, but quite a bit, and yes, the shelling of fishermen and farmers is shown.
    1. bald
      bald April 29 2018 06: 03
      +4
      An interesting film, you need to watch with an open mind.
      1. Safevi
        Safevi April 29 2018 09: 53
        +8
        Thanks to the author. Very informative
        1. NIKNN
          NIKNN April 29 2018 11: 24
          +22
          Well, the author Privalov .., I immediately understood the source .. How many pictures and not so absurd historical analyzes ..., the glorification of the God-chosen ... At first glance, there’s nothing to argue with ... Well, I’ll summarize my point. .. Yes, this war essentially played a global role for Israel ... it’s as if today Russia suddenly got Alaska ... I pay tribute to the genius who developed this operation. Although this is essentially just the seizure of foreign territory and the advantageous strategic advantage of this operation, it doesn’t justify the very fact of aggression ... So, from the military’s point of view on this operation, I simply bow down from the point of view of a person (and even more so than the deceased from this aggression) it’s just disgusting to read it ... hi With such a mind as the Israelis are positioning themselves, there should have been peace in the world for a long time ... but I only see 10 banal sins here ... they have not heeded the teachings of Christ ....
          1. dSK
            dSK April 29 2018 18: 48
            +1
            Quote: NIKNN
            With such a mind as they position themselves, the Israelis should have long been world peace.

            This is what we are talking about, “criminal classics” - “pay” for our bully "roof" or there will be constant "hitting".
            1. NIKNN
              NIKNN April 29 2018 18: 53
              +2
              Quote: dsk
              This is what this is about,

              Well, yes, because ... hi
              1. dSK
                dSK April 29 2018 20: 24
                +1
                Quote: NIKNN
                since then

                They advertise wherever they can, press the “buttons” that they reach — they want to disrupt or maximize “push” deliveries C-300 to Syria. To Iran supplies C-300 they also wanted to frustrate, and it was almost possible, but Vladimir Vladimirovich “returned” to his post of “commander in chief”.
                1. NIKNN
                  NIKNN April 29 2018 21: 05
                  +3
                  Quote: dsk
                  Quote: NIKNN
                  since then

                  They advertise wherever they can, press the “buttons” that they reach — they want to disrupt or maximize “push” deliveries C-300 to Syria. To Iran supplies C-300 they also wanted to frustrate, and it was almost possible, but Vladimir Vladimirovich “returned” to his post of “commander in chief”.

                  Well, you won’t deny the grimaces. Agree ... hi
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            1. dSK
              dSK April 29 2018 20: 48
              0
              Quote: Yodzakura
              Crimea for example

              We are peaceful people, and are ready for "honest" cooperation and trade. “Watch” - since 1220, they burned Kiev and the rest of the city, there aren’t enough fingers on their hands. Moscow was burned four times by “newcomers from the east and once from the west, millions of people were driven into slavery. I had to“ move the fence away ”so that we could live in peace. And now all the pritensies are sucked out of us.
              1. Yodzakura
                Yodzakura April 29 2018 20: 58
                +3
                So are we too
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    2. iouris
      iouris April 29 2018 11: 41
      +3
      Many video clips are not related to the 1967 war and to Israel (F-4, F-16, F-105).
    3. TI_Eugene
      TI_Eugene April 29 2018 14: 35
      +5
      It’s interesting that they won’t share anything there.
      Some Semites bite with other Semites for a piece of rocky desert ...
      Come to our Kolyma! (tm).
      Even a special area with a capital in Birobidzhan has been allocated.
    4. Des10
      Des10 April 29 2018 15: 37
      +10
      Thanks for the movie.
      The ratio of losses - the Israelis are advancing and the "Arabs" in the defense is 1 to 10. Contrary to all the canons.
      In my opinion, very influenced by red, but dry), wine --- the USSR did not invest money and dreams in the wrong place.
      1. dSK
        dSK April 29 2018 18: 40
        +4
        Quote: Des10
        the USSR invested the wrong money and dreams.

        You are “waiting” in Israel, the war is far from over, and if you have even a drop of “Jewish blood” you will be gladly accepted into the Israeli army contract soldiers, if not, you will dig trenches. There is an acute shortage of “cannon fodder”; “Russian” immigrant Jews strive to settle in Europe, or if they manage to get to the States.
        Professor Privalov in vain tries so hard, PR on the branch "opinion" history Of Israel.
        1. Des10
          Des10 April 29 2018 18: 54
          +5
          It’s ridiculous for me and, in fact, to sin on you is bastard (even humorously)).
          Poor in understanding, not capable of either reflecting or laughing — nor even understanding.
          Health to you).
        2. Des10
          Des10 April 29 2018 19: 19
          +2
          He answered for a long time - the koment was leaked.
          Therefore - briefly.
          Most likely there is a drop, but it did not affect well-being.
          I can dig trenches, trained. And, yes, I agree, it’s more convenient in E. and the USA (I hope you’re not so envious - you’re not a Jew laughing ).
          And so - they are not waiting for me.
          I have my own homeland.
        3. Alber
          Alber April 29 2018 20: 25
          +3
          Quote: dsk
          Professor Privalov in vain is trying so hard, PR on the branch "opinion" the history of Israel.

          And it was not too lazy for the professor to hang out scribble on VO.
          ONE excuse, "extol their"
  2. mvg
    mvg April 29 2018 07: 04
    +8
    A good essay, but, in my opinion, somewhat biased. The Jews started this war from the series: "All means are good," went to the enemies and allies. And not the fact that the existence of the state of Israel itself was at stake. But I must admit, the operation was conducted flawlessly. In 1973, they simply had to get an "answer" for it ..
    1. Varna
      Varna April 29 2018 08: 53
      +20
      Quote: mvg
      A good essay, but, in my opinion, somewhat biased. The Jews started this war from the series: "All means are good," went to the enemies and allies. And not the fact that the existence of the state of Israel itself was at stake. But I must admit, the operation was conducted flawlessly. In 1973, they simply had to get an "answer" for it ..

      Not just biased, but just solid kicks towards the Russian - Soviet people. Whatever - this is my story.
      And now we will see a multi-part essay on the topic: how to veil and retouch the fact that it was precisely after all that Israel attacked first. And at the same time, as much as possible fill Russian poop. Why the hell am I on a Russian site? I do not want to read this. Right from the very beginning, where the bearded governor attacks philipoponia (with a well-known shitty result), and smart Jews, acting exactly according to science, showed everyone how to fight (what the hell am I for? Am I really on the echo of Moscow? It seems not. I on a Russian military site, if I want to find out about the Arabo-Jewish war, then in a historical context, and not reading any shit about Russians in each paragraph. Look at your Jewish, you have enough of it).
      That's enough, in the furnace Vaud, tired of it. There are a lot of military sites on the Internet where there is a maximum of information and at the same time they do not get on my nerves. Lick each other yourself, without me.
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol April 29 2018 09: 01
        +17
        again there is no water in the tap or what?
        and the article is wonderful, thanks to the author for the work
      2. Korax71
        Korax71 April 29 2018 16: 41
        +10
        If you don’t like it, don’t read it. And even better, offer an article more interesting. Where I didn’t see shit about Russians. There is such a thing as geopolitics and the USSR at that time promoting its interests as best it could and as it considered right. Well, they didn’t always rely on tech. who is not mistaken ?????
      3. indy424
        indy424 April 29 2018 19: 40
        +11
        Then better tell us about the Soviet-Finnish war. everything was different there
        1. iouris
          iouris April 30 2018 11: 47
          +1
          Quote: indy424
          about the Soviet-Finnish war.

          Like Finland - is it Israel?
  3. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter April 29 2018 07: 13
    +19
    There was a serious mess! And the skill of Jewish soldiers and officers is undeniable. Like the heroism of the whole nation - amazing unanimity and a willingness to sacrifice ... Despite democracy and the typical Jewish "whine", no "liberal bastard" got out to stir up the water ...
    I will wait for further publications ...
    1. iouris
      iouris April 30 2018 11: 58
      +2
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      skill of Jewish soldiers and officers

      Mastery is the result of training and practice. In the “mighty” USSR, they were forced to save a lot on combat training. That is why Israel never feels a shortage of equipment, ammunition, fuel? Personally, I have not received an answer to this question.
  4. The comment was deleted.
    1. Warrior Hamilton
      Warrior Hamilton April 29 2018 11: 27
      +1
      I would like to know about the vision of those events from modern Russian historians and political scientists, representatives of the country, which, as they say (when it is beneficial), is the "legal successor of the USSR. Or is there no prophet in his own country"?
      1. Warrior Hamilton
        Warrior Hamilton April 29 2018 13: 06
        +9
        Russia is transporting S-300 to Syria to protect the country that called it there from Jewish bombing. The Russian website prints odes to Zionist terrorism ........ strange ......
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol April 29 2018 13: 24
          +9
          Russia carries weapons to Saudi Arabia, including The shell. Sells S-300 to several NATO countries. And he buys technology in Israel ...... strange ......
          1. Warrior Hamilton
            Warrior Hamilton April 29 2018 16: 10
            +5
            Quote: Tlauicol
            Russia carries weapons to Saudi Arabia, including The shell. Sells S-300 to several NATO countries. And he buys technology in Israel ...... strange ......

            All questions to the idiots, compadors and Vlasovites soldier
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    2. Korax71
      Korax71 April 29 2018 16: 47
      +6
      It seems that you are forcibly driven to this site. Now VO and the pro-Israeli site laughing although in fact, for criticizing the current government, a warning is slashed here much faster than for spitting Israel laughing
    3. The comment was deleted.
  5. midshipman
    midshipman April 29 2018 08: 33
    +12
    And I had to be there only in 1972. He worked with the MiG-25R. Established encryption flight paths from Moscow using RSBN-6S equipment. This route we knew only three. Then the Jews and the United States threw the world notes from the UN. And we had to leave, but we won. There will be time, read my article in "VO" "Creative business trip"
    1. Tomato
      Tomato April 29 2018 14: 10
      +8
      Won ?? I heard right? You can deploy this unique conclusion.
      1. MadCat
        MadCat April 29 2018 16: 11
        +9
        Quote: Tomatoes
        Won ?? I heard right? You can deploy this unique conclusion.

        Well, didn’t you know? This is boboda! In Egypt, it is celebrated as a victory ... they took away their legs for good health and still survived, victory! laughing
        1. Tomato
          Tomato April 29 2018 18: 52
          +9
          Oops .... sorry, I forgot about the Arabic interpretation of history.
  6. Des10
    Des10 April 29 2018 08: 36
    +5
    Israel received the American jet fighter A-4 Skyhawk only in 1966.
    attack aircraft initially)
    Thousands of Israelis rushed to pay taxes in advance, knowing that the government would need money; at the same time, various donations from the public, including jewelry and wedding rings, poured into the Ministry of Defense. On the eve of the war, the Israelis believed that the very existence of the state was under threat. In public parks, sites for 10 thousands of graves were prepared and this was considered insufficient.
    and you will not say anything - it was.

    A wonderful article, sometimes reading it, returned to school ... then all these events were "recently".
    Now the story ... and then thanks to the Soviet media and the same political information on Tuesdays, all this was heard and lively.
    Quote: Varna
    However, this is the choice of the site’s leadership, obviously their Russian public is not interested (it’s probably decided to win the sympathy of Jewish Russian-speaking readers at all costs - probably 150 million, no less - this is a great strategic resource, it makes sense to be shared with a couple of dozen readers from Israel)))) )))

    laughing we are all a little bit Jews laughing
  7. SOF
    SOF April 29 2018 09: 12
    +16
    ... feuilleton worthy of the best years of publication of the magazine "Crocodile" ...
    ... aftertaste: Arabs are low-grade anti-Semitic Bedouin nomads who have only been begging for handouts since the beginning of the world; UN - bisector, which, like a rat running in the corners; "Russians" (yes, yes! Exactly русскиеand not Soviet) - polls clowns hung with orders, like Christmas trees, in a drunken stupor and in an embrace with bears endlessly playing balalaikas; Lamb Americans, frozen in a misunderstanding of "how can this be so?"; and Jews - the brave and great warriors of all times and peoples, the color of humanity and the standard of honesty and humanity .....
    .... enchanting ....
  8. Alsur
    Alsur April 29 2018 09: 41
    +10
    Reading is certainly interesting, but it has already been here more than once. I would like to read not a one-sided campaign, but not a dependent study. The war was not yesterday, it was time to look at the war from the sidelines. I see this hour that much is being done by Israel so that an extremely hostile attitude towards Israel is always preserved. But the Arabs and others will not disappear anywhere.
  9. sevtrash
    sevtrash April 29 2018 10: 01
    +11
    Apparently the standard presentation - we were under pressure from all sides, threatened, but we were not something that you all stood up and won, once again, because we were chosen by God. The rest is not. Something like this. Bringing Okunev as a source of information is a confirmation of this. Never a historian, publicist, but what kind of blood.
    Of course, we must pay tribute, the Israelis were able to create a high-quality army, superior to the quality of their neighbors, and not only. Well, of course, considering the Arab-Israeli conflict on the basis of the regional relations of the countries is not enough. First of all, it is necessary to take into account the standoff between the USSR and the USA. The USSR promoted the ideas of communism-socialism throughout the world and, of course, the "oppressed / oppressed" proletarians / peasants of Africa / the Middle East were recipients for this, therefore becoming allies. Under these conditions, the positioning of Israel as an outpost to counteract the efforts of the USSR in the eyes of the United States gave Israel the most important thing - a source of funding, military technical assistance, and resources.
    A special relationship with the United States is the key factor that allowed Israel to survive. And this author somehow did not single out. It would be interesting how this work was carried out, at the lobby level, of informational influence on US politicians, on the US military-industrial complex, etc. There must have been a lot of interesting things.
    1. A. Privalov
      April 29 2018 11: 08
      +10
      Quote: sevtrash
      Apparently the standard presentation - we were under pressure from all sides, threatened, but we were not something that you all stood up and won, once again, because we were chosen by God. The rest is not. Something like this. Bringing Okunev as a source of information is a confirmation of this. Never a historian, publicist, but what kind of blood.
      Of course, we must pay tribute, the Israelis were able to create a high-quality army, superior to the quality of their neighbors, and not only. Well, of course, considering the Arab-Israeli conflict on the basis of the regional relations of the countries is not enough. First of all, it is necessary to take into account the standoff between the USSR and the USA. The USSR promoted the ideas of communism-socialism throughout the world and, of course, the "oppressed / oppressed" proletarians / peasants of Africa / the Middle East were recipients for this, therefore becoming allies. Under these conditions, the positioning of Israel as an outpost to counteract the efforts of the USSR in the eyes of the United States gave Israel the most important thing - a source of funding, military technical assistance, and resources.
      A special relationship with the United States is the key factor that allowed Israel to survive. And this author somehow did not single out. It would be interesting how this work was carried out, at the lobby level, of informational influence on US politicians, on the US military-industrial complex, etc. There must have been a lot of interesting things.

      Dear sevtrash, thanks for the interest in my article and a detailed comment. The standard exposition, as I recall, is a story about Zionist aggressors who have treacherously attacked Arabs, for some time, who have taken the path of socialist development, exhausted by imperialistic colonization. Okunev, specifically given in the form of a lengthy quotation so that readers do not get bored in the process of a fresh presentation of historical events. It seems to me that this passage quite concisely reflected the then reality.
      Somehow it is already generally accepted that the United States has always been the main partner of all of Israel - its advocate, protector, and constantly stood on the side of Israel. This view is not true. So it was, by no means always. About this, I even wrote on the HE, about a year ago, a special article - "American Aid to Israel: When, How, and Why?". You can easily find it here. So, at that time, there was no “special relationship with the United States”. I will describe the situation in more detail in the next article. hi
      1. sevtrash
        sevtrash April 29 2018 12: 43
        +3
        Quote: A. Privalov
        Somehow it is already generally accepted that the United States has always been the main partner of all of Israel - its advocate, protector, and constantly stood on the side of Israel. This view is not true. So it was, by no means always. About this, I even wrote on the HE, about a year ago, a special article - "American Aid to Israel: When, How, and Why?". You can easily find it here. So, at that time, there was no “special relationship with the United States”. I will describe the situation in more detail in the next article.

        Of course, to some extent Britain is with its mandate, Britain is France with the Suez Canal. We shouldn’t forget about the USSR - the condemnation of the Arabs was, the permitted supplies of weapons from Czechoslovakia, and indeed almost the leadership of Israel’s actions by the Soviet residency in the first Arab-Israeli war.
        But the role of the USA in the history of Israel hardly anyone has surpassed - in all levels, political, military, scientific and technical, etc. This support may be the cornerstone achievement of Israeli politics / diplomacy / intelligence / covert operations.
        1. A. Privalov
          April 29 2018 13: 55
          +10
          Quote: sevtrash

          Of course, to some extent Britain is with its mandate, Britain is France with the Suez Canal. We shouldn’t forget about the USSR - the condemnation of the Arabs was, the permitted supplies of weapons from Czechoslovakia, and indeed almost the leadership of Israel’s actions by the Soviet residency in the first Arab-Israeli war.
          Usually, I try not to comment on anything that is not directly related to the article. After all, you yourself very clearly held the demarcation line, mentioning the events of 1948 year. But given your knowledge of the topic, I will answer. I will not in any way detract from the merits of the USSR in the creation of a Jewish state. From the 33-s states voted "FOR" - 3 voices were from the USSR and 2 from its satellites. However, it should be understood and another side of this issue. The creation of Israel naturally squeezed Britain from a strategically important region and could enable the USSR to take its place. The words of Stalin are widely known:
          “Let's agree with the formation of Israel. It will be like an awl in the ass for the Arab states and will make them turn their back on Britain. Ultimately, British influence will be completely undermined in Egypt, Syria, Turkey and Iraq. ”

          After the end of World War II, Great Britain could no longer hold its colonies, and many of them gained independence. Palestine is no exception. Whether the UN would vote for partitioning or not, the Jewish state already existed by that time.
          Yes, Joseph Vissarionovich graciously allowed Czechoslovakia to supply arms to Israel, but they were not of decisive importance. Supplies were limited to two dozens of converted Messerschmitts at astronomical prices and small arms. Avia S-199 were delivered to Israel - for the price of $ 180 000 per plane. For comparison, the Americans sold fighters for $ 15 000, and bombers for $ 30 000 per plane. Palestine's air service purchased C-46 Commando medium transport planes in different countries for $ 5 000, four-engined transport planes C-69 Constellation for $ 15 000 per piece, heavy bombers B-17 for $ 20 000. There is no reliable data about the Soviet residency, under the leadership of which, allegedly, the establishment of Israel took place - only ordinary bikes. In Palestine, there was still a war, and the staff of the USSR Ministry of State Security had already killed the world-famous theater director and Jewish public figure Solomon Mikhoels, followed in Czechoslovakia "The Case of Slansky" (where the blame for Israel, among other things, was put) , "The Struggle against Cosmopolitans" and other very serious repressions against Jews. Israel has never feared domestic anti-Semitism. On the contrary, the more bytoviki put pressure on the Jews, the greater their number comes to Israel. Israel has always been afraid of state anti-Semitism. All this could not please the young Jewish state, and with all its socialist essence (yes, idealistic socialists created Israel, the Communist Party and trade unions were very strong at that time), went under the wing of the West, and the USSR began to help Arab countries.
          Quote: sevtrash
          But the role of the USA in the history of Israel hardly anyone has surpassed - in all levels, political, military, scientific and technical, etc. This support may be the cornerstone achievement of Israeli politics / diplomacy / intelligence / covert operations.

          But this will all begin after the Six Day War, when the attitude of serious countries to Israel will change. hi
          1. sevtrash
            sevtrash April 29 2018 16: 22
            +4
            Quote: A. Privalov
            Usually, I try not to comment on anything that is not directly related to the article.

            War is the continuation of politics by other means. And the six-day war did not arise out of nowhere. It is clear that the Arabs were crushed by the “Catastrophe” (the other one), previous failures, on the other hand they had such a quantitative advantage. Also pressed, probably.
            In general, the war somehow proved to be exceptionally successful for Israel. Not only militarily, but also, most importantly, in taking control over large areas, strategically important, providing the best conditions for subsequent defense / attack. I would not be surprised if its beginning, and indeed all of it, could have been to some extent planned.
            1. A. Privalov
              April 29 2018 16: 42
              +4
              Quote: sevtrash
              Quote: A. Privalov
              Usually, I try not to comment on anything that is not directly related to the article.

              War is the continuation of politics by other means. And the six-day war did not arise out of nowhere. It is clear that the Arabs were crushed by the “Catastrophe” (the other one), previous failures, on the other hand they had such a quantitative advantage. Also pressed, probably.
              In general, the war somehow proved to be exceptionally successful for Israel. Not only militarily, but also, most importantly, in taking control over large areas, strategically important, providing the best conditions for subsequent defense / attack. I would not be surprised if its beginning, and indeed all of it, could have been to some extent planned.

              I remember the old joke:
              Here, take Tanka from 4-th floor - it is not enough that she has a husband and a lover, because someone fucked her yesterday even in the front door. No, well, lucky people!
              1. sevtrash
                sevtrash April 29 2018 18: 39
                +6
                You see, when one side appears in the description as continuous angels (seraphim, cherubs, ofanimas, etc.) and everything falls into their hands (or at their feet), then this somehow causes doubts. Actually, this just does not happen.
                The world feeds on bits of truth and lots of lies.
                War is barbaric when attacking a peaceful neighbor, but it is a blessed duty when defending a homeland.
                War requires speed.
                When a moral person and an immoral person enter into a struggle, the immoral, all other things being equal, has a better chance of winning.
                1. A. Privalov
                  April 29 2018 20: 03
                  +10
                  Quote: sevtrash
                  You see, when one side appears in the description as continuous angels (seraphim, cherubs, ofanimas, etc.) and everything falls into their hands (or at their feet), then this somehow causes doubts. Actually, this just does not happen.
                  The world feeds on bits of truth and lots of lies.
                  War is barbaric when attacking a peaceful neighbor, but it is a blessed duty when defending a homeland.
                  War requires speed.
                  When a moral person and an immoral person enter into a struggle, the immoral, all other things being equal, has a better chance of winning.

                  What confuses you in all this? Just see how carefully Israel conducted preparations for the war with the Arabs, how scrupulously it followed the fundamentals and principles of military science, how fully it mobilized all its material resources and moral strength and capabilities, how much Arabs neglected any preparation, ignored the principles and principles of military science. their efforts and suffered unjustified losses. As against any logic, 2 million Jews defeat time and again over more than 100 million Arabs. The victory was won by Israel, whose area is equal to 20 thousand km², while the Arabs had more than 11 million km², then the military budget of Israel was 270 million dollars, and the budget of the Arab countries bordering on it 6 million dollars. Israel managed to move a prepared and armed army into battle, mobilizing 830% of its population, while the six neighboring countries mobilized only 10% for the decisive battle. Well and the main thing, do not forget about the most important - about the secret weapon of Israelis. It lies in the fact that they have nowhere to run. From three sides surrounded by enemies and from the fourth there is the sea. The country is the size of half of the Moscow region 0,3 / 2 which is a waterless desert. There is no Volga to which it is possible to retreat, there is no Urals and Siberia, where industry can be transferred. Are you still undecided on who is friend or foe here? Who are the "good guys" and who are the "bad"? So do not bother. As I wrote on VO 3 once, in 100, the local Arabs and Jews got a ticket on the History train. The Jews used it sensibly, and the Arabs began to dog it and on the day of the proclamation of Independence attacked the whole crowd on the newborn state. Hard got on the horns and crawled off to lick their wounds. As a result, today the new Israel is 1947 years old, while the Arabs ride donkeys, snowstorm each other and curse Jews for all their troubles. hi
                  1. sevtrash
                    sevtrash April 29 2018 22: 04
                    +5
                    Quote: A. Privalov
                    What confuses you in all this? Just see how carefully Israel prepared for the war with the Arabs, how meticulously it followed the foundations and principles of military science, how fully mobilized all its material resources and moral strengths and capabilities, how much the Arabs neglected all preparations, ignored the fundamentals and principles of military science, sprayed their efforts and suffered unjustified losses.

                    Of course, not confused, on the contrary, the actions of the Israelis in such situations are simply excellent, almost always. But the declared / stated view of them and their actions — something like the angels and their divine admonition of the lost — it looks like a fairy tale for the little ones. War is a dirty thing, where people are killed, deprived of loved ones, health, home, etc. And they are not won by angels, as long as it does. Smooth picture causes some irritation, its unreality.
                    Quote: A. Privalov
                    You still have not decided who is here friend or foe? Who are the “good guys” and who are the “bad guys”?

                    What does it mean - "good, bad"? For one, some are good, for the other others. If we talk about Israel and the Israelis, this is an example for many people how to fight for their country and their people. Your story seems superficial, it would be interesting to find out the hidden mechanisms of the wars, clashes, backstage struggle for influence over the minds and wallets of the US, European elites, at least in hints, and better analysis. It is clear that the war was predicted, they were preparing for it, and if the Arabs were brought to it at the right time and place, and even others were kindled, it was aerobatics.
                    1. A. Privalov
                      April 30 2018 10: 30
                      +2
                      Quote: sevtrash

                      Of course, not confused, on the contrary, the actions of the Israelis in such situations are simply excellent, almost always. But the declared / stated view of them and their actions — something like the angels and their divine admonition of the lost — it looks like a fairy tale for the little ones. War is a dirty thing, where people are killed, deprived of loved ones, health, home, etc. And they are not won by angels, as long as it does. Smooth picture causes some irritation, its unreality.

                      What does it mean - "good, bad"? For one, some are good, for the other others. If we talk about Israel and the Israelis, this is an example for many people how to fight for their country and their people. Your story seems superficial, it would be interesting to find out the hidden mechanisms of the wars, clashes, backstage struggle for influence over the minds and wallets of the US, European elites, at least in hints, and better analysis. It is clear that the war was predicted, they were preparing for it, and if the Arabs were brought to it at the right time and place, and even others were kindled, it was aerobatics.

                      The Israelis are all like one evil Zionists only dreaming of being like Muslims / Arabs and seizing all their lands. Does such a “declared / stated view of them and their actions” suit you? Use, on health. hi
                      I tell about the hidden mechanisms of past wars in my articles in sufficient detail. You will learn about backstage diplomacy preceding this war in the following article.
                      I repeat once again: before the Six-Day War, Israel had a completely different attitude. He had no friends in the world.
                      About the power over the minds and wallets of US elites, as well as about the Rothschilds, Rockefellers and Morgans containing Israel at their own expense, you can read about the Jews controlling the weather, etc., on the websites of the corresponding orientation. hi
                      1. sevtrash
                        sevtrash April 30 2018 19: 15
                        +3
                        Quote: A. Privalov
                        Use on health.

                        Well, I do not ask permission for my opinion. Neither you nor anyone else. And I am absolutely not going to take for granted someone's declared / stated representations. It seems to me that this is quite normal. Anecdote on this topic can not remember, but please aphorism -
                        Doubt is the criterion of truth.
          2. iouris
            iouris April 30 2018 12: 04
            +2
            Quote: A. Privalov
            Israel was created by idealist socialists

            Israel created some very strong interests and powerful financing. I would like to talk about this in more detail.
            1. A. Privalov
              April 30 2018 12: 14
              +3
              Quote: iouris
              and who, in fact, made Israel? Rothschild

              You just about this yourself absolutely categorically asserted. Add here Rockefeller, Morgan, do not forget Joseph Vissarionovich who acted in one with them and you will be happy. hi
  10. Alsur
    Alsur April 29 2018 10: 02
    +7
    Quote: SOF
    ... feuilleton worthy of the best years of publication of the magazine "Crocodile" ...
    ... aftertaste: Arabs are low-grade anti-Semitic Bedouin nomads who have only been begging for handouts since the beginning of the world; UN - bisector, which, like a rat running in the corners; "Russians" (yes, yes! Exactly русскиеand not Soviet) - polls clowns hung with orders, like Christmas trees, in a drunken stupor and in an embrace with bears endlessly playing balalaikas; Lamb Americans, frozen in a misunderstanding of "how can this be so?"; and Jews - the brave and great warriors of all times and peoples, the color of humanity and the standard of honesty and humanity .....
    .... enchanting ....

    A very good squeeze, you, in my opinion, may well write about the brief content of the film. From me, plus.
  11. Alsur
    Alsur April 29 2018 10: 15
    +2
    Quote: Des10
    Israel received the American jet fighter A-4 Skyhawk only in 1966.
    attack aircraft initially)
    Thousands of Israelis rushed to pay taxes in advance, knowing that the government would need money; at the same time, various donations from the public, including jewelry and wedding rings, poured into the Ministry of Defense. On the eve of the war, the Israelis believed that the very existence of the state was under threat. In public parks, sites for 10 thousands of graves were prepared and this was considered insufficient.
    and you will not say anything - it was.

    A wonderful article, sometimes reading it, returned to school ... then all these events were "recently".
    Now the story ... and then thanks to the Soviet media and the same political information on Tuesdays, all this was heard and lively.
    Quote: Varna
    However, this is the choice of the site’s leadership, obviously their Russian public is not interested (it’s probably decided to win the sympathy of Jewish Russian-speaking readers at all costs - probably 150 million, no less - this is a great strategic resource, it makes sense to be shared with a couple of dozen readers from Israel)))) )))

    laughing we are all a little bit Jews laughing

    The fact that everyone thinks that they came from the Jews, apparently from the fact that they consider Christ a Jew by nationality. I have a theme - the nationality of Christ, is not interested, study the Internet yourself on this topic. In any case, Christ is the spiritual son of God. But God, he has no nationality. In addition, if you are approached from a scientific point of view, then you need to read about such a concept in geneology as - a bottleneck. And you will find out that the current population of people came from a population of 300 individuals to a little more than a thousand, according to various estimates, living on the northeast coast of Africa, my beloved Hurghada - hello. And the Jews as well.
    1. Des10
      Des10 April 29 2018 13: 27
      +1
      Quote: ALSur
      That everyone thinks they came from the Jews,

      ALSur, I just neighing over the population ~ "150 million Russian-speaking Jewish readers"), without going into the history of the origin of mankind or even the nationality of Jesus.
      But for - an approach from a scientific point of view in the gene O (!)) Logic as - a bottleneck --- thank you so much. smile
      Good luck and a joyful sense of humor.
    2. dSK
      dSK April 29 2018 19: 42
      +1
      Quote: ALSur
      living on the northeast coast of Africa

      Probably there was an "initial" paradise, where the Lord God settled Adam and Eve. Climate warming began and the gardens turned into deserts. The Sahara and the desert of Saudi Arabia appeared.
      1. YELLOWSTONE
        YELLOWSTONE April 29 2018 22: 00
        +1
        not there, between the Tigris and the Euphrates
  12. Warrior Hamilton
    Warrior Hamilton April 29 2018 11: 01
    +1
    "Caliber" rarely pampers an inquisitive reader with historical "goodies." There are no other correspondents ... fellow
  13. iouris
    iouris April 29 2018 11: 49
    +8
    Another panegyric to Israel instead of revealing the hidden causes of events, summarizing the facts and impartial analysis of the geopolitical consequences of the war. This is the position.
    1. tlauicol
      tlauicol April 29 2018 12: 00
      +5
      did you read the article? Or did you write a comment first?
      Quote: iouris
      Another panegyric to Israel instead of revealing the hidden causes of events, summarizing the facts and impartial analysis of the geopolitical consequences of the war. This is the position.
      1. iouris
        iouris April 29 2018 12: 26
        +5
        I read the article. I believe that this is yesterday’s snow, an uncritical translation of "foreign" (American) sources. The task of historical research is to identify trends and develop recommendations that are relevant for today, and not to propagate the successes of little David, confronting the huge Goliath.
        1. YELLOWSTONE
          YELLOWSTONE 1 May 2018 01: 54
          +1
          goliath was on each side while the cousins ​​fought
        2. YELLOWSTONE
          YELLOWSTONE 1 May 2018 02: 25
          +1
          moreover, the plans of both did not include the Arabs being victorious, the Arabs did not have Soviet planes with radar, and they also purchased air-to-air guided missiles from the Germans
  14. konstantin68
    konstantin68 April 29 2018 13: 29
    +8
    The main message of the article: first, the Americans are timid and neutral, did not intervene in the situation, accepted everything as it is.
    second: Israel was so peaceful and scared that it simply had to ...
    third: the evil Arab coalition, spurred on by the USSR, did everything to start a war (but did not start).
    fourth: how did the NATO countries behave?
    fifth: Adolf Aloizovich always stated that the attack on the USSR was preventive, Germany simply did not have a chance ...
    And so it was interesting to read, honestly, just like literature.
  15. Miflecet
    Miflecet April 29 2018 14: 20
    +11
    The article was written lively, interesting, reasoned. It is relevant enough for today. And not only for Israel and Jews, Arabs, but for a wide range of readers of other countries. In particular, historians, military, politicians, filo and anti-Semites. In any collection of "great wars of mankind" this war is always present. The easiest way would be to describe the immediate course of hostilities. To the honor of the author, he gave the background to the conflict in its multifaceted nature. Here the issue of water is so important for this region, the political ambitions of the leaders of the leading Arab countries, the struggle for influence between the superpowers in the most important oil region at that time. So Alexander’s tasks (the series of articles on the “six-day war is not finished yet) are quite complicated. In the first part, it seems, he managed to show the backstage flywheels that led to the war. Like any good-quality products of this level, the publication provoked a lively discussion, during which various, sometimes polar judgments have been made.This is another confirmation of the success of the publication of publications on the June war. I can not agree with opponents that there is another
    Zionist agitation. Each premise of the publication is confirmed by objective facts. A documentary film posted by one of the VO visitors makes it possible to verify Alexander’s impartiality.
    It is not possible to agree with the statements of those commentators claiming that Israel committed aggression against the Arab states. This position is based on an emotional factor, ignores the evidence base. In short. 1. The UN did not recognize Israel as an aggressor and the statement of the contrary on the site does not make honor defending a deliberately false thesis. 2. The blockade of the international straits is a cause for war. Namely, the blockade of the Tirana Straits took place from Egypt and gave Israel the right to active defense and "peace enforcement" of Arab aggressors. The argument that it is not a fact that a coalition of Arab countries would attack Israel is not convincing. The speeches of the leaders of Egypt and Iraq, the elimination of UN forces from Sinai at the initiative of Egypt, and the deployment of their troops leave no doubt about the intentions of Arab opponents. And this would be a total war to destroy the Jews and the Jewish state. 3. It is unlikely that one can seriously claim a sudden attack first by Israel. To the teeth, armed opponents stood opposite each other in full combat readiness. And if the Arabs, in their traditional negligence and carelessness, missed the blow they were ready for, then who is Rabinovich for them? You can compare the beginning of the "six-day war" and the "Doomsday" war, for which the Jews were not ready and did not even announce mobilization. 4. Unlike the Arabs, who had a powerful ally in the USSR, the entire Arab world, Israel could only rely on France, which had elegantly betrayed him before the start of the war. I am sure that Alexander will write about this in the sequel. I will not anticipate the events. There is another extreme in the comments: about unity in the government and parliament before the war. There was no unity. Eshkol hesitated to the last and He was in conflict over the preemptive strike with the army elite. They managed to put together a single coalition at the last moment on their knees when Dayan entered the government from RAF. I’ll already omit the personal relations of Ben Gurion and Begin. Israel is a classical social democratic state, with all its signs So Eshkol made a decision only after the return of Abba Even from Paris, London and New York, when it became clear that Israel remained in completely alone. The USSR generally refused to speak with Israel at the level of leaders. But the unity of the people, patriotism, impulse, readiness to stand up "for their Fatherland" was, of course. There is and will be. But with a slurred leadership position, it costs a little. I did not see bias, on the contrary, there were a lot of silences about the role of the USSR, which stimulated the Arabs to aggression. The film mentions in passing how it all began, but only in passing. I do not presume to give advice to the venerable author, but the second part of the publication could begin with the first sentence of Sir Winston Churchill's monograph “The Six Day War”. Dare Alexander, you are doing great. Success in the field of mass education. "And for a long time I will be so kind to the people ....." With Zionist greetings.
    1. iouris
      iouris April 30 2018 12: 11
      +1
      Quote: Mifletset
      . "With Zionist greetings.

      Quote: Mifletset
      Israel is a classic social democratic state

      Democracy arose in a slave society. Democracy was also in the well-known classical National Socialist state. Since you put on the "classic" Social Democratic cowards, take off your Zionist cross.
      1. Miflecet
        Miflecet April 30 2018 19: 38
        +2
        Quote: iouris
        Quote: Mifletset
        . "With Zionist greetings.

        Quote: Mifletset
        Israel is a classic social democratic state

        Democracy arose in a slave society. Democracy was also in the well-known classical National Socialist state. Since you put on the "classic" Social Democratic cowards, take off your Zionist cross.

        There is no cross on the Zionists, including me. So there’s nothing to shoot. The identification of social democratic values ​​and the values ​​of the national socialists is a demonstration of critical shallows of intelligence and immorality deep into the Mariana Trench. Do not cry, bambino. Take heart, I believe that you are still able to learn to embroider a cross. "Under the bed, trousers, What Zionists brought to ....." (Almost I. Irteniev)
        1. iouris
          iouris 1 May 2018 23: 34
          0
          Quote: Mifletset
          Identification of Social Democratic Values ​​and National Socialist Values

          It is not a matter of "values" and not an identification of different "values", but of the correct identification of ideology and political practice. We know one very large country in which social democracy once triumphed. Why, in addition to it, create another very small one?
  16. shura7782
    shura7782 April 29 2018 15: 15
    +11
    "Features of the national Jewish press."
    I did not expect this.
    Exposure.
    Even the Russians were amazed at .....

    Russians several times in rather harsh form hinted to Israel the possibility of "grave consequences"

    ...... the Russians made the most fatal mistake since their intervention in Middle Eastern affairs

    So all the same, Russians ...
    It is quite clear to me that this was done on purpose. Apparently because in the Israeli internal press this is the absolute norm "Russian is evil." It is quite obvious that this Jew (author) on a visit to the Russian site of the coast has lost. Moreover, this is only PART 1. "Prelude." If the moderators allow this in another part, then after the attendance, ARAGASM will be even worse.
    1. Korax71
      Korax71 April 29 2018 17: 15
      +5
      Do you firmly believe that if there were no military and economic assistance to the Arab countries from the USSR, then they would have been captured immediately by Israel? maybe enough to believe in fairy tales? if you had bothered to read all the author’s publications a little, removing the cheers-patriotic blinders from your eyes, you would have changed your mind. Privalov has a rather unbiased view of events, and criticism of the Israeli side for mistakes and miscalculations is present. You just want to believe and know only the glorious pages of your story, and not the whole with sometimes very unpleasant moments. And, yes, !!!! the word "argasm" is written through the letter O, since you drown for everything Russian good
    2. iouris
      iouris April 30 2018 11: 38
      +1
      Quote: shura7782
      So all the same, Russians ...

      Exactly. Not "Soviet", but "Russian". So, after all, comrade Kaganovich was "Russian."
  17. A. Privalov
    April 29 2018 15: 28
    +7
    Here is the beginning of the chapter just telling about the Six Day War. In it, actually everything that I told in my article. hi
    2.3. ARMED AGGRESS OF ISRAEL IN 1967 YEAR AGAINST ARAB COUNTRIES

    After the triple aggression, the Middle East conflict entered a new phase, characterized by the fact that the forces of imperialism began to make even more active use of the aggressiveness and expansionism of the Israeli ruling elite in the struggle against the Arab national liberation movement. The Zionist ideology prevailing in Israel served as the basis for the official doctrine of territorial expansion, the seizure of the lands of neighboring Arab states and the expulsion of the indigenous population from them.

    In accordance with this doctrine, plans for a new war were developed, the essence of which was Israel’s occupation of the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, and significant territories of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan.

    Israel’s military-economic plans fully met the interests of the Western powers. The Israeli leaders encouraged by them forced the militarization of the country. The provision for military spending in 1966 / 67 reached 30% of the budget. By 1967, the Israeli armed forces received from the United States, Britain, France and Germany a large number of modern weapons, including hundreds of tanks, airplanes and several dozen auxiliary ships (including 4 submarines), large-caliber artillery, anti-aircraft missiles and modern radio-electronic equipment.
    The ground forces of Israel were armored troops, at the same time, much attention was paid to the development of aviation.
    The General Staff developed a plan of war against Arab countries, which was based on the principle of "blitzkrieg". Its essence was in a sudden raid of aviation on the airfields of Arab countries, the destruction of aircraft and the conquest of air superiority, the decisive actions of tank and mechanized formations, with the active support of aviation, to defeat the ground forces of Arab countries.
    The first strike was planned to inflict on Egypt. The plan envisaged the forces of infantry formations to break through the defenses of the Egyptian troops, by introducing tank groups to develop an offensive against the Suez Canal, to cut off Egyptian troops on the Sinai Peninsula, to slash and destroy them in parts. The landing of an airborne assault in the region of Sharm el-Sheikh to seize the seaport, to ensure the navigation of Israel around the Gulf of Aqaba. Subsequently, defeat the Jordanian troops west of the Jordan River and seize Jerusalem. In conclusion, launch an offensive against Syria to capture the Golan Heights and advance towards Damascus.
    During the development of the war plan, the Israeli intelligence services made extensive use of intelligence from the CIA, Germany and the operational intelligence of NATO. Israeli aviation produced detailed aerial photographs of military facilities in Egypt, Syria and Jordan. Detailed information was collected on the armed forces of the Arab states (their size, armament, deployment), and targets were set for aviation. By the beginning of the war, the Israeli Air Force had detailed maps with objects on which it was necessary to strike.
    The ruling circles of the United States and Britain not only supported Israel’s militaristic plans, but also prepared to provide him with military assistance. Since the end of May, the 1967, the US Navy's 6 ships with marines in readiness, cruised in the eastern Mediterranean. In early June, England sent two aircraft carriers and bomber formations to the Middle East.
    Arab governments regarded Israeli actions as preparations for a new territorial expansion and activated the search for countermeasures. On the initiative of Nasser in January 1964, the first pan-Arab meeting of heads of state was held in Cairo, at which the problem of joining efforts to counter Israel’s threat was discussed. The meeting also considered issues of support that should have been given to the Palestinian national liberation movement. During this period, organizations Fatah and some other Palestinian groups. At the end of May 1964, the first Palestinian National Congress was held in East Jerusalem, at which the creation of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was announced. Congress adopted the National Charter and approved the Charter of the PLO. Since January 1965, Fatah has begun to carry out separate guerrilla actions on Israeli territory. Israel took advantage of these actions as a pretext for new attacks on Arab countries, hoping to force them to take tough measures against the Palestinian movement. In May 1965, the Israeli army attacked a number of settlements in the West Bank.
    In the spring of 1967, Israeli forces launched a series of attacks on Syrian border settlements, while Israeli aviation attacked important targets on the Syrian front. These provocative actions were aimed at intimidating the Arab countries and forcing them to refuse to coordinate efforts in the struggle against imperialism and Zionism, as well as to undermine the progressive regime in Syria.
    In an effort to prevent further deterioration of the situation, the Soviet Union warned Israel in April 1967 of heavy responsibility for its adventurous policies and urged it to show restraint and prudence. However, after that, the Israeli government did not change its course.
    Given the current situation, the USSR at the end of May again tried to prevent a critical development of events. In a statement on the situation in the Middle East on 23 in May 1967, the Soviet government warned Israel that if it unleashed aggression, it would have to meet not only with the combined strength of the Arab countries, but also with decisive opposition from aggression by the Soviet Union, all peace-loving states.
    Due to the fact that the Israeli government did not heed the warnings of the USSR and continued to prepare for the attack on Syria, Egypt was forced on 22 on May 1967 to ban the passage of the Israeli ships through the Tirana strait and the Gulf of Aqaba as well as vessels of other countries transporting strategic cargoes for Israel . At the same time, Egypt demanded the withdrawal of UN troops and transferred its own forces to the Sinai Peninsula to organize resistance to the aggressor ...

    I recommend this book to all lovers of such "unbiased" and "independent" research:
    1. Korax71
      Korax71 April 29 2018 17: 29
      +2
      Alexander hi I can only repeat again in evaluating your articles good in principle, everything is as always on top. I don’t know about you, but in the Russian-language segment of the Internet, such a plan as you posted in the comments, articles and studies, the carriage and trolley. I sometimes want to start believing in them, but with the slightest check of everything this "lice" forces to spit on the screen is no longer laughing Well, if you still believe in the impartiality of especially Arab sources, then the picture will look so that the descendant Arabs of the Jedi were able to stop the aggression of the Israeli death star and the entire civilized world with it, with many millions of losses and with minimal ones !! !! and so seven times laughing
      1. dSK
        dSK April 29 2018 19: 58
        +2
        Quote: A. Privalov, Korax71
        and so seven times

        How many bukf ...
        "The cuckoo praises the cock for praising the cuckoo." Krylov.
        Two ingenious "Russian" Jews (one managed to make his legs, the other has not yet) intensely "rub on his ears."
        What is it for? Probably Israel is preparing another "surprise" for our VKS in Syria.
        1. Korax71
          Korax71 April 30 2018 00: 15
          +2
          Once again, for those who are on an armored train. I am a Jew like you Ethiopian. The author of the article has done a lot of work, and quite qualitatively. And I am most interested in his nationality, religion and country of residence. If you have any problems related to the national sign, then I can only condole you, but, as my brother says, “this is another doctor.” Try to do something similar, and if you succeed, you will have the same stupid ode from me provided even if you sign up as an honorary resident of Honduras. and so far in your komente except for conclusions taken from the bulldozer or from a hangover there is nothing. hi
          1. dSK
            dSK April 30 2018 05: 59
            +1
            Quote: Korax71
            conclusions taken from the bulldozer

            Is going "moral preparation" to the new "victorious six-day war", only "cunning" Israelis will be “coordinating customers” this timemethods of war "other people's hands" for fifty years worked out perfectly:
            Military Review ● Analytics. "The question of the" 04th "for Syria has become even more acute. Sunday's battle near Deir ez-Zor will bring the date of a new strike." Today, 11:XNUMX
            "an ardent Russophobe and former head of the CIA, Mike Pompeo, the first thing he did not go somewhere, but on an Asian trip, in particular, Saudi Arabia, Israel and Jordan. It is no coincidence that Donald Trump hopes to involve in the large-scale operation precisely the numerous and technologically prepared Royal Saudi Arabia.
            1. dSK
              dSK April 30 2018 06: 40
              +1
              Military Review ● News. "New missile attacks on Syria. Where did it fly from now?"Today, 06:07.
              ".... Al-Arabiya news service reports that positions were bombarded 47th Motorized Rifle Brigade a few kilometers south of the city of Hama. Also, a blow was inflicted on the village of Salhab in the same area andabout the military airfield in the province of Aleppo. Israeli edition Haaretz writes about unknown rockets, the word "unknown" quotation marks.

              "during the attack on the arms depot of the 47th brigade of the Syrian army in the vicinity of Hama, a major fire broke out. RIA 03 News: 44
          2. YELLOWSTONE
            YELLOWSTONE 1 May 2018 01: 52
            0
            he doesn’t, impartiality cannot depend on all this?
  18. Bad_santa
    Bad_santa April 29 2018 16: 35
    +4
    At one time, Israel was a bargaining chip in the Middle East games. The West did not believe that the Jewish state could resist the onslaught of the Arabs, which means that it was not worth helping the first. Israel was simply thrown at them to be torn to pieces, but by some miracle the Jews not only survived, but even gained strength. After that, they began to reckon with them and began to help with weapons, moreover, this weakened the policy of the USSR in this region. Jews as they want can consider it their own war, but it was only a battle between the USA and the USSR, and Israel in this game was just cannon fodder like the Arabs. For an ant planted in a glass with sand, which a person holds in his hands and twists it, everything seems to be a strong and powerful storm, and for a man it is just an ant in a glass with sand. Similarly, all the Arab-Israeli wars for the USA and the USSR were just a storm in a glass
    1. Des10
      Des10 April 29 2018 17: 50
      +2
      Quote: Bad_Santa
      Israel was simply thrown at them to be torn to pieces, but by some miracle the Jews not only survived, but even gained strength.

      it’s just that it turns out not only Jews, but Israelis - there are other nationalities there.)
    2. iouris
      iouris April 30 2018 11: 44
      0
      As for the “abandoned” and “the Jews not only survived, but even strengthened”: and who, in fact, created Israel? Rothschild? So he didn’t quit.
      Quote: “Israel was a bargaining chip in the Middle East Games.” End quote. What are these Middle Eastern games? Who plays with whom, more specifically? The USSR project has not been closed for a long time.
  19. Dym71
    Dym71 April 29 2018 20: 24
    +2
    In 1967, the Soviet people, under the wise leadership of the growing Communist Party day by day, prepared to honorably and solemnly celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution. The leader of the party and people, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, who celebrated his 60th birthday six months ago and was awarded the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union on this occasion, replaced the modest Khrushchev’s "first secretary" with a more fitting hero - the Secretary General of the CPSU Central Committee ........

    Mar Privalov, knowing you as an ardent anti-Soviet, neighing a horse, reading these lines. Such a banter in VO, to put it mildly, is not to everyone's liking, harsh criticism in the comments and comparison with the Crocodile is a reaction to your sarcasm, but it seems that you are in the know. wink
    At the same time I read a little about Egyptian ballistic missiles (which immediately seemed to me similar to the FAA). It turns out that the Jews managed to turn Otto Skorzeny inside with fur, who oversaw the recruitment of German specialists in Egypt for “Factory 333”, respectively, to figure out all the engineers, to recall them back to Germany, and to send the most uncooperative to another world without all the noise and dust that could interfere receiving reparation from the Germans. As a result, by the end of 1963, the Egyptians turned off their missile project and during the Six Day War, not a single rocket was fired at Israel.
    Thank you for the article, I can’t wait for material about the barmales of the Middle East. hi
  20. The comment was deleted.
  21. Franz Josef Land
    Franz Josef Land April 30 2018 17: 01
    +1
    As I understood it, as a result of the defeat, the USSR subsequently fell apart ...
  22. A. Privalov
    April 30 2018 19: 45
    0
    Quote: sevtrash

    Well, I do not ask permission for my opinion. Neither you nor anyone else. And I am absolutely not going to take for granted someone's declared / stated representations. It seems to me that this is quite normal. Anecdote on this topic can not remember, but please aphorism -
    Doubt is the criterion of truth.

    Sorry, are you writing aphorisms on the go? "Practice is the criterion of truth," and not at all doubt. Well, we have long been here flood bred. I wish you well. hi
  23. BAI
    BAI 1 May 2018 19: 58
    +1
    Everything stated is interesting and understandable is the author’s pride in his country - the winner.
    Hooked a number of points:
    1.
    Israeli pilots flying French-made Mirages successfully fought in the north with the new Syrian MiG-21s.

    It may seem that Mirages were better than MiGs. I think this is not so. It all depended on who was sitting in the cockpit. MiG 21 is still in service with a number of countries. There is nothing left of the Mirages of those times (if I am not mistaken).
    2.
    On May 11, Jerusalem informed the UN Security Council that if Syrian provocations continue, Israel "will consider itself entitled to resort to self-defense."
    - Well, this is from the point of view of Israel. At that time, the international community considered Tel Aviv to be the capital of Israel.
    3.
    On the same day, May 17, two Egyptian MiG-21s flew at a high altitude above the reactor in Dimona. They stayed in the Israeli sky for only five minutes and left for Jordan. They did not have time to intercept them. (There are conspiracy studies that are trying to prove that reconnaissance flights over the Israeli nuclear center were carried out at that time by the still experimental and top-secret MIG-25, which officially went into mass production only in 1972. At that time, there was no analogue of this machine in the West, which received the designation Foxbat (“The Bat”) in the NATO classification. Israeli pilots who knew the MIG-21 as their five fingers immediately realized that they were dealing with a completely different machine: planes flying over Dimona were flying at such a height and at such a speed that the fighters that climbed to intercept would have no chance of catching him.) Around the Dimona, they quickly deployed additional Hawk missiles.
    The author first correctly states that these were MiG 21s, but then he almost unambiguously transferred them to MiG 25, which is no longer correct:
    Alexander BEZHEVETS, retired major general, former test pilot, Hero of the Soviet Union:

    - I have tested dozens of new MiGs and declare that in 1967 our MiG-25s were not over Israel. From the Egyptian airfield, MiG-21s flew for reconnaissance in Israel.

    4.
    Eilat port after the war of 1956 served as an Israeli outlet to Asia and Africa. In 1966, about a million tons of cargo passed through it, almost 30% of the total Israeli raw material exports. It became the main oil port of Israel, and an oil pipeline was laid from it to Ashkelon.

    According to the text, is Israel an oil exporter?
    1. A. Privalov
      2 May 2018 10: 20
      0
      Quote: BAI

      Hooked a number of points:
      1.Maybe the impression that the Mirage were better than the MiGs. I think it is not. It all depended on who was sitting in the cabin. MiG 21 is still in service with a number of countries. Nothing remained of the Mirage of those times (if I am not mistaken).
      In the text - in fact. Indeed, the Mirage, indeed, with the MiG-21, really fought, and it was in the north. About impressions, I can not judge. Everyone is impressed in his own way, but who was better / worse there, etc., I already wrote in my article "In heaven and on earth. Part of 1." Mirage "and reality." Since the MiGs were released almost last year, and about 12 thousand were released in total, they can still fly somewhere. “Mirages” in this respect are more modest almost ten times, but also, as I recall, they are used elsewhere.
      2. Well, this is from the point of view of Israel. At that time, the international community considered Tel Aviv, the capital of Israel.
      "The international community "believes today as it wants. The whole thing is that it does not appoint the countries of their capital. The capital of the state is the city in which its government meets. The establishment of the state of Israel was proclaimed 15 on May 1948 of the year Aviva, in the house of the Mayor of the city - Meir Dizengoff. There the first government meetings took place. It even sat in a cinema when the private house of the Mayor could not accommodate all the guests. where is located with her day
      3.The author first correctly asserts that these were the 21 MiG, but then they almost definitely translated the 25 into the MiG, which is no longer correct:
      All a few phrases in italics and taken in parentheses are the conspiracy theory. I leave this evidence to the conscience of the authors, Gidon Remez and Isabella Ginor, who set forth their ideas about 10 years ago, in the book Bats over Dimona. ”
      4. According to the text, is Israel an oil exporter?
      The fact is that the “Suez crisis” about which I wrote not so long ago had consequences for the international oil industry: it showed the vulnerability of oil transportation both through the canal and through pipelines (the overlap of the Iraq Petroleum Company by Syria). There was a need to look for new ways. One of the consequences of the "Suez crisis" was the birth of a new category of ships - supertankers, delivering oil to Western Europe, bypassing the Suez Canal, around the Cape of Good Hope. Israel, which received free access to the southern port of Eilat through the Gulf of Aqaba after the events of 1956, built its oil pipeline (I conditionally showed it on the map with a violet line) to the port in Ashdod, on the Mediterranean coast. Supertankers in Eilat did not moor, but they drove ordinary oil to Ashdod, there we also had a storage facility and a terminal from which we sent oil for processing to Haifa and tankers that received this oil from almost the supplier: we carried this oil from .... Iran ! Yes, it was very close, not expensive and very beneficial to all parties, because at that time we had very good political and trade relations with the local Shah, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. Unfortunately, the 1979 Islamic Revolution overthrew him, he was forced to leave the country and died in exile in Cairo ...

      Something like that... hi
      1. omit
        omit 2 May 2018 12: 58
        +2
        Mr Privalov, your articles, as far as I can tell, are truthful and informative for people who think. But not for the majority on this site. For them, it’s like a red rag for a bull. normal audience.
        1. BAI
          BAI 2 May 2018 15: 00
          0
          I wish you a normal audience

          To paraphrase Stalin: "And I have no other audience for you." Everyone knew what the site was, its focus. And most importantly - nobody dragged anyone here by force.
        2. A. Privalov
          2 May 2018 21: 15
          +2
          Quote: omit
          Mr Privalov, your articles, as far as I can tell, are truthful and informative for people who think. But not for the majority on this site. For them, it’s like a red rag for a bull. normal audience.

          Thank you.
          In fact, there is quite a normal audience. I do not communicate with trolls. On stupid assaults, boorish attacks and idle harassment do not answer. Well, those interested in the topic will always get a detailed answer to their questions. hi
      2. BAI
        BAI 2 May 2018 15: 04
        0
        we brought this oil from .... Iran!

        Those. Is Israel a transit country and does it have good relations with Iran? Well, all the more it was necessary to reveal this topic a little more in detail. The generally accepted point of view: Israel is on the knives with the whole Middle East.
        1. A. Privalov
          2 May 2018 15: 42
          0
          Quote: BAI
          Conventional point of view: Israel is on knives with the whole Middle East.

          Well, if you start here to disassemble in detail all the generally accepted points of view, yes all the cliches and patterns about Israel ... No.
      3. BAI
        BAI 2 May 2018 15: 23
        0
        One of the consequences of the Suez Crisis was the birth of a new category of vessels - supertankers, which delivered oil to Western Europe bypassing the Suez Canal, around the Cape of Good Hope.

        PS. While picking up the material, a temporary pause ended.
        Of course, I understand that the Jews are to blame for everything, but it seems to me that Israel and its wars have nothing to do with supertankers:
        In 1906, three years after the start of the “race” for the displacement of tankers, in Japan, the Americans built the Univers Leader tanker with a displacement of 109,2 thousand tons, which immediately exceeded the British passenger record holder Queen Elizabeth by 33% in displacement ".

        The Japanese would advance tanker construction without the Suez crisis, especially since it did not affect oil supplies to Japan. Supertankers are about Japan and its industry growth.
        1. A. Privalov
          2 May 2018 15: 48
          0
          Supertankers, this is from 320 000.
          You can’t compare oil demand for 1906 and 1967.
          During the Suez crisis and after it, the channel did not work for almost a year. Do you know what grandmothers serious people flew into? That began to look for options. Including supertankers came to life.
  24. NordUral
    NordUral 2 May 2018 09: 57
    +1
    Privalov, and why is the pro-Israeli agitation voluminous?
    1. iouris
      iouris 2 May 2018 10: 44
      +1
      It is noted that the material is not placed in the "History" section, but in the "Opinions" section ("I THINK THIS").
  25. aszzz888
    aszzz888 2 May 2018 13: 14
    0
    Six Day War. Part of 1. Prelude

    .... rapture by the unfortunate Israel Privalov .... and a six-day photo shoot)) of the great)) Jewish military commanders laughing (with the rare exception of other characters) request
    ... will there really be a “Part” of 2 ?!
  26. Raider
    Raider 2 May 2018 18: 54
    +1
    Subject srach of course. It will cause controversy later.
    It is clear that this war is inscribed in the history of the Jewish people and they will wave this flag for a long time.
    Israel has nothing more to brag about. The story is still a bit short.
    But they will not recognize themselves as invaders of foreign territory, although this is also true.
    Or aggressors, because now they have changed roles, Israeli planes are attacking Syria. For what? Jew left without comment. What reminds Americans of tactics is a threat to state security. It's enough. Now another goal is Iran. Feeling the power, good Jewish faces were transformed. Moreover, it must be admitted that Uncle Sam is behind him, because almost a third of Jews live in the United States.
    What can I say, the more you fight, the more enemies you make. Your story does not only consist of victory in the Arab war. There is enough tragedy in abundance.
    So, on the basis of this and the history of the world as a whole, the question always arises: why is the "chosen people so hated? And before, and after, and now?"