Knights and Knights of the Rose War era: major issues (part of 4)

The theme of the Knights of the War of Scarlet and White Rose aroused the keen interest of VO readers. In the three previous materials we have tried to highlight as much as possible all the parties to this conflict. Today we publish the latest material on this topic ...

The knights who fought with each other during the war of the Scarlet Rose and the White Rose had several serious problems related both to their own “knightly deeds” and to the specifics of the conflict. First of all, oddly enough, it was an identification problem. A person who has a position and high status, whether it is a “banner,” a lord or a king, was easily recognized on the field by his banner - a wide square or rectangular flag with the owner’s coat of arms embroidered on it. The seigneur, as well as his servants and warriors, could also wear "surco" with heraldic images or at least his heraldic colors. At first it was a close fit to the body or a free “jupone”, both with and without sleeves, and even later, the “tabar” freely falling from the shoulders with wide sleeves up to the elbow, very similar to those used in This time heralds. The effigies that have reached us show us knights in such “cloaks”, but there are few of them. That is, “white armor” was still more popular at that time, and even the most simple-looking. And since the shields were no longer used either, it was very important that the standard-bearer be as close as possible to his master, and hold no further than the tail of his horse, according to the expression of that time. The most common was the standard - a long flag in the form of a piece of fabric with a sharp end or a split in the form of a dovetail. In the very place of attachment to the pole was in the tradition to represent the cross of St.. George - red straight cross on a white background. But then came the "furs", crosses, boars, eagles, dragons, branched clubs, leopard lions and all other heraldic animals. In general, a pennant could carry much more information than even the same coat of arms. The color of the standard usually corresponded to the two main colors of the emblem of the seigneur, which were then also present on the clothing of his warriors. This tradition is very well represented in the Soviet film “Black Arrow”. Apparently, they had a good consultant there and the director obeyed him.

The chapel of Henry VII in Westminster is the last masterpiece of the English Gothic.

But the red cross could be like that of the Yorks and the Lancaster, and it was not so easy to notice any other details of the design. Therefore, the seigneur could order not to depart more than ten feet from the banner (or take some other, but similar precautionary measure) in order to be able to visually control his people. However, if you had to move from one place to another, then in the heat of battle it often happened that one squad mistakenly attacked its own allies.

Since there were a lot of pennants on spears, important nobles also used their own heralds on the battlefield, who wore “Tabaras” with their coats of arms, and horists with pipes, from which cloth panels hung, again with the family symbols of their masters.

Knights and Knights of the Rose War era: major issues (part of 4)

King Henry VI (National Portrait Gallery, London)

Rumble from weapons and armor from a multitude of people who fiercely threw themselves at each other, stood on the battlefield just awful. And the lowered visor in this case limited not only the ability to hear well the orders given, but also to see what was happening. True, the side view was no better than is commonly believed, all the time gliding along the narrow viewing gap was difficult. If the helmet lacked, for example, ventilation holes, the warrior could see his own legs only if he was leaning. Well and, of course, it became very hot inside such a helmet, the body in the armor sweated, and the sweat poured over his face.

If the knight received a wound or fell ill, then he also faced two obstacles on the way to recovery. The first was connected with his position and means, since it was the most important thing that depended on it - whether he would meet with the doctor or not. Secondly, even if he had enough money for a doctor, and he still received medical care, the doctor's skill and the nature of the wound he received solved the very, very much. Kings and major representatives of the nobility were trying to have their own doctors for a salary, and such people accompanied them on campaigns. For example, there is a certain Thomas Morets, who was the royal doctor of Henry V during the invasion of France in 1415. It is interesting that this doctor made an agreement with the king that he undertakes to supply his sovereign with three more archers, and 12 "hommes de son mestier", that is, "people of his service." As a doctor, or doctor, was listed under the royal and a certain William Bradwardine. Together with Morestide, they were accompanied by nine other doctors each, so that the total number of healers in the royal army reached 20 people.

King Henry VII about 1500 g. Copy of the lost original. (London, Society of Antiquaries)

It happened that doctors were hired, just like a soldier, but that pleasure was expensive. So, John Passton was wounded by an arrow lower than his right elbow in the battle of Barnet in 1471, but he escaped with other Yorkists. His brother sent him a doctor who used to treat "leeches" and "healing," and used the wounded man until his wound began to heal. However, John complained to his brother that his recovery had cost him as much as 5 pounds in a fortnight and practically ruined him.

However, the chance to get better at that time depended more on the patient's luck than on the skill of the doctor. Famous doctors studied the art of treatment at a school in Montpellier, in the Languedoc-Roussillon region in the south of France, but such luminaries of medicine were very limited in their capabilities. Many healers could splice a broken limb or straighten a sprained joint, could even heal a hernia, and could have amputations. But since nobody knew anything about the bacteria, any operation of this kind became deadly for the patient. Neither tools, nor hands often even washed. Open wounds were simply sewn up with a needle and thread, and on top they were smeared with egg yolks, widely regarded as a healing agent. Bleeding was stopped by a very simple, reliable, albeit painful remedy, namely, cauterization with a red-hot iron.

Heinrich, Earl of Richmond, in his youth. Unknown French artist. (Calvet Museum)

Since the arrows could pierce the body very deeply, the infection almost always fell into the wound. True, the percentage of dangerous hits with a jagged tip dropped at this time because the soldiers were wearing armor. But even the seemingly unserious injury caused a strong suppuration, as the arrows often stuck archers into the ground to be always at hand, and therefore deadly mud remained on their tips, which fell into wounds with scraps of dirty clothes. Wounds in the abdomen were usually always fatal, since any incision in the intestines caused their contents to leak into the abdominal sinuses, resulting in peritonitis in the wounded, followed by inevitable death. But ... the skeletons found at the Battle of Taughton in 1461, tell us about the truly amazing ability of the people of that time to survive after the most terrible wounds. On the bones found in the burials, they found marks from the weapon that had previously passed through muscle tissue. One of the warriors received a blow to the jaw of such strength that the blade came out from the other side of the mouth. He also has traces of wounds on the skull, and, nevertheless, he survived after them, and though disfigured, he still took part in the battle at Tauton. That is, I knew that from this happens and still got into a fight! And indeed this is where this experienced soldier found his death. Although knights usually wore better armor than rank-and-file soldiers, they also got it. And participation in the battle for them ended like this: robbed and half naked, they remained lying in the open air until death came to them or their rescuers appeared. Usually these were monks from the nearest monastery, but again neither donkeys, nor carts were enough for everyone, so sometimes many hours passed before the wounded finally received help.

One of the memorable signs on the Bosworth field.

As for the human remains found under Tauton, just like the remains in the Battle of Visby, they belong mainly to the soldiers who served in the infantry. The characteristic position of the bones of the left hand suggests that these were arrows from a long Welsh bow. The death found these archers during the flight, when they ran, holding a bow in hand. Some people have several wounds at once, especially on the head, which means that they were obviously finished off. And it also tells us that the victims did not have helmets, and maybe threw them or lost during the flight. Then the dead were piled into common mass graves. But, of course, knights and people with position had every chance to avoid such a sad fate. For example, after the battle of Azenkur, the Duke of York body was boiled (!), And the bones were sent to England for burial. Other seniors could be found by their military servants or heralds, who bypassed the battlefields and recorded the dead (of course, those whom they could identify by their coat of arms). This allowed the winner to understand exactly what success he achieved with his victory. Then the corpse of the murdered was taken to members of his family, and they took the body to a home cemetery - usually to the family crypt, where the deceased took a place next to his ancestors. In other cases, they were buried on the spot of their death or near it, usually at the local church or abbey.

Sir Ralph Werney memorial plaque (brass), 1547 in Oldbury, Hertfordshire. There is a free “tabar” on the figure, worn over the armor, and so many years have passed since the end of the “War of Roses”! By the way, he is also wearing a chain mail skirt ... from which native grandfather did he inherit this armor?

The era of the Scarlet and White Rose wars was also characterized by the fact that “for the whites” and “for the red ones” were divided according to the principle of supporting the claimants to the throne and the people themselves, often even without wishing it, and even with complete indifference. Therefore, treason was in these conditions almost a natural matter, only punishment for it was always the same as a deliberate act. For example, after the battle of Wakefield in 1460, Mr. Richard Neville, Earl Salisbury, was captured and executed the very next day. While the knights fought in France, where the enemy treated them as people of honor, this did not happen. But in England, the reproach of those killed has become very popular. Thus, the body of Warwick "Kingmaker", who was killed in a collision under Barnet in 1471, was specially brought to London and put up for public viewing before being taken to Bisham Abbey for burial among other members of his family. Richard III lay naked for two days, not counting the piece of cloth covering him, in St. Mary’s Church in Newark in Leicester, and then he was buried in a simple grave in the monastery of the “gray brothers” nearby. The head of the Earl of Salisbury, as well as the Duke of York and his younger son, Earl Rutland, who died at Wakefield, were planted on the stakes sticking out on the walls of York, and decorated the duke’s head with a paper crown.

By the way, the tradition to stick heads on poles and put them in this form on the London Bridge or at the other gates of the city should have been a warning to other rebels who saw the fate of even the most eminent gentlemen. However, it also happened that some of the prisoners were able to get dry with water. So, Sir Richard Tanstall, already planted in the Tower, convinced Edward IV that he would be more useful to live than dead, and then even entered into mercy with him. The children of those convicted of treason were not usually executed along with their fathers, although the land could be placed at the disposal of the crown as long as they were considered ready to take possession of them.

A plaque (brass) by Humphrey Stanley from Westminster Abbey, 1505. On it he is depicted in typical “white armor” of the era of the “War of the Roses”.

But along with the rigidity of this time, we sometimes find the most unexpected examples of the manifestation of humanism and compassion. Chapels were built on the battlefields, allowing people to mourn their dead and pray for them, and the world collected money for them. Richard III made a solid contribution to Queens College in Cambridge so that the local priests could pray for his soldiers who fell near Barnet and Tewkesbury.

Nevertheless, during the wars of the Scarlet and White Roses, along with many knights, the 30 noble lords found their end. And those who survived in the battles, were able to avoid death only by the intercession of their families, and not by personal qualities. The Yorks, for example, were in fact very gracious and, in need of the support of the nobility, shed their blood not at all as willingly as their subsequent opponents wrote about it ...
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  1. Cat
    April 30 2018 04: 54
    Yesterday was black Sunday (there wasn’t a single article on military history and weapons), I was preparing for a gray monday ....... And then in the morning again - knights, kings and roses! THANK!!!
    1. +2
      April 30 2018 19: 04
      Gray Monday, in the morning, was in St. Petersburg, and you, in the Urals, I suppose, went bad. Nashamanili, unchrist! laughing good
      1. +4
        April 30 2018 19: 19
        Yes, we, too, seemed to be out of control drinks probably Vladislav with a cat ran around a malachite idol for three hours with a tambourine, all of us conjured the weather! good drinks
        1. Cat
          April 30 2018 21: 19
          Yeah, it happened - it was snowing in the morning!
          The cat said you go yourself walk me and the window is not bad neighbor cats can be seen.
        2. +2
          April 30 2018 22: 06
          The Yorkists generally won the Battle of Barnet. So it’s not very clear why John Paston was forced to flee with them.
  2. +3
    April 30 2018 04: 59
    Duke cooked? Ooh! About times, about manners!
    1. +8
      April 30 2018 05: 53
      Quote: Tlauicol
      Duke cooked? Ooh! About times, about manners!

      Exactly! belay I’m wondering, will the recipe for its preparation be revealed in more detail in the cycle “Knights in the Kitchen”? wink feel
      Great article, as always Respect to the author! hi
      We are waiting for the continuation of “Knights in the Kitchen” am Yes
      1. +2
        April 30 2018 06: 47
        Duke Ragu in York. Welsh heads spiced with garlic. In own juice drinks
      2. +4
        April 30 2018 06: 49
        Written, do not worry. But the topic is very voluminous. Therefore, the main problem is not to write, but to structure the source material!
        1. Cat
          April 30 2018 15: 01
          And if about the "preparation of the duke" seriously! In this case, “cooking” is the process of separating bones from “meat” for their further burial. It’s easier to carry bones somehow, and they don’t smell however.
          By the way, in Russia, the technology of "delivering the body from far away" using the "preservation of the latter in honey" was used. So the bodies of the deceased Yaroslav Vsevolodovich and Alexander Nevsky were delivered to Russia.
          1. +3
            April 30 2018 17: 01
            I thought only Finnish fanatical bones were digesting bones .. what their officers had a fashion - they should make ashtrays from the skulls of our captives .. So think about how to relate to these "Europeans" angry cheap they got off, cheap! soldier But .. the decision is political, in return we got a neutral neighbor! hi They growl, of course, but they endure our nouveau riche. laughing
  3. +4
    April 30 2018 05: 59
    The chance to recover really depended largely on the patient)
    In a Polish medieval fairy tale, the doctor instructs the student: give everyone crushed brick and frog legs.
    Will it help?
    Hardly. But half, those who are destined to die, will die, and the second half, those who are destined to recover, will recover. So it won’t be worse)
    1. ICT
      April 30 2018 07: 34
      Quote: Adjutant
      The chance to recover really depended largely on the patient)

  4. +4
    April 30 2018 07: 23
    But interestingly, the difference in the origin of the noble families - Anglo-Saxon and Franco-Norman - somehow affected the choice of Yorkie - Lancaster? Or over three hundred years have already contemplated?
    1. +5
      April 30 2018 08: 20
      Panic! He considered himself a specialist in tricky issues. However, bravo !!! Wait for Viktor Nikolaevich, he will enlighten.
      1. Cat
        April 30 2018 21: 18
        Viktor Nikolaevich did not wait
  5. +4
    April 30 2018 08: 25
    That's probably when the violation of the customs of war began - with the murders of noble captives under Agincourt
    And in the war of the Roses, as usual, white and red beat each other so that after five thousand years the blue came)
    However, in Russia, it’s about the same)) Although Gv is fresher, 100 years only as
    I read the cycle with interest, ATP hi
  6. +2
    April 30 2018 08: 54
    Noble nobles, however, were more often captured than killed, it promised a rich ransom. With ordinary warriors less ceremony.
    1. +6
      April 30 2018 14: 52
      There are by no means two main features of civil wars: 1. mutual embitterment and intransigence of the parties, 2. absence of uninvolved persons. Moreover, there is a sad tendency, the closer the civil war to the present, the poorer the list of non-combatants. The Rose War destroyed men capable of holding weapons, women, children and the clergy were out of conflict. Civil war in the United States - women are involved and are victims. The civil war in Russia - is it worth it to tell? The Spanish Civil War didn’t spare anyone on both sides. The civil war in Ukraine - 152 caliber land mine in general do not care where it explodes. My opinion is that civil war is evil in its purest form, like oncology.
      1. +6
        April 30 2018 16: 46
        My opinion is that civil war is evil in its purest form, like oncology.

        many do not understand this, give them revolution and justice, sit, brain-wander about various philosophical teachings and the bearded Karlamarx personally. After any huge social upheaval (riot, revolution) inevitable Civil War. Civil wars are distinguished by the fact that they are waged against all the rules of military science, forgive me, in an idiotic manner, but with particular cruelty towards both opponents and the population. The decline of industry and culture follows, the population is reduced by half, terrible mass crimes are taking place. And then, all the same, history will go in a spiral, the revolution will devour its children, and after forty years, the “elite” will degenerate. By the way, we later degenerated here (because the very first "elitists", already "rotten", were shot in the 30s), France in the 18th century was enough for ten years so that instead of the executioners the pampered representatives of the Directory came to power. You have already given examples of the 152 mm, Anton. Let our “eternal whiners” think about it! Apparently, they are too willing to live in Somalia, do not feed them with lard! am
        1. +4
          April 30 2018 17: 43
          Oh yeah! It's just that these "many", and even more so the "some" benefits of civilization, such as: water, heat, electricity and a water closet are considered as a universal constant. They do not understand that this is the result of the work of the AUTHORITY, so unloved by them. They do not understand that the flip side of the coin is: “Guard, tired!” And all, the soul rushed to paradise! (I can not stand iron ore, that old, that young). Food, water and ammo. Imbeciles, damn it!
          1. +5
            April 30 2018 19: 05
            They do not understand that this is the result of the work of the AUTHORITY, so unloved by them.

            I would add - this is the work of civilization, which goes its own way. Whatever shocks for the sake of noble goals, all this will lead to the fact that in a few years only bastards will appear at the top. People do not change! request and now you can compare how many people are in China, and how many we have. Enough shocks for us! stop Instead of brainwashing at communism or dreaming of launching a missile strike in the USA (at the same time watching Malakhov and other houses-2, listening to Solovyov, and making a cash desk to mediocrities like S. Mikhaylov and Vaenga), raise the seat from a soft sofa, go make money legal work. Yes, in the end, want to change something? Stop urinating on the porches, give way to a girl in transport; simple - say a good word to a stranger on the street! No, they are jumping with cheers-patriotic slogans, but yourself ... Ugh! am That's why, Anton, you, as an active passionate creator, creator, the smartest person without education (in our opinion, “miserable”) are dearer to me than all these “patriots” and “communists” taken together hi
            1. Cat
              April 30 2018 19: 20
              Sorry to interfere with the dialogue. It is trite to take the best and simplest from everyone and everything, the main thing is not to the detriment of yourself.
              There are pluses and minuses in all ideologies, political and economic models, so that the “+” is bigger, and the “-” they try to avoid.
              Regarding civil wars and coups - in these processes there are no winners, only losers.
              Although Nikolai, be careful with Anton (in his ear - he is a dog lover), which means that cats are obviously not a friend! laughing
              On a nearby branch, he was already trying to me in Greece, lured me with a whiskey !!! Vrazhina !!!!!! wassat
              1. +2
                April 30 2018 19: 29
                Sorry to interfere with the dialogue. It is trite to take the best and simplest from everyone and everything, the main thing is not to the detriment of yourself.

                Yes, I agree completely! hi
                Regarding civil wars and coups - in these processes there are no winners, only losers.

                gold words! Unfortunately, not everyone understands this .. what
                On a nearby branch, he was already trying to me in Greece, lured me with a whiskey !!! Vrazhina !!!!!

                So not to England! Not to the Saudis and other barmaley! stop This .. this is he, for the sole purpose of cultural enrichment, proposed, for each personnel officer "must tirelessly improve their educational and cultural level"! But they would go to the Pantheon, to other monuments - and even look at the monument to homosexual special forces from Thebes - here, we already have a photo report on the site, and GlavKot is already writing an article with a clawed paw! good
                1. +2
                  April 30 2018 20: 14
                  [B] [/ b]
                  Teams: Kotische and Mikado, you are thousands of times right: in civil wars there are no winners, but they are only defeated and unfortunately not everyone understands this or does not want to understand it.
                  That Lancaster with York, that the northerners with southerners, that now Pedro and Yanek, every time swear that they are "white and fluffy", and their opponents .... beeches. And the losers are ordinary people.
                  1. +3
                    April 30 2018 21: 21
                    Here, as always, you will build a theory, substantiate the theses, put forward arguments ... And the glory, as usual, will be given to the authorities!
                    "I expose a barrel of wine to the workers,
                    And the arrears I give "Railway" (N. Nekrasov)
              2. +3
                April 30 2018 20: 20
                Well, well, of course I’m not a VikNick, but what I haven’t been accused of here, starting from "humanism" ... Now here’s the movie ... Yes, I love dogs, I realized this, "the boy didn’t stop writing, but now he's proud of it. " And I respect cats, and they understand this, and come to me. All, without exception, even wild and frightened! And you with these principles, even Italian greyhound bites. Here!
                1. Cat
                  April 30 2018 20: 50
                  Anton, I was joking!
                  Forgive me for God's sake if I offended you with something.
                  I repent and sprinkle tail with ash.
                  1. +2
                    April 30 2018 21: 00
                    Quote: Kotischa
                    sprinkle tail with ash

                    Better salt wink
                    1. Cat
                      April 30 2018 21: 03
                      Vo-in ......
                      Okay, at least not skip-and-d-a-ru under the tail offered to "drip" !!!
                      1. +1
                        April 30 2018 21: 58
                        "Sprinkle salt on the tail" is a Russian folk ... ahem, a classic.
                        Nothing personal, I just remembered for some reason.
                        And no skiu ... turpentine stop
                  2. +2
                    April 30 2018 21: 10
                    Yes, and I'm not serious! I’ll reach the dog, prince too, sprinkle it on it. All one, gobble up, or lick. For a female dog. And my car is the same. And, .... But I love them!
                    1. Cat
                      April 30 2018 21: 34
                      I liked Anton “for a female dog,” I tried to write the word “skipi-gift” three times, and he told me all “skiu” and “skiu” !!!
                      1. +3
                        April 30 2018 22: 01
                        Quote: Kotischa
                        I comments above the word "skipi-gift" three times tried to write

                        It’s you who haven’t tried to write autocracy yet ...
                        Here the robot lives, You tail ... pah, he is moral, ahem ... observes, here.
  7. +2
    April 30 2018 19: 50
    The war of the Scarlet and White Rose, when I read it, I immediately remembered: “The Black Arrow”, there is Richard Gloucester: the author also showed him the kind of bloodthirsty Gorbunov, and how the Lords changed color, what is your Hamilion.
    Q. Oh, and what the fig of the Duke of York was convinced that there were such hungry people? Remember this KS Vysotsky sang: "He who curses him without salt and onions. He will be strong ripe, like Cook." True, if according to V. S., then the duke should have been shacked to become noble
    1. Cat
      April 30 2018 21: 13
      Dear Vyacheslav, everything is banal simple!
      No one ate the duke; he was tasteless and all that. In the West and not only, there was such a custom to cook the dead and separate the meat from the bones. The "meat" was buried on the spot, and the bones were taken over the distant lands to the clan tomb where they were buried. If the opportunity was to go on the road in a week or the "Kondraty" to a noble lord came in winter, then they didn’t bother with "cooking"!
      In Russia, it was customary to fill in the dead for transportation with honey. If we compare, then our method is more humane like that.
      1. 0
        1 May 2018 14: 39
        and when, at the end of the 16th century, the samurai needed to report to Hideyoshi, the survivor of the mind (who demanded that the heads of the enemies be sent) about the number of Chinese and Koreans killed in Korea, they sent a batch of cut off ..noses to Japan! Noses were poured into barrels and sprinkled with salt .. No.
  8. +2
    3 May 2018 01: 00
    Thank you for the article!

    He became interested in this period of history after reading Martin's cycle “Song of Ice and Fire”. The spirit of medieval war there is shown extremely ...... saturated

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