Military Review

Doomsday Book. UK's most valuable book

45
Every source of information about the past is of tremendous value to humanity. Especially if it is written sources. After all, the information contained in them allows you to literally look at that distant time. But even in this case, sources have different value. For example, "Psalms of Luttrell" ... Fine miniatures, but the text ... psalter she is a psalter. And is there a more valuable book in England or, we ask this: which book is considered the most valuable in England? And the answer will be unequivocal: this is the "Book of the Last Judgment." And it is this book in the UK that is both the most valuable and the most informative in terms of information about the past. And why does she have such a terrible name? And by the way, when was it published and what was it dedicated to? Probably, someone would think that this is some kind of “book of secrets” containing spells, or recipes for creepy poisons? Or - if we think about its name - then this is some kind of manual for ... the executioner, which describes torture and their entire inventory? Or another version of the English Apocalypse? In all these cases, the answer will be the same - no! Because we will talk about the first in Europe collection of data on the census held in England!



"Doomsday Book"

How many people, so much salt!

Now remember that the census was conducted in the third millennium BC. In such a progressive state as Egypt, in the states of Mesopotamia, India, in China, and also in Japan. Even the states of the Aztec and Mayan Indians, whose calendar has been frightening the gullible simpletons for so many years, the population count has been exemplary. Well, and the Incas, all data on the number of people, llamas, land and mats were put on a pile - that is, they recorded it in their nodular letter. The population was taken into account in ancient Greece. So, in Attica in 4 c. BC. they counted the entire adult male population, and the same was done in ancient Rome, where, starting from 435 BC, the so-called qualification, that is, the division of the male population for service in different divisions of the army, was regularly carried out! But in ancient China, the population was determined by the amount of salt that they ate in a year.

Want to know everything!

In medieval Europe, there was such a large number of all sorts of seniors that it was completely impossible to carry out a census in them. And that is why the only exception to this rule in the XI century was England, conquered by the Normans in 1066. It turned out that here the conquerors, who were mostly from Brittany and Normandy, ended up in a completely foreign country, with a population that spoke foreign language. And then William, of course, wanting to maximally strengthen both the military and financial position of his new power, decided to conduct a census of the entire population of England conquered by him. It was supposed to find out, firstly, how much of what is in each estate and thus streamline the collection of taxes (which was called “Danish money”, because earlier this money was used to pay off Danes), and secondly, to find out exactly how many warriors the king can give each land holding or hereditary flax. Although the author of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle described the objectives of this census more prosaically: “the king wanted to know more about his new country, how it was inhabited, and what people”.

Doomsday Book. UK's most valuable book

This is how it looks like ...

It was decided to conduct a census at the Grand Royal Council on Christmas 1085. Then the king’s representatives went to the English counties. Well, in the counties themselves, commissions were created by royal order, which included the sheriff, as well as local barons and their knights, as well as representatives of the panel of judges, and this is the basis of modern English democracy! - also the village headman, and six villans from each village. Their main duty was to confirm with an oath that the information collected by the pollsters was correct. In addition, the task of the commissions was to settle the emerging land disputes. Moreover, the commissions, as well as the local Anglo-Saxons and the Norman conquerors, were usually included in equal shares, although this was not the case in all counties.

What did the medieval English ask about?

The main objects of the census were land ownership - manor. The holding was carried out on the basis of the rule - "according to the custom of manor and the will of the Lord." That is why the questioning of the witnesses and their oath, confirming the holding of the land according to the “custom” was so important! And in the census process, from each such land ownership, pollsters recorded the following information:
- the name (or names) of the owner (s) of the estate, first in the 1066 year and then on the date of the census;
- the name of the conditional holder of the land;
- total area of ​​arable land in manor;
- the number of real peasants;
- the area of ​​pastures, meadows and forests, as well as the number of mills and places for fishing;
- the value of the manor in monetary terms;
- the size of plots belonging to free peasants.

Interestingly, just like today, pollsters were interested in the prospects for a possible increase in the productivity of estates, that is, their ... “investment attractiveness”!

It should be noted that the king showed a truly rare state wisdom in his desire to fix and evaluate all possible sources of income for his treasury. Interestingly, neither knightly castles, nor any other buildings, unless they were associated with economic activities, were not recorded in the census materials. That is, the castle is a castle, and first of all it was interesting for the king to know what the incomes of his subjects were!


A page from the “Last Judgment Book” dedicated to Baldwin.

Everything is exactly as before God!

The royal census was completed by 1088, after which all the information collected was entered into two thick books, well, and all of it received the frightening name "Dumsday Buk" ("Book of Judgment Day") or "The Day of Doomsday". Such a strange name for her, however, was not chosen by chance. It seemed to say that all the information gathered in it is as accurate as the information that will be presented to the Almighty on the Day of Judgment! The result of the census, by the way, showed that England of that time was a very uncrowded country - only two million people lived in it!

The Small Book or the first volume of Doomsday Book contained information collected in counties like Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex, and the second volume (the Big Book) described the whole of England, except for its most northern regions and such cities as London, Winchester and a number of others, where the exact census was very difficult. The materials themselves were grouped by county. First, they described land holdings that belonged to the king, then church lands and possessions of spiritual orders, then large holders (barons) went and, finally, small land holders and ... women, who in England also had the right to be landowners ! In some counties, the urban population was also rewritten. And the most interesting thing is that, in its original form, the “Doomsday Book” has survived to our time practically without any damage and today represents the most valuable national cultural monument of Great Britain!


A page from the “Doomsday Book” dedicated to Bedfordshire.

England peasants, millers and swineherd

The study of the "Book of the Doomsday" gives us the opportunity to learn about the life of England XI century. a lot of things that we just don’t even suspect today. Well, for example, that almost all of the existing settlements in England already existed in 1066, and that there were practically no large unused and wild places in the country at that time! Surprisingly, in England of those years they practically did not hold cows at all, or rather, did not keep milk and meat for their sake, but used it mainly for plowing. Meat was bred mainly sheep and pigs, and the latter were grazed in the forests, where they had to eat grass and acorns. So, England at that time did not have its famous Devon cream, or the equally famous Cheddar cheese, but there was cheese that was made from goat milk, and not from cow's milk at all!

Although it was already the Middle Ages, in England there were still many slaves whom we bought and sold, so this, frankly speaking, a clear division into the era of slavery and serfdom, as we were taught in Soviet high school, at that time there was not observed! But the villagers, the villans, were not at all so poor and unhappy, but rather even well-to-do people, because as for plowing the land they needed eight oxen — that is, four harnessed couples, and they turned out to be many And the lords of such owners appreciated. And, finally, it turned out that almost half of the people that were recorded in the “Book of the Last Judgment” at that time were the Villeins!

Actually, the lords themselves, that is, the people who were at the top of society in 1086, were according to the census only about 200 people. That is, the feudal nobility in England was by its very small number. But there was a lot in England, it was mechanical mills that ground the grain into flour. In 1066, there were as many as six thousand of them - significantly more than even in Roman Britain, although the population at that time was even larger. But in the Roman era, a lot of grain was slaughtered by slaves using hand mills, and in England William, water mills took their place! About 25% of all lands belonged at that time to the Catholic Church.


A page from the “Last Judgment Book” dedicated to Yorkshire.

Save forever as a memory!

At first, the “Book of the Last Judgment” was kept in Winchester, the capital of the Anglo-Norman monarchy until the reign of Henry II. Under him, she and the royal treasury were brought to Westminster, and under Queen Victoria they were transferred to the British Archives. Typically, it was first printed in 1773, and at 1986, for the 900 anniversary of its creation, the BBC produced an electronic version of it with translation into modern English, since this book was originally written in Latin.
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  1. Amurets
    Amurets 4 May 2018 05: 58
    +7
    Thanks, interesting. And what is striking is the speed with which the census was conducted, the composition of the commissions, and for the first time I read that in England women could own land.
  2. bald
    bald 4 May 2018 06: 03
    +5
    Beginner's guide for tax specialists. Interesting. So why is it considered the most valuable? - Maybe this is the whole essence of the values ​​of the people of Albion.
    1. kalibr
      4 May 2018 06: 46
      +5
      You know that all property is usually distributed according to the Pareto principle - 20% of people own 80% of the property and only in England these% are 30 and 70. This does not abrogate the Pareto law, the principle of inequality is respected, but it is significant. This says that the rich are able to share, while the poor are more intelligent than in other countries, and can use this property, rather than seek to get rid of it. So you are most likely right!
      1. bald
        bald 4 May 2018 08: 15
        +3
        Honestly, I did not know about such a law, I had to rummage and read here. But the law really works, even comparing it with current events everywhere. And even make inaccuracies. Thank. Damn, so it is applicable in life
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 4 May 2018 10: 50
          +3
          Honestly, I did not know about such a law, I had to rummage and read here. But the law really works, even comparing it with current events everywhere.

          Vladimir, I myself did not believe. Want a joke? wink The site has recently had two votes: for the introduction of cons, and for whether to close the mausoleum during the parade. And there were elections in the country. See distribution statistics! drinks inevitably think about it .. wink
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 4 May 2018 11: 03
            +2
            So after all, our site is not very similar to others. And the Pareto law - well, I think that it works differently everywhere. In relation to Russia, 10 vs 90 will probably be. And in India and abruptly. crying And on some kind of Echo, the results of the Mausoleum will be different. wink Hello.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 4 May 2018 11: 06
              +3
              Hello.

              Tram! Hello! drinks On the site you can offer another selection. But I will not risk doing this ... wink And as for the Mausoleum and cons - in one case you can be among 20%, in another - 80%, this is normal, a person is multifaceted! request
              1. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 4 May 2018 11: 18
                +3
                Quote: Mikado
                And as for the Mausoleum and cons - in one case you can be among 20%, in another - 80%, this is normal, a person is multifaceted!

                Yeah. I just want to say that this law is quite controversial. With a spread of tuda-syuda, and it should be used with great care. As an example, you can take the percentage of disclosure. laughing
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 4 May 2018 11: 28
                  +3
                  I just want to say that this law is quite controversial. With a spread of tuda-syuda, and it should be used with great care.

                  I can’t judge the disputes, I haven’t thought about it yet either, but the fact that I often find myself in various situations thinking that the percentage ratio converges is yes! drinks
                  1. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 4 May 2018 11: 33
                    +2
                    Quote: Mikado
                    percentage converges - yes!

                    So you can bring a bunch of examples when it does not converge. laughing You can justify your failures with this law, but when it succeeds, it’s what I, wow, and no laws have anything to do with it. drinks
                    1. Amurets
                      Amurets 4 May 2018 14: 49
                      +5
                      Quote: Mordvin 3
                      You can justify your failures with this law,

                      But we can say as Socrates: "Who wants - looking for ways, who does not want - reasons" or, this is not Socrates, but the same source
                      As a person wants what, so he will pat
                      Source: http://chtooznachaet.ru/chi-slova-kto-xochet-ishh
                      et-sposoby-kto-ne-xochet-prichiny.html
                2. Glory1974
                  Glory1974 4 May 2018 21: 03
                  +2
                  I just want to say that this law is quite controversial.

                  In my opinion, the Paretto law is a special case of the Gaussian distribution. Gauss took the proportion from three groups, and Paretto from two. For Gauss, the result is any sample more accurately.
          2. bald
            bald 4 May 2018 12: 45
            +3
            He himself voted and the ratio is obtained by Pareto, and in the elections as well (he also participated). They just didn’t notice it before. Fine.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 4 May 2018 13: 08
              +3
              just about, and I did not notice. And then my gaze was fixed! request
              1. bald
                bald 4 May 2018 14: 12
                +3
                It seems now to everything, I will attach this principle. Well, Nikolai, Vyacheslav poisoned me. Useful.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 4 May 2018 19: 00
                  +2
                  In vain, it does not always work in peaceful life.
            2. Glory1974
              Glory1974 4 May 2018 21: 08
              +1
              He himself voted and the ratio is obtained by Pareto, and in the elections as well

              Voting is subject to a Gaussian distribution. Remember the student protests that gave the name for the voting schedules "Churov's Saw." Gauss was divided into three groups, the conditional minimum 10-15%, the majority 70-80%, and the conditional maximum - 10-15%. So the votes should be distributed in polling stations. If there were stuffing, then the proportion was violated and the schedule looked like saw teeth, without highs and lows, without an average majority.
              1. bald
                bald 5 May 2018 01: 13
                +2
                For some reason, in the normal distribution, the theory of relativity is not tied to each initial parameter. Here, Vyacheslav, and you're talking about stuffing, they are already an element of relativity. Actually this is wilds. If all these laws worked like clockwork, then Las Vegas probably would not have been with his roulettes. In three-dimensional space while we live.
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 4 May 2018 07: 50
    +3
    Thank. Interesting. I liked the Chinese way of accounting. I always suspected that one who eats a lot with salt and spices should be considered for two.
  4. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 4 May 2018 08: 23
    +3
    "... only two million people." It is without Scotland and Wales. After the Devastation of the North. This is a lot!
    Thanks, great article!
  5. Cheburator
    Cheburator 4 May 2018 08: 33
    +19
    It is not surprising why the middle class is so strong in those parts.
    It would seem nuances, but determining
    Respect for the author
    1. hhhhhhh
      hhhhhhh 4 May 2018 10: 05
      +4
      The strength of the middle class as the middle class itself is a myth. The "middle class" does not solve anything.
  6. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 4 May 2018 12: 00
    +6
    It is noteworthy that in relation to possessions on the continent (the duchy of Normandy) William did not compile such books smile Why? I think everything is very simple: he still had to deduct the French king from his Norman possessions, and I have no doubt that he calculated this share, based on some data ... uh-oh ... obsolete. So he figured out how much the French crown was losing on his own duchy, he was horrified and decided that he would not let himself go so famously smile
    By the way, here it is interesting to me: the British consider themselves conquered in the XI century. French-Normans do not feel themselves in any way flawed in connection with this, but on the contrary, they are proud, although they are mostly descendants of the very same swine men who William (Guillaume Bastard, in truth) rewritten in the Book of Judgment Day , not the 200 of the Norman lords. And we still break spears about Rurik and can not calm down - he is a Swede or a Slav. And this despite the fact that our ancestors invited Rurik themselves and, in any case, after a generation, the ruling dynasty finally became slavish, and in England the conquerors came, relatively speaking, without demand, distributed to all trendyuli, and for another three hundred years they talked with conquered people in different tongues through the lip.
    Who has more "flawed pischologiya" - the British, who recognize themselves as descendants of the covenant people and are proud of their history or ours, if I may say so, "historians" who deny their own history in favor of some kind of cave nationalism and small-town "self"?
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik 4 May 2018 12: 23
      +8
      And where do the British go ?? The Norman (Norwegian-Danish) conquests, as well as the conquest of William - historical facts recorded in many modern events sources, there is nowhere to go.
      And there is practically no reliable information about Rurik and the "Rus", so the spears break, how to interpret the little that is. This is normal.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 4 May 2018 12: 52
        +4
        Quote: Gopnik
        This is normal.

        Well, with the same success one could say that Guillaume's mother was, for example, an English princess, and continental French enemies slandered her, calling her a tanner. You can even come up with reasons to prove Guillaume's true English origin, for example, you can start proving that Rolf Pedestrian (what is known about him?) Was an Englishman, and then it turns out that in general in the 10th century. the British conquered Normandy, and in 1066, Guillaume simply returned the island possessions belonging to him by right ... A lot can be done in this regard, but they, unlike some of us, do not.
        Quote: Gopnik
        historical facts, recorded in a variety of modern events sources, there's no way to go.

        Raaskazhite this adherents of the "new chronology" - about the documents, records, chronicles ... They prove to you like two fingers on the asphalt that all this is fiction and falsification.
    2. kalibr
      4 May 2018 15: 05
      +2
      Trilobite Master (Michael)What offensive things you write! Wait, now there will be a comment that MI-6 pays you!
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 4 May 2018 17: 00
        +3
        Wait, now follow the comment that you pay MI-6!

        no, the director of the CIA pays him personally! in envelopes! laughing
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 4 May 2018 17: 49
        +4
        Quote: kalibr
        Wait, now follow the comment that you pay MI-6!

        Some (we will not point the finger) have long been carrying suitcases of cash from Albion and carry nothing ... smile
        In general, I am waiting. Today, I wanted to grapple with someone in a cat litter, to shreds wool, and not with anyone. The mood is suitable, good ... it was. Was it ruined that the Russian Land is pseudo-historical? .. Yes, sadness ...
        1. kalibr
          4 May 2018 20: 45
          +3
          It’s you who remembered the suitcases with cash well ... I forgot in the bustle of the day, which is also not sinless.
        2. Glory1974
          Glory1974 4 May 2018 21: 15
          +2
          Has the Earth of Russia become pseudo-historians? .. Yes, sadness ...

          That is, a priori, you wrote down any of your opponents in “pseudo-history”. But the president of one absolutely independent superpower does not agree with you. He now regrets that his ancestors, the Kiev princes, founded Moscow. Discuss with him.
          Seriously, Poroshenko’s ancestors probably came up with the theory of Rurik, which is why it evokes the same emotions, but if you tell me where the 5000 years of Russian history went, which Peter 1 cut off when he switched to the European chronology, and what was there, I’m ready.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 5 May 2018 10: 48
            +2
            Quote: glory1974
            That is, a priori, you wrote down any of your opponents in "pseudo-history".

            Why do you think so? I am constantly amazed at the ability of some people to make global generalizations without good reason. I call pseudo-historians those who believe and defend pseudo-historical theories, which, in the opinion of most scientists (not only historians), are, for example, the new chronology and DNA genealogy.
            Quote: glory1974
            Have a discussion with him.

            He does not write to me and does not object.
            Quote: glory1974
            But seriously, the theory of Rurik came up with Poroshenko's ancestors probably

            Again the Jews? Or do you mean his Ukrainian, that is, Russian ancestors? Why, then, precisely Poroshenko, and not Yarosh or Shimon Peres?
            Quote: glory1974
            But if you tell me what happened to 5000 years of Russian history, which Peter 1 cut off when it switched to the European calendar, and what happened there, I am ready.

            I hope you do not mean the chronology used in the annals? If you mean something else, take the trouble to explain why 5000 is exactly where this figure comes from. If you mean exactly the chronicle dates, then ... I do not even know what to say.
            Let's do this: you independently calculate the difference between the pre-Petrine calendar and the current one (the chronicle date minus the modern one), and this very figure (it should turn out 5508) is simply driven into the search engine. Read the first three articles found by the search engine. If something is unclear - you are welcome, I am ready to give any clarification.
    3. nickname7
      nickname7 4 May 2018 17: 58
      +2
      Yes, accounting and control above all
  7. kalibr
    4 May 2018 15: 03
    +2
    Quote: Mordvin 3
    percentage converges - yes!
    So you can bring a bunch of examples when it does not converge.

    Bring at least one!
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 4 May 2018 17: 57
      +3
      Quote: kalibr
      Bring at least one!

      Here, as an example, the elections cited. Please, the election of the 96 year. And if we take the economy, then we can recall the USSR, say the first half of the 80's. I doubt that there was 20 / 80. Here many people remember egalitarianism. wink
      1. kalibr
        4 May 2018 20: 50
        +3
        Here is just the Soviet Union in all respects a classic example of the operation of the Pareto law. 20% of workers create 80% of the benefits, and 80% - the remaining 20%. The effectiveness of research institutes - 20% of engineers - 80% of development and vice versa. Checked it many times. Here, after all, it is not necessarily strictly 80/20 that is an average indicator. The indicator can be 30 and 70 and 82 and 18. Eh, you would read my book "PR Design and PR Promotion". There is a whole chapter about it and everything is described in great detail.
  8. antiexpert
    antiexpert 4 May 2018 17: 14
    +2
    Duc war of the Scarlet and White Roses allowed to clear out the entire indigenous governing elite of England, after which only five-column columns reigned there))))
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 4 May 2018 17: 40
      +4
      Quote: antiexpert
      the war of scarlet and white roses allowed to clean up all the root governing elite of england

      Common misconception. Truly in the Wars of the Roses only the ruling dynasty perished. The overwhelming majority of aristocratic families not only did not die, but did not even suffer significant losses, and in the place of those who left, there were always candidates no less generous and noble.
  9. Weyland
    Weyland 4 May 2018 23: 00
    +5
    But in the Roman era, a lot of grain was ground by slaves with the help of hand mills, and in England William was replaced by water mills!
    Christianity is the engine of progress! Water mills were known for a long time, but in pagan times their use was considered sacrilege - "how can you make nymphs do slavish work!" laughing
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 4 May 2018 23: 37
      +4
      That is, those who sympathize with the nymphs must get bread by manual labor? What a scope for imagination.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 5 May 2018 01: 44
        +5
        That is, those who sympathize with the nymphs must get bread by manual labor? What a scope for imagination.

        for nymphs, Sergey, what can’t you do, not even manually, but also in language! wink the main thing is to reward generously..nymphs .. drinks
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 5 May 2018 02: 29
          +3
          Their life is not easy. Now they’ll turn it into a laurel, then into a lilac, then some other misfortunes.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 5 May 2018 15: 19
            +1
            yes, if they turn it into a tree, or even into a log ... then it’s very difficult! sad How many do not do for them .. everything is unrequited .. and unemotional .. crying
      2. Weyland
        Weyland 5 May 2018 14: 17
        +1
        Quote: Korsar4
        sympathizing nymphs must obtain bread by manual labor?

        no, they must have slaves for this, which are not so pitiful! laughing
  10. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 5 May 2018 09: 27
    +2
    Very interesting! Knew nothing about this book.
    1. Weyland
      Weyland 5 May 2018 14: 18
      +1
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Knew nothing about this book.

      Perhaps they heard - just in Russian-language sources its name is usually translated as "Doomsday Book"