Military Review

Retribution from the depths. The death of the German transport "Goya"

29
When they talk about the largest maritime disasters, everyone immediately remembers the famous "Titanic". The crash of this passenger liner opened the 20th century, taking the lives of 1496 passengers and crew members. However, the largest sea catastrophes occurred during the Second World War and were associated with military operations at sea.


So November 7, 1941 German aviation off the coast of Crimea, the Soviet ship Armenia was sunk. According to various estimates, from 5 to 10 thousand people (according to modern data) died as a result of this disaster. Only 8 managed to escape, the ship sank almost instantly in just four minutes. Almost four years later, the retaliation boomerang returned to Germany. The war, which was unleashed by Nazi Germany, was now gathering its bloody crop at German ports in the Baltic Sea.

Soviet submariners sank a number of German transports, while the number of victims, as in the case of Armenia, was enormous. The most famous attack was Alexander Marinesko, the commander of the C-13 submarine, which on January 30 1945 sank the Nazi 10-deck passenger liner "Wilhelm Gustloff", which served as a floating barrack for the Kriegsmarine school of submariners during the war for four years. Together with transport, thousands of people died from 5 to 9. February 9 Marinesko sunk another major liner "General Steuben", converted during the war into a hospital ship. Along with the ship, about 3600 people were killed, while Marinesko himself believed during the attack that the German light cruiser Emden torpedoed, he learned that it was not so only after returning from a cruise.

Retribution from the depths. The death of the German transport "Goya"
Dry cargo ship "Goya" at the shipyard in Oslo

It is precisely the Marinesko attack on "Wilhelm Gustloff" that is considered the most famous, however, in terms of the number of casualties, another attack by the Soviet submariners could dispute it. So, on the night of 16 on April 1945, the Soviet submarine L-3 sank the German Goya ship in the Baltic Sea. About 7 thousands of people died on board this vessel, which also makes this catastrophe one of the largest maritime disasters in the world. stories. In connection with the chaos that reigned in Germany and the onset of the Soviet troops on Berlin, this catastrophe went almost unnoticed, without causing any resonance. At the same time, as in the case of the Soviet ship “Armenia” and the German liner “Wilhelm Gustloff”, sunk in January 1945, the exact number of victims of these disasters cannot be established.

“Goya” was a fairly large dry cargo ship, length - 146 meters, width - 17,4 meters, displacement - 7200 tons, it could reach a maximum speed of 18 nodes (up to 33 km / h). The ship was built in Norway in Oslo at the Akers shipyard just a few days before the invasion. The ship was launched on 4 on April 1940 of the year, and on April 9 German troops invaded Norway. After the occupation of the country, the Germans requisitioned a new cargo ship. During the war years, it was used by them as a conditional target for training German submarine crews for quite a long time, until in 1944 it was converted into military vehicles, the ship was armed with several anti-aircraft guns.

In 1945, the ship took part in a major naval operation, "Hannibal", which was organized by the Nazi command. It was an evacuation operation from the territory of East Prussia of the German population and troops, due to the advance of the Red Army, which lasted from January 13 to April 25 1945. The operation was initiated by Nazi German Navy Commander Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz and started on January 21, 1945. It is estimated that within the framework of this operation over four months over two million people were evacuated to the western regions of Germany by the Baltic Sea. By the number of the transported population and troops, the operation “Hannibal” is considered to be the world's largest evacuation by sea.

By the middle of April, 1945, the Goya transport had already managed to take part in four campaigns, having evacuated 19 785 people from East Prussia. On average, the ship carried thousands of people on 5, but on its fifth voyage he took aboard many more people. The ship anchored in Danzig Bay at Gotenhafen (today Gdynia) in April 1945, it is believed that more than 7 thousands of people who had escaped from East Prussia could have boarded the former bulk carrier. In the current situation, no one carried out an exact count of people on board. German units barely held their positions, the whole territory of East Prussia was about to be taken by Soviet troops. It was rumored that the Goya would be the last major ship involved in the evacuation, so more people wanted to board it, which only increased the panic effect during loading.

Goya vehicles in camouflage coloring

In addition to the civilian population and wounded servicemen, there were 200 soldiers on board the ship from the 25th Tank Regiment of the 7th tank Wehrmacht divisions, in total more than 7 thousand people. At the same time, the Goya military transport was one of the vessels most unsuitable for evacuating people, its past affected, the ship was built as a cargo ship and was intended solely for transporting various cargoes by sea. Its safety and unsinkability requirements were much lower than that of passenger ships, which were also widely used for evacuation, in all, about 1000 different ships took part in the Hannibal operation.

There were so many people on board that they literally occupied every meter of free space, they sat in the corridors and on the stairs. More than a thousand people who did not find space in the interior of the transport, crowded on its upper deck in the cold rain. Each free bunk housed a 2-3 person. Even the captain of the ship was forced to give up his cabin to the refugees. The wounded were placed mainly in the holds, which were in no way adapted for emergency evacuation. At the same time, there was not enough medicine, drink, food and dressing materials on board. Rescue equipment is also not enough for everyone.

Four hours after leaving the port at the southern tip of the peninsula, Hel "Goya" was attacked by Soviet aviation. During the bombing, at least one bomb hit the ship, it pierced the deck and exploded in the bow, wounding several sailors at the rate of anti-aircraft guns. The damage was minimal and the ship did not receive serious damage. At the same time, the Goya transport was part of a convoy, which also included two small ships Kronenfels and Egir, as well as two minesweepers M-256 and M-328.

Already at dusk on April 16, 1945, this convoy was discovered by the captain of the Soviet submarine L-3 Frunzovets Vladimir Konovalov. The boat became part of the Baltic fleet even before the war - November 5, 1933. It was a Soviet diesel-electric mine-torpedo submarine, the third ship of the Leninets type II series. During the Great Patriotic War, the boat made 8 campaigns (7 combat), made 16 torpedo attacks and made up to 12 minefields. As a result of torpedo attacks, two ships were reliably destroyed; the results of two more attacks need to be clarified. At the same time, 9 ships were sunk and at least one more vessel was sunk at the mine barriers put up by the boat.


By 16 on April L-3 had already patrolled the exit from Danzig Bay for four days, expecting to meet German transports here. The boat discovered an enemy convoy consisting of three transports and two escort ships north of the Riksgaft lighthouse. The aim of the attack, Vladimir Konovalov, chose the largest enemy ship. To attack the ship, the submarine had to surface to the surface, since the submarine could not chase the convoy underwater position, the speed would then be insufficient. Although the convoy was also moving rather slowly, maintaining the speed around 9 knots, which corresponded to the speed of the slowest vessel - the Kronenfels motor ship. In this case, the convoy kept the blackout and was darkened.

The attack simplified the fact that in 22: 30 the ship “Kronenfels” got into a drift due to a breakdown in the engine room, all the ships of the convoy were forced to stop. The crew of the ship was feverishly working to correct the damage, at that time two minesweepers were circling alongside the faulty vessel. The convoy moved on only an hour later, he began moving in 23: 30. During this time, Vladimir Konovalov made all the necessary maneuvers and brought his boat L-3 to attack the most important goal as part of the convoy found by him.

He fired two or four torpedoes across the ship (information on this score varies). It is authentically known that two torpedoes got into the transport. The Germans recorded explosions in 23: 52. One torpedo hit the engine room "Goya", the second exploded in the nose. The explosions were of such strength that the masts of the ship collapsed on the deck, columns of fire and smoke rose into the sky. A few minutes later - by midnight - the ship sank completely, breaking up into two parts before. After the attack, escort ships pursued a Soviet submarine for some time, but Vladimir Konovalov managed to escape the pursuit.

The convoy ships were able to save only 185 people alive, of which 9 died after being rescued from injuries and hypothermia. The rest failed to escape, the ship sank too quickly, as it could not initially provide the level of safety and buoyancy that was characteristic of passenger and warships, and the damage was too serious. At the same time the water at this time of year was still very cold, especially at night. Remaining people on the water quickly froze and lost their strength. Most of them were dressed quite lightly, because on the ship, especially in the interior, there was a terrible stuffiness, the ship was crowded with people. About 7 thousands of people went to the bottom along with the vessel. Few weeks remained until the end of the war.

Captain 3-rank Konovalov near his boat. A snapshot of the summer of 1945.

By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from 8 July 1945, for the exemplary performance of command combat missions, personal courage and heroism shown in battles with the German fascist invaders, guard of the rank 3 rank Vladimir Konovalov was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union and awarded Lenin and Gold Star Medals. In many ways, this award was also associated with the successful attack on the Goya transport at the very end of the war.

The submarine L-3 "Frunzenets" remained in service until the 1953 year, in the 1971 year, it was dismantled. At the same time, the cutting of the L-3 boat together with the 45-mm gun from it is currently located in Moscow, it is installed in Victory Park on Poklonnaya Hill and is included in the exposition of the Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War.

Information sources:
http://maxpark.com/community/14/content/2674423
https://vladimir-shak.livejournal.com/4487.html
https://vikond65.livejournal.com/743491.html
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  1. Cat
    Cat April 26 2018 05: 15
    +13
    A story you need to know!
    After reading the article, I thought for a long time what to write in the commentary, knowing full well that the author would be attacked by everything from the liberals to the humanists. But this is our story with you that does not have syllable declension and its minimum must be known, respected and proud.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich April 26 2018 06: 45
      +11
      Quote: Kotischa
      that the author will be attacked by everything from the liberals to the humanists.

      Why attack? Per description feats?
      And this was undoubtedly a feat for the destruction of the enemy fleet. And the fact that civilians died in the war, as in a war. What the Germans started, then (insufficiently) and received.
      1. Vard
        Vard April 26 2018 08: 07
        +13
        And let's count ... 200 soldiers from the 25th tank regiment of the 7th tank division of the Wehrmacht, these are crews of 50 tanks ... this is a tank battalion ... How many of our soldiers it saved ...
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich April 26 2018 08: 25
          +2
          Quote: Vard
          And let's count ... 200 soldiers from the 25th tank regiment of the 7th tank division of the Wehrmacht, these are crews of 50 tanks ... this is a tank battalion ... How many of our soldiers it saved ...

          This is a huge plus!
        2. saigon
          saigon April 26 2018 19: 27
          +2
          Rather, 40 tank crews; 5 people; the Germans have a crew in the tank.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ April 26 2018 22: 04
      +3
      I agree with you all, except for two things - the word "liberal" is written through "and", and history has no "syllable declension" but subjunctive
  2. nivander
    nivander April 26 2018 08: 15
    +17
    in the West. the memory of the drowning of Gustloff, Steuben, Goya, the Cap-Arkona is accompanied by snotty and mournful howling. The warming of Armenia, Laconia, Fukuryu-Maru is considered a military necessity - the axis is
    1. Amurets
      Amurets April 26 2018 08: 38
      +2
      Quote: nivasander
      in the West. the memory of the drowning of Gustloff, Steuben, Goya, the Cap-Arkona is accompanied by snotty and mournful howling. The warming of Armenia, Laconia, Fukuryu-Maru is considered a military necessity - the axis is

      And the sinking of the ship "Athenia" how to count? Churchill’s attempt to drag the United States into WWII?
      "The SS Athenia passenger airliner was the first victim of one of hundreds of German submarines in World War II. The death of the ship killed 118 passengers and became a demonstration of deadly weapons. However, the real consequences of the propaganda for the U-30 turned out to be a shame. In order to reduce the possibility of the disclosure of information to the submariners were ordered to keep the information secret, and all records concerning the passenger ship were erased from the ship's log. The Germans wished that not a single record of involvement in this tragedy would be preserved, especially when it became known about the death of 28 Americans. In addition, the Minister Joseph Goebbels said Churchill had deliberately sunk the passenger ship so that America would take the side of the Allies. However, in the United States, newspaper men called the death of the SS Athenia ship a crime. " This is another fascist crime.
      http://korabley.net/news/strannaja_gibel_parokhod
      a_ss_athenia / 2013-01-23-1361
      1. Cat
        Cat April 26 2018 10: 15
        +6
        There is an interesting aspect to civilians. Children, the elderly and women feel sorry, perhaps if there was a chance, then ..........). The point in this question is put by one moment who acted as the state of the aggressor. Who came to our land to fight, kill and rob.
        So the civilians on Aremenia are innocent victims of the war, and on Goya they are simply victims. The German elite, unleashing a war against the USSR, might have thought that if you throw it at the top, it always falls to the bottom!
        Perhaps the whole of today's whining is associated with simple as nails hoteliers to share their shame and responsibility with us.
        1. Forcecom
          Forcecom April 26 2018 12: 35
          +4
          Here I advise you to understand what is called a "civilian ship" and what is "military transport", I will not go into details, I will only say that "Wilhelm Guslov" and "Goya" and "Armenia" and many other ships at the time of destruction were military vehicles. And accordingly, the legitimate goals for the actions of aircraft and enemy ships. As for the deaths of “children and women” on board these ships, the military department to which this ship belongs is fully responsible for the lives of civilians on board a warship. So neither the German pilots in 41, nor even our submariners in 44-45, are "bloody executioners." They simply performed the assigned combat mission.
          1. revnagan
            revnagan April 26 2018 12: 57
            +4
            Quote: Forcecom
            “Armenia” and many other vessels at the time of the destruction were military vehicles.

            Is Armenia not a hospital ship?
            1. Forcecom
              Forcecom April 26 2018 13: 31
              +2
              It was guarded by combat boats (in a convoy), which allows it to be regarded as military transport.
              1. Cat
                Cat April 26 2018 16: 16
                +8
                Dinis Do you think that if Armenia walked in splendid isolation, did this change something?
                Somehow, fascist pilots, submariners and sailors didn’t bother with this! By the way, if in the 39th German sailors were seen in a couple of cases of humanity, then later until the 45th I don’t remember this.
                On responsibility, if in our case it is possible to lay the blame on the leadership of the Black Sea Fleet, then all German catastrophes at sea with civilians are directly connected with the German top leadership.
                So we need to take an example from Israel, just offer to look in the mirror at any howling public!
                1. Forcecom
                  Forcecom April 26 2018 16: 39
                  +1
                  I completely agree with you that the fate of “Armenia” would have been different, and most likely there would have been no survivors. But in this case, from the point of view of the law, it was a war crime. And so the responsibility for the deaths of several thousand civilians fell on the BSF officials who allowed them to stay on military vehicles did not provide him with the necessary cover or at least did not change the transition plan, which would reduce the possibility of Luftwaffe attacks.
                  Likewise, the death of civilians aboard military vehicles in the year 45 lies primarily with kriegsmarine officials, and it’s pointless to attach the top of the Third Reich here, they already coped well with the destruction of their own population.
                2. saigon
                  saigon April 26 2018 19: 37
                  +4
                  German submariners in WWI drowned hospital ships more than once, but Hitler’s submariners, having drowned Laconia, were engaged in rescue on the waters and glorious American flyers attacked the boats and fell into a civilian boat.
                  By the way, naive Germans during the battle for Britain saved the downed pilots on hydroplanes and the British (carriers of democratic values) with great pleasure shot down these slow-moving planes
                3. antivirus
                  antivirus April 26 2018 20: 17
                  +2
                  WITHOUT CONVOIL WERE-
                  28.3.17.
                  antivirus 2 Today, 19:36 ↑
                  On the issue of starched shirts and honor.
                  Yakov Mikhailovich Glazunov, captain of the Volga Shipping Company, brother-in-law of my acquaintance, b.
                  “They call him, in the summer, to the shipping company’s department, to Gorky (perhaps Kuibyshev?), They say:
                  - "go to Stalingrad, everyone who can be evacuated there"
                  Loaded at the pier. A raid began, they were quickly kicked out of the pier.
                  He went along the shore.
                  - "If you get, then swim to the shore, and others who survive"
                  And the second ship went in the middle and drowned,
                  children injured.
                  They laid out white sheets with red crosses on the deck.
                  "The fascist threw, threw, but missed. I kept dodging, and left."
                  "Every time I spoke with a cry"
              2. revnagan
                revnagan April 26 2018 16: 44
                +5
                It was declared as a HOSPITAL vessel, did not carry weapons, the Red Cross identification mark was laid out on the deck for identification, according to international agreements. And the Lufwaffe pilots clearly saw who they were killing. N ... "we don’t wage war with the communists!" - So said one of the leaders of the Reich.
                1. Forcecom
                  Forcecom April 26 2018 16: 55
                  +2
                  Any ship traveling as part of a military convoy, regardless of its purpose, is military transport, any ship transporting a military unit (the NKVD security team in "Armenia" was) is also military transport, all the more there are disagreements about the presence of camouflage coloring and air defense equipment on board.
                2. antivirus
                  antivirus April 26 2018 20: 18
                  +2
                  28.3.17.
                  antivirus 2 Today, 19:36 ↑
                  On the issue of starched shirts and honor.
                  Yakov Mikhailovich Glazunov, captain of the Volga Shipping Company, brother-in-law of my acquaintance, b.
                  “They call him, in the summer, to the shipping company’s department, to Gorky (perhaps Kuibyshev?), They say:
                  - "go to Stalingrad, everyone who can be evacuated there"
                  Loaded at the pier. A raid began, they were quickly kicked out of the pier.
                  He went along the shore.
                  - "If you get, then swim to the shore, and others who survive"
                  And the second ship went in the middle and drowned,
                  children injured.
                  They laid out white sheets with red crosses on the deck.
                  "The fascist threw, threw, but missed. I kept dodging, and left."
                  "Every time I spoke with a cry"
              3. hohol95
                hohol95 April 27 2018 15: 24
                0
                Guarded or not -
                At that time, many hospital ships, as well as self-propelled barges and boats adapted to sanitary needs, were located in the institutions of the Russian Red Cross Society (ROCC). For example, in the Black Sea by 1915 a flotilla of 100 transports was created. It included 4 hospital ships. In addition, another 10 transports were adapted for evacuation. A significant part of the wounded were also evacuated on warships. All hospital ships were registered and recognized by foreign states, but this did not save many of them from destruction by the enemy.
                For example, the hospital ship Portugal on March 17 (30), 1916, was anchored in the Black Sea near the Turkish city of Ofa. Her hospital identification marks were clearly visible. But the commander of the German submarine U-33, captain-lieutenant Ganser went on the attack. The torpedo he had fired hit the middle of the ship. "Portugal" broke in half and began to sink. Of the 273 people on board, 168 were saved. After the war for the sinking of “Portugal”, Ganser was declared a war criminal.

                The activities of hospital courts are determined by the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. They contain several mandatory requirements. In particular, the ship should be clearly marked as hospital. It is obliged to provide medical assistance to representatives of any nation, not to be used for military purposes and not to interfere in hostilities. In case of violation of at least one of these requirements, the hospital ship may be destroyed. However, destroying a hospital ship without good reason is considered a war crime.

                The crew of "ARMENIA" violated, which of these items?
                Used for military purposes? Did not provide medical assistance to the German side or interfered in the course of hostilities?
                Indicate the point of violation for which it can be considered a legitimate military trophy!
  3. Prutkov
    Prutkov April 26 2018 12: 16
    +12
    I watched a film about the death of "William Gustlov" on the Discovery Channel several years ago. They know how to submit material! And the poor girl and the wounded ... In general, a tear breaks through. Is it really impossible to make a similar film about the death of “Armenia”? We consider all the "raped" Germans.
    1. Cat
      Cat April 26 2018 16: 23
      +6
      Dear Kozma! And you are absolutely right ...
      Two days ago, I accidentally stumbled upon the film "28 Panfilov" - looked with admiration. Especially respectfully I watched the end credits of people who had a hand and heart in order for the film to find its place ...
      Maybe I’ll say pathetic, but the example is worthy of imitation!
      1. Glory1974
        Glory1974 April 26 2018 21: 16
        +1
        Two days ago, I accidentally stumbled upon the film "28 Panfilov" - looked with admiration. Especially respectfully I watched the end credits of people who had a hand and heart in order for the film to find its place.

        well then see also "Tanks". Filmed by the same director and team. They say a good movie.
        1. Alf
          Alf April 26 2018 21: 35
          +4
          Quote: glory1974
          They say a good movie.

          Only the truth is not a word.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 April 27 2018 15: 28
            0
            Then look -
            "Chief Designer" (1980) - Soviet art two-part television movie by Vladimir Semakov. It was created based on the book “Creation of Armor” by Yakov Reznik and the real events associated with the creation of the T-34 tank at the Kharkov Locomotive Plant. The premiere of the television movie took place on October 5, 1980 under the first program of the Central Television.
            1. Alf
              Alf April 27 2018 18: 57
              0
              Quote: hohol95
              Then look -
              "Chief Designer" (1980) - Soviet art two-part television movie by Vladimir Semakov. It was created based on the book “Creation of Armor” by Yakov Reznik and the real events associated with the creation of the T-34 tank at the Kharkov Locomotive Plant. The premiere of the television movie took place on October 5, 1980 under the first program of the Central Television.

              Why did I watch it, at one time I saw it in the cinema, and I know the history of the T-34 quite well.
              And the film is designed for modern victims of the exam.
  4. nekromonger
    nekromonger April 26 2018 20: 09
    +2
    He did an excellent job, that's all for them.
  5. Catfish
    Catfish April 27 2018 01: 10
    +2
    Quote: Rods
    I watched a film about the death of "William Gustlov" on the Discovery Channel several years ago. They know how to submit material! And the poor girl and the wounded ... In general, a tear breaks through. Is it really impossible to make a similar film about the death of “Armenia”? We consider all the "raped" Germans.


    Watch the film "Torpedo bombers", staged, in my opinion, by Rodion Nakhapetov, in any case, he plays the main role there. hi
  6. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh April 28 2018 14: 03
    0
    During World War II, the drowning of civilian liners was not considered a war crime.
    Like the bombing of cities. At the very beginning of the war, the Nazis began to sink civilian vessels. The first Nazi aviation raid was on the center of Warsaw. The "total" war began. Therefore, it was decided to respond to the Nazis symmetrically. Therefore, cases of drowning of civilian ships were not considered by the courts after the war as war crimes