Military Review

The project of the infantry fighting vehicle "Object 1020"

17
In the early sixties, the Soviet defense industry worked on new projects for infantry fighting vehicles of one kind or another. The most successful development of this class was recognized "Object 765", later entered service under the name BMP-1. Other armored vehicles were less fortunate. For example, several projects with the general designation “Object 1020”, developed in the framework of cooperation between two large organizations, could not advance beyond the design stage.


Recall that at the end of the fifties, the Military Academy of the Armored Forces and the Kutaisi Automobile Plant joined the program to create new protected vehicles for infantry. Over the years, they have developed two projects of wheeled armored personnel carriers - the “1015 Object” and the “1015B Object”. This technique was in some respects inferior to the experienced BTR-60, and therefore did not make it into the series and did not enter service. Nevertheless, the developments on these projects were not abandoned, and the development of some ideas continued.


Armored vehicle "Object 1015B" - the main source of developments for projects "1020"


In the first months of 1963, the command of the armored forces of the Soviet army gave the industry a new task. According to him, the Military Academy of Armored Forces and the Special Design Bureau of the Kutaisi Automobile Plant were to create a new version of the wheeled BMP. To simplify and speed up the work, it was proposed to use ideas and solutions of closed projects of the “1015” line.

13 April of the same code SKB KAZ received tactical and technical requirements developed by the Central Automotive Department of the Ministry of Defense. Among other things, the requirements provided for the use of an already ready combat module developed for the BMP "Object 765" (the future BMP-1). There were also some other special requests.

Having received the requirements for the new project, the Kutaisi designers set to work. From SKB KAZ the works were supervised by S.M. Batiashvili. The main representative of the Military Academy was A.I. Mamleev. A promising project received the working designation "Object 1020". As part of the development work, several variants of such a machine were proposed. It was proposed to distinguish them from each other with the help of additional letters following the numbers.

In accordance with the requirements of the customer, the two organizations together had to create a promising wheeled armored vehicle with cannon and machine gun weapons and the ability to transport several paratroopers. The project should use some ideas and solutions previously tested when creating wheeled armored personnel carriers. It was intended to implement and study several new design solutions in the field of power plants, etc.

The basis for the wheeled BMP was the project of the armored vehicle "Object 1015B", but it was planned to rework it in a serious way. The new machine had to retain some features of the appearance, the overall layout of the body and some other features. At the same time, it was necessary to completely redo the combat and airborne squadrons, as well as use new power units.

The “1020 object” was to receive a body with anti-bullet armor welded from sheets with a thickness of up to 8-10 mm. The layout of the hull was changed in accordance with the new role of technology: the front part of the internal volumes retained the functions of the department of control and immediately followed by the places of paratroopers. At the same time, in the center of the corps, a large combat module with a turret basket was placed, behind which there was also room for soldiers with weapons. The aft compartment of the hull was intended for the engine, individual transmission units and a pair of water cannons.


General scheme of the infantry fighting vehicle "Object 1020"


As in the previous project, the forehead of the case was formed by several straight and curved sheets of large size, set at angles to each other. The largest was the bottom sheet piled forward. The middle one was located almost horizontally, and the upper one, equipped with an inspection hatch, was at an angle to the vertical. The hull sides consisted of several parts. The bottom sheet was placed vertically, and above it was placed inclined. These sheets contained niches for the installation of suspension parts. In connection with the use of two front axles, the front part of the hull differed in a reduced width. Over the lower part of the board there was a well-developed niche. The sides of the niches were proposed to be installed with a significant blockage inside. On top of the car was covered with a horizontal roof with a sloping rear. The feed was formed by several flat sheets.

The authors of the new project considered two options for the power plant and transmission. In the first case, the infantry combat vehicle was to be equipped with a ZIL-375 petrol engine with an HP 180 power. Such a project was designated as "Object 1020A." The second version of the project involved the installation of the Ural-376 engine with the HP 225 power. This BMP was called the “1020B Object”. Two projects provided for the use of different transmissions, built, however, on the same principles. In both cases, it was about the H-shaped transmission scheme.

In the case of the “1020A Object”, the gearbox and transfer case were placed at the level of the third chassis axis. A pair of transverse cardan shafts, which are connected to the onboard gearboxes of the third axis, departed from the lockable differential in the transfer case. The latter were responsible for issuing torque to the shafts associated with the other three axles. The transfer box was also designed to drive a winch placed under the front sheets and a pair of feed water cannons.

In the project "Object 1020В", which provided for the use of the engine of the brand "Ural", implemented a different layout of transmission units. In this case, the transfer case was brought forward and placed directly under the fighting compartment. Because of this, the shafts of the H-shaped power distribution were located at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the machine. The onboard gearboxes of the second and third axis received torque directly from the transfer case and passed it to two other axles. Also used a separate drive winch and jet propulsion.

Both projects included the use of a four-wheel wheeled chassis with different types of suspension. In both cases, it was about the use of spring, hydropneumatic or torsion dampers in different combinations. In this case, the suspension of a pair of front axles differed from the rear devices. An interesting difference in the “Object 1020В” project was the installation of the front steering wheel suspension in the niches of the expanded hull. Due to this, it was possible to obtain a small increase in internal volumes, which made it possible to change the ergonomics of the inhabited compartments. Combat vehicles of two types of infantry were equipped with large-diameter tires. All wheels were connected to a common tire pressure adjustment system.

On the sides of the engine in the stern of the hull were placed jet propulsion. The water was taken through the windows in the bottom, the release - through the nozzles in the feed sheet. For control of the movable damper used. The reverse was carried out using slotted oblique nozzles in the bottom. In the frontal part of the body could be installed folding wave deflector.


The layout of the BMP "Object 1020A"


In accordance with the requirements of the customer, the BMP "Object 1020" was supposed to carry the fighting compartment, borrowed from the project "Object 765". This product was made in the form of a tower with a basket of towers. A dome with a thickness of up to 23 mm was used, in the frontal part of which there was a twin installation for armament. The main weapon of such a tower was the 73-mm smoothbore 2A28 Thunder. The auxiliary is a twin PKT machine gun. Also, the tower could be equipped with a launch guide for anti-tank missiles "Baby". To control the weapon used day and night sights.

The fighting compartment was placed on the “1020 Object” in the center of the hull. Provided the possibility of circular alignment horizontally. The angles of vertical aiming, in general, consistent with the original BMP-1: wheel car body design does not interfere with reduction shafts.

The project "1020" provided for the use of an additional machine gun in the body. The ball mount for it was on the upper front plate on the right, where in previous projects the commander's access hatch was located. In the sides of the hull, both in armor and in manhole covers, it was possible to place up to six embrasures. They allowed the landing force to fire from personal weapons.

Own crew prospective BMP consisted of three people. In front of the case were placed the driver and the commander, who was also responsible for the use of the machine gun. The third crew member was in the turret and was supposed to use the main armament. All crew jobs were equipped with their own hatches and various viewing devices.

The original way was organized by placing the landing. Due to the presence of a large fighting compartment, the fighters were located in two different volumes, in front of the tower and behind it. Directly behind the driver and the commander were two seats for the landing. In the project "1020A" They sat facing forward in the course of movement, the draft with the letter "B" - face to the sides. Access to their places was provided by their own hatches in the sides.

Four more places were between the department of management and the power section. In both cars, the paratroopers had to get into the car after a couple of hatches in the roof and sit facing the sides in pairs. At the same time, on the “1020A Object” the front pair of their seats was located near the longitudinal axis of the hull, while on the “1020В Object” they were able to be moved to the sides. In addition, in the second version of the project it turned out to find a place for another paratrooper: he was placed at the left side directly behind the fighting compartment.


Layout of "1020B Object"


At the request of the military, "Object 1020" was supposed to match the capabilities of the military transport aviation of his time. The length of the infantry fighting vehicle did not exceed 7,3 m with a width of not more than 2,9 m and a height of 2,15 m.The combat weight of both samples was within 12 tons. According to estimates, BMP could accelerate to 85 km / h on the highway. Cruising range - 500 km. On water, the maximum speed was determined at 9 km / h.

As far as we know, development work on wheeled IFVs «1020» continued for several months of the year 1963. Probably by the end of the year, the development of two projects was stopped. By this time, the Military Academy of Armored Forces and the SKB of the Kutaisi Automobile Plant had time to work out the main points of the promising models, but the full set of technical documentation, which allowed to start the construction of the experimental equipment, did not appear.

The exact reasons for closing the 1020 Object project are unknown. However, some of the preserved information about the projects of SKB KAZ and other organizations suggest some variants of development of events. Most likely, the end of the year 1963 the customer has lost interest in the wheeled infantry fighting vehicles of the type "1020A" or "1020V". In addition, the fate of the two developments could have been affected by the specific features of previous, experienced 1015 armored personnel carriers. Finally, there were already more successful projects for infantry vehicles.

First of all, it should be noted that by the year 1963, when the creation of the “1020 Object” began, several experienced other types of infantry fighting vehicles had time to go on the test. On their completion before adopting require some time, but in this case, they looked more comfortable than a sample of Kutaisi. Even in the absence of any problems, experienced “1020” could have entered the test site no earlier than 1964 of the year, while with the continuation of ongoing work, the army by that time had the opportunity to make a final decision and order new equipment.

It is known that the armored personnel carriers "Object 1015" and "Object 1015B" had certain technical problems. Some of the shortcomings were eliminated in project “B”, but even this did not allow him to compete with other domestic developments. It is possible that the preservation of such problems could adversely affect the timing of the completion and completion of the project.

Anyway, no later than the beginning of 1964, the work on the subject “1020 Object” was stopped. In just a few months of design organizations have jointly managed to work out the overall look of the equipment and its individual features, but failed to bring to the construction phase of the pilot project sample. As unnecessary documentation went to the archive.

However, the development of new wheeled combat vehicles has not stopped. The new order from the Ministry of Defense provided for the creation of a special four-wheeled wheeled chassis. This machine, designated as “1040 Object”, was proposed to be made the basis of a promising anti-aircraft missile system or other military equipment. Unlike the two previous developments, the newer 1040 was able to reach the training ground and show its capabilities.

Based on:
http://russianarms.ru/
http://denisovets.ru/
Solyankin A. G., Pavlov M. V., Pavlov I. V., Zheltov I. G. Domestic armored vehicles. XX century. - M .: Exprint, 2010. - T. 3. 1946 – 1965
Author:
Photos used:
"Domestic armored vehicles. XX century", Denisovets.ru
17 comments
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  1. Kot_Kuzya
    Kot_Kuzya April 28 2018 06: 26
    +3
    Oh, this eternal dilemma between wheels and tracks! Wheeled vehicles are cheaper, more economical, simpler, less noisy and have a longer resource, while tracked vehicles are passable and not afraid of bullets and fragments.
    1. Cat
      Cat April 28 2018 07: 47
      +11
      Well, the Georgians had a "good luck" to make equipment, they made wine, but there were no tanks!

      Kalkhida is the pride of Georgia, the mountain of the Ural roads.
      As Viktor Nikolaevich wrote earlier, well, in no way, only downhill.
      1. Kot_Kuzya
        Kot_Kuzya April 28 2018 08: 38
        +5
        Georgians can only be cooks, farmers, well, dancers and singers. But not by warriors or designers.
        Lermontov:
        The battle did not last long:
        Timid Georgians fled!
        1. Felix99
          Felix99 April 28 2018 15: 00
          +4
          Georgy Mikhailovich Beriev (Beriashvili) (1903 - 1979) - Soviet aircraft designer. Major General of the Engineering Service (1951). Laureate of the Stalin Prize.
          https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B5%D1%80%
          D0%B8%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%93%D0%B5%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B3
          %D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%9C%D0%B8%D1%85%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%BB
          %D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87
          1. Kot_Kuzya
            Kot_Kuzya April 28 2018 21: 58
            +1
            Is he Georgian?
        2. aws4
          aws4 April 30 2018 01: 29
          +1
          well done cat kuzia like this with one lump of all Georgians identified ... well, in principle, you are no different from those foreigners who say - all Russian drunks .. keep it up !!!!!!!!
      2. Amurets
        Amurets April 28 2018 11: 06
        +7
        Quote: Kotischa
        Calhida - the pride of Georgia

        Yes, not this “Colchis” is the pride of Georgia, but this is “GOD” punishment for KAZ-4540 drivers. Neither quality nor spare parts. And all the nodes are original. If a lot of ZILs were suitable for KAZ-606 or KAZ-608, then everything is original here. Our drivers were indignant: "What is the punishment for." So almost new and went into scrap.
        And in US, when developing a machine, the idea was laid down not bad. Workmanship let us down.
        1. Cat
          Cat April 28 2018 11: 52
          +1
          Dear Nicholas, I’m a far cry from technology, so I bought it (heard) for what I’m selling it!
          hi
          1. Amurets
            Amurets April 28 2018 12: 38
            +3
            Quote: Kotischa
            Dear Nicholas, I’m a far cry from technology, so I bought it (heard) for what I’m selling it!

            And you didn’t say anything wrong, everything is true. The truth is that the larger the model number, the worse the car and the more torment the driver.
      3. Separ DNR
        Separ DNR April 28 2018 12: 00
        +5
        Quote: Kotischa
        Kalkhida is the pride of Georgia, the mountain of the Ural roads.

        But beautiful ...
      4. Separ DNR
        Separ DNR April 28 2018 12: 39
        +6
        Quote: Kotischa
        Well, the Georgians had a "good luck" to make equipment, they made wine, but there were no tanks!

        This is which side to look ...
        The tanks may not work, but the Su-25 Grach, they did soundly. Again, in the USSR.
    2. RL
      RL April 28 2018 12: 51
      +1
      In 1964, wheeled OT-64s were accepted for the armament of Poland and Czechoslovakia, which were not afraid of bullets and fragments, but about the patency of the TATRA chassis and the reliability of Tatra T-928-14 engines
      180 hp can be judged by how the Czechoslovak Tatras equipped Siberia.
      1. Cat
        Cat April 28 2018 17: 16
        +3
        Tatras still run on the roads! In the period from 99th to 2010, the Prague truck occasionally appeared on the Uralmash market. It's a pity after the market was closed and the truck disappeared.
        However, often on the roads I see Ifa - the GDR building! But all of them are at least 3 decades old. Like our ZILs. About 66 just keep quiet - in the village in almost every tenth yard.
  2. Romario_Argo
    Romario_Argo April 28 2018 11: 49
    +3
    “Object 1020” was to receive a body with bulletproof armor welded from sheets up to 8-10 mm thick

    analogy with the BMP-2 in Afghanistan, it was necessary to refine the BMP-2D with additional reservation in order to keep at least 100 m. DShK (12.7 mm).
  3. RL
    RL April 28 2018 12: 52
    +1
    In 1964, wheeled OT-64s were accepted for the armament of Poland and Czechoslovakia, which were not afraid of bullets and fragments, but about the patency of the TATRA chassis and the reliability of Tatra T-928-14 engines
    180 hp can be judged by how the Czechoslovak Tatras equipped Siberia.
  4. Curious
    Curious April 28 2018 12: 53
    +4
    "However, the development of new wheeled combat vehicles did not stop. A new order from the Ministry of Defense provided for the creation of a special four-axle wheeled chassis. This vehicle, designated as the Object 1040, was proposed to be the basis of a promising anti-aircraft missile system or other military equipment. Unlike of two previous developments, the newer 1040 was able to reach the training ground and show its capabilities. "

    She then showed them, but the possibilities were unimportant. Still, the automotive industry is not a strong point of proud Georgians. This object also did not leave the firing range.
    I will quote the site "Automodel Bureau".
    "The construction of the Osa complex was very difficult. The joint tests begun in the second half of 1967 at the Emba training ground were stopped in July 1968 due to serious shortcomings of both the missile part and the chassis itself. The chassis of the Object 1040 were too overloaded The Kutaisi plant exceeded the chassis weight by 350 kg in comparison with the value presented in the technical design (9 tons), which, combined with the weight of the warhead, did not allow for transportable nce complex aircraft AN-12 In addition, the war machine of overweight showed unsatisfactory buoyant with further ways to reduce the weight of the ready-made designs have been exhausted -.. for its ease removed almost all the book, leaving only the bulletproof protection to the operator.
    Due to a number of failures during the testing of the complex, the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR established a new deadline for the provision of a modified air defense system for joint tests - II quarter of 1970. In addition, not only the main project designers were replaced, but even the development organizations with the appropriate organizational conclusions. As regards the chassis for the Osa air defense system, the decision of the Commission of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on military-industrial issues provided for the transfer of its development (with a view to unifying components and assemblies from ZIL-135LM) to the Bryansk Automobile Plant of Minavtoprom. The chassis received an index of "937" (in mass production - "5937"). "
  5. Raphael_83
    Raphael_83 April 30 2018 15: 50
    +1
    Well, given the undoubted “successes” of Georgian civil engineers in the field of civilian automotive industry, one should probably thank Heaven (and all the Higher Forces in bulk) that our Armed Forces did not receive this miracle in the end.
    From SW. hi
    PS
    Although the same "combs", with an incomparable level of technology, they (Georgians, in the sense) produced seemingly quite high-quality ... request