Recall that at the end of the fifties, the Military Academy of the Armored Forces and the Kutaisi Automobile Plant joined the program to create new protected vehicles for infantry. Over the years, they have developed two projects of wheeled armored personnel carriers - the “1015 Object” and the “1015B Object”. This technique was in some respects inferior to the experienced BTR-60, and therefore did not make it into the series and did not enter service. Nevertheless, the developments on these projects were not abandoned, and the development of some ideas continued.
In the first months of 1963, the command of the armored forces of the Soviet army gave the industry a new task. According to him, the Military Academy of Armored Forces and the Special Design Bureau of the Kutaisi Automobile Plant were to create a new version of the wheeled BMP. To simplify and speed up the work, it was proposed to use ideas and solutions of closed projects of the “1015” line.
13 April of the same code SKB KAZ received tactical and technical requirements developed by the Central Automotive Department of the Ministry of Defense. Among other things, the requirements provided for the use of an already ready combat module developed for the BMP "Object 765" (the future BMP-1). There were also some other special requests.
Having received the requirements for the new project, the Kutaisi designers set to work. From SKB KAZ the works were supervised by S.M. Batiashvili. The main representative of the Military Academy was A.I. Mamleev. A promising project received the working designation "Object 1020". As part of the development work, several variants of such a machine were proposed. It was proposed to distinguish them from each other with the help of additional letters following the numbers.
In accordance with the requirements of the customer, the two organizations together had to create a promising wheeled armored vehicle with cannon and machine gun weapons and the ability to transport several paratroopers. The project should use some ideas and solutions previously tested when creating wheeled armored personnel carriers. It was intended to implement and study several new design solutions in the field of power plants, etc.
The basis for the wheeled BMP was the project of the armored vehicle "Object 1015B", but it was planned to rework it in a serious way. The new machine had to retain some features of the appearance, the overall layout of the body and some other features. At the same time, it was necessary to completely redo the combat and airborne squadrons, as well as use new power units.
The “1020 object” was to receive a body with anti-bullet armor welded from sheets with a thickness of up to 8-10 mm. The layout of the hull was changed in accordance with the new role of technology: the front part of the internal volumes retained the functions of the department of control and immediately followed by the places of paratroopers. At the same time, in the center of the corps, a large combat module with a turret basket was placed, behind which there was also room for soldiers with weapons. The aft compartment of the hull was intended for the engine, individual transmission units and a pair of water cannons.
As in the previous project, the forehead of the case was formed by several straight and curved sheets of large size, set at angles to each other. The largest was the bottom sheet piled forward. The middle one was located almost horizontally, and the upper one, equipped with an inspection hatch, was at an angle to the vertical. The hull sides consisted of several parts. The bottom sheet was placed vertically, and above it was placed inclined. These sheets contained niches for the installation of suspension parts. In connection with the use of two front axles, the front part of the hull differed in a reduced width. Over the lower part of the board there was a well-developed niche. The sides of the niches were proposed to be installed with a significant blockage inside. On top of the car was covered with a horizontal roof with a sloping rear. The feed was formed by several flat sheets.
The authors of the new project considered two options for the power plant and transmission. In the first case, the infantry combat vehicle was to be equipped with a ZIL-375 petrol engine with an HP 180 power. Such a project was designated as "Object 1020A." The second version of the project involved the installation of the Ural-376 engine with the HP 225 power. This BMP was called the “1020B Object”. Two projects provided for the use of different transmissions, built, however, on the same principles. In both cases, it was about the H-shaped transmission scheme.
In the case of the “1020A Object”, the gearbox and transfer case were placed at the level of the third chassis axis. A pair of transverse cardan shafts, which are connected to the onboard gearboxes of the third axis, departed from the lockable differential in the transfer case. The latter were responsible for issuing torque to the shafts associated with the other three axles. The transfer box was also designed to drive a winch placed under the front sheets and a pair of feed water cannons.
In the project "Object 1020В", which provided for the use of the engine of the brand "Ural", implemented a different layout of transmission units. In this case, the transfer case was brought forward and placed directly under the fighting compartment. Because of this, the shafts of the H-shaped power distribution were located at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the machine. The onboard gearboxes of the second and third axis received torque directly from the transfer case and passed it to two other axles. Also used a separate drive winch and jet propulsion.
Both projects included the use of a four-wheel wheeled chassis with different types of suspension. In both cases, it was about the use of spring, hydropneumatic or torsion dampers in different combinations. In this case, the suspension of a pair of front axles differed from the rear devices. An interesting difference in the “Object 1020В” project was the installation of the front steering wheel suspension in the niches of the expanded hull. Due to this, it was possible to obtain a small increase in internal volumes, which made it possible to change the ergonomics of the inhabited compartments. Combat vehicles of two types of infantry were equipped with large-diameter tires. All wheels were connected to a common tire pressure adjustment system.
On the sides of the engine in the stern of the hull were placed jet propulsion. The water was taken through the windows in the bottom, the release - through the nozzles in the feed sheet. For control of the movable damper used. The reverse was carried out using slotted oblique nozzles in the bottom. In the frontal part of the body could be installed folding wave deflector.
In accordance with the requirements of the customer, the BMP "Object 1020" was supposed to carry the fighting compartment, borrowed from the project "Object 765". This product was made in the form of a tower with a basket of towers. A dome with a thickness of up to 23 mm was used, in the frontal part of which there was a twin installation for armament. The main weapon of such a tower was the 73-mm smoothbore 2A28 Thunder. The auxiliary is a twin PKT machine gun. Also, the tower could be equipped with a launch guide for anti-tank missiles "Baby". To control the weapon used day and night sights.
The fighting compartment was placed on the “1020 Object” in the center of the hull. Provided the possibility of circular alignment horizontally. The angles of vertical aiming, in general, consistent with the original BMP-1: wheel car body design does not interfere with reduction shafts.
The project "1020" provided for the use of an additional machine gun in the body. The ball mount for it was on the upper front plate on the right, where in previous projects the commander's access hatch was located. In the sides of the hull, both in armor and in manhole covers, it was possible to place up to six embrasures. They allowed the landing force to fire from personal weapons.
Own crew prospective BMP consisted of three people. In front of the case were placed the driver and the commander, who was also responsible for the use of the machine gun. The third crew member was in the turret and was supposed to use the main armament. All crew jobs were equipped with their own hatches and various viewing devices.
The original way was organized by placing the landing. Due to the presence of a large fighting compartment, the fighters were located in two different volumes, in front of the tower and behind it. Directly behind the driver and the commander were two seats for the landing. In the project "1020A" They sat facing forward in the course of movement, the draft with the letter "B" - face to the sides. Access to their places was provided by their own hatches in the sides.
Four more places were between the department of management and the power section. In both cars, the paratroopers had to get into the car after a couple of hatches in the roof and sit facing the sides in pairs. At the same time, on the “1020A Object” the front pair of their seats was located near the longitudinal axis of the hull, while on the “1020В Object” they were able to be moved to the sides. In addition, in the second version of the project it turned out to find a place for another paratrooper: he was placed at the left side directly behind the fighting compartment.
At the request of the military, "Object 1020" was supposed to match the capabilities of the military transport aviation of his time. The length of the infantry fighting vehicle did not exceed 7,3 m with a width of not more than 2,9 m and a height of 2,15 m.The combat weight of both samples was within 12 tons. According to estimates, BMP could accelerate to 85 km / h on the highway. Cruising range - 500 km. On water, the maximum speed was determined at 9 km / h.
As far as we know, development work on wheeled IFVs «1020» continued for several months of the year 1963. Probably by the end of the year, the development of two projects was stopped. By this time, the Military Academy of Armored Forces and the SKB of the Kutaisi Automobile Plant had time to work out the main points of the promising models, but the full set of technical documentation, which allowed to start the construction of the experimental equipment, did not appear.
The exact reasons for closing the 1020 Object project are unknown. However, some of the preserved information about the projects of SKB KAZ and other organizations suggest some variants of development of events. Most likely, the end of the year 1963 the customer has lost interest in the wheeled infantry fighting vehicles of the type "1020A" or "1020V". In addition, the fate of the two developments could have been affected by the specific features of previous, experienced 1015 armored personnel carriers. Finally, there were already more successful projects for infantry vehicles.
First of all, it should be noted that by the year 1963, when the creation of the “1020 Object” began, several experienced other types of infantry fighting vehicles had time to go on the test. On their completion before adopting require some time, but in this case, they looked more comfortable than a sample of Kutaisi. Even in the absence of any problems, experienced “1020” could have entered the test site no earlier than 1964 of the year, while with the continuation of ongoing work, the army by that time had the opportunity to make a final decision and order new equipment.
It is known that the armored personnel carriers "Object 1015" and "Object 1015B" had certain technical problems. Some of the shortcomings were eliminated in project “B”, but even this did not allow him to compete with other domestic developments. It is possible that the preservation of such problems could adversely affect the timing of the completion and completion of the project.
Anyway, no later than the beginning of 1964, the work on the subject “1020 Object” was stopped. In just a few months of design organizations have jointly managed to work out the overall look of the equipment and its individual features, but failed to bring to the construction phase of the pilot project sample. As unnecessary documentation went to the archive.
However, the development of new wheeled combat vehicles has not stopped. The new order from the Ministry of Defense provided for the creation of a special four-wheeled wheeled chassis. This machine, designated as “1040 Object”, was proposed to be made the basis of a promising anti-aircraft missile system or other military equipment. Unlike the two previous developments, the newer 1040 was able to reach the training ground and show its capabilities.
Solyankin A. G., Pavlov M. V., Pavlov I. V., Zheltov I. G. Domestic armored vehicles. XX century. - M .: Exprint, 2010. - T. 3. 1946 – 1965