Military Review

Pistol PM-T

Pistol PM-T is weapons self-defense, which is based on a combat PM (Makarov pistol) by installing a smooth barrel with a small pin-baffle located immediately behind the chamber. In addition, there are attenuating grooves, instead of the original rifled barrel. The barrel of the PM-T as a whole is similar in design to the barrel of the Grand Power T12 pistol. PM-T is the result of the joint work of ZID OJSC and PKP AKBS LLC, which developed this type of weapon taking into account the forensic requirements that currently operate on the territory of the Russian Federation. The main goal pursued by the designers, creating this weapon of self-defense, is maximum preservation "historical values ​​"by minimizing interventions and alterations in the original design.

The appearance on the Russian market of a traumatic pistol PM-T was a real sensation. For the first time, Russian citizens were able to get a pistol shot with rubber bullets made from a Makarov combat pistol by replacing a standard rifled barrel with a barrel with a smooth channel that has a pin behind the chamber and loosening grooves, making it impossible to use bullets made of solid materials. In fact, the PM-T differs from the Makarov pistol only by the used cartridge, the 9mm PA, which has a rubber bullet instead of a combat 9x18. Due to this, the PM-T pistol is the most authentic variant of the PM, which uses a cartridge of traumatic action.

An important circumstance that arouses great interest in this weapon was the fact that PM-T has not only the properties of a weapon of self-defense, but also a collection value. They are made of combat PM, produced from the beginning of the 50-s to the end of the 80-s of the last century. The overwhelming majority of PM-T pistols are alterations to Makarov pistols made in 60-70-e. Surface treatment of the shutter-casing and the frame is saved, there is no new coating and polishing. In addition, the original numbers were kept. It should be noted that PM produced in Soviet times are distinguished by the use of high-grade steel, surface treatment and workmanship. This is especially true for weapons manufactured from 50's to 70's. Unfortunately, the modern versions of the Makarov pistols and the pistols produced by the 90s cannot even be closely compared in quality with the weapons manufactured in the USSR.

As a result of this approach, a seemingly unperturbed PM came out, with a broad “antiglare”, “bearded” strap, with native blueing and numbering details. Apart from small external differences, such as laser marking on the right side of the frame, stuffed on the left side of the casing in front of the gun number "T" or "1", as well as the smaller bore diameter, people who buy the PM-T get almost identical to a combat PM pistol, shooting rubber bullets. The value of the PM-T became visible immediately after the appearance of the first announcement, which the manufacturer posted on the Internet, on his own website and in a popular weapon forum. Modest information about the release of such a pistol was the cause of the excitement among fans of weapons. Especially among those interested in the historical value of weapons.

Pistol PM-T

In addition, the interest in this gun was fueled by the legislative ban on the manufacture of signal, pneumatic and gas weapons with the ability to use rubber bullets from the main parts of military weapons. This amendment to the Weapons Act, together with other amendments, came into effect on July 1 2011, therefore AKBS and ZiD were to produce the maximum number of PM-T pistols before the “black day”. Pistol PM-T, in fact, has become a small-scale weapon. The result of this was that from the moment PM-T appeared in stores by the end of May, buyers, in the initial sales period, occupied the queues in the morning and “snapped up” guns regardless of the condition of coverage, year of manufacture and price. Those who managed to get one of the PM-T, which were released around 5 thousand, were not lost. Today the cost of these pistols is only growing. If in June the price in the gun stores was about 16 - 18 thousand rubles, now PM-T "with hands" is already sold for 50 thousand rubles.

Automation PM-T works using recoil with a free gate. Return spring left home, from military copies. Springs that were badly worn were replaced by new ones. Resource data return spring is very large, due to the smaller recoil momentum traumatic cartridge 9mm PA, compared with live ammunition. However, many owners are faced with a problem that causes a strong return spring. There were delays in shooting due to overloading of the cartridge. This is very important when using low-power traumatic cartridges. The solution to this problem was the installation of return springs from air pistols MP-654K.

Unfortunately, some pistols from the first batch had a poor quality of the barrel, therefore there were delays due to sticking the cartridge at the time of submission. But AKBS company very quickly influenced the manufacturer and quite soon the PM-T pistols were spared from these shortcomings, as regards weapons manufactured from the beginning of June. However, the bevel of the chamber and the bore of the pistols of a later release still require polishing to be improved in order to increase the reliability of filling the cartridges into the chamber and the accuracy of shooting. The trigger mechanism double action, hammer type, with automatic arming of the safety platoon. Descent with a warning. When shooting in single-action mode with a pre-cocked trigger, the descent force is 2 kilograms; when firing by self-arming, around 4,5 kilograms.

The course of the trigger for Makarov pistols made in the Soviet Union with 1955, is smooth. In addition, it is short enough for the trigger pistol. All parts of the trigger mechanisms of pistols produced before 1980-s are made by milling. The slide stop lever is located on the left side of the frame. For a more reliable extraction of the sleeves, it is possible to recommend the owners of PM-T pistols, which have a slide delay with a wide “tooth” of the reflector, to replace this part with an earlier one - with a narrow long reflector. Although it is not necessary in many pistols, the native “exaggerated” slide lag, which has a wide “tooth”, works well. Fuse PM-T, located on the left of the gate. If it is on, the drummer is blocked, and the trigger is safely released from the cocking. The fuse in the on position blocks the shutter-casing and sear, the trigger does not touch the hammer. To turn off the safety lever is transferred to the lower position, that is, one natural movement of the thumb holding the weapon.

Sights - fixed front sight, made as part of the shutter-casing, and rear sight, mounted in a groove of the "dovetail" type. Possible side adjustments. Single row magazine designed for eight rounds. In the shop's shaft, the shop is fixed with a spring latch at the bottom of the handle. This option is a more reliable method than fixing with the side latch at the base of the trigger guard. The disadvantages include slower store replacement during reloading weapons. Only one store was included in the PM-T package. Subsequently, the owners bought additional stores, mostly corresponding to the period of issue of the acquired pistol. The most common are stores of the 54-85 sample with stamping on the left side below. These stores correspond to most PM-T pistols and cost around 500 rubles. Anyway, the PM-T is very valuable accessibility of spare parts. Original parts that were made in Soviet times are very easy to find, and they are relatively inexpensive.

In addition to high quality, significant service resources, as well as historical value, PM-T is a fairly effective and reliable weapon of self-defense. Positive and negative qualities of PM-T are almost the same as in the prototype. The disadvantages of a pistol include the long course of descent, as well as its sufficiently large effort, like that of the Makarov military pistol, which has an impact on the accuracy of shooting. It is necessary to get used to the narrow handle having a small angle of inclination, especially if the owner has previously used a more ergonomic weapon. Small-sized, in fact rudimentary, aiming devices with a small slot in the rear sight and with a low and narrow front sight also have a negative impact on the accuracy of shooting. Such aiming devices are not suitable for maneuvering firing at insignificant distances. But if you want to achieve greater accuracy and accurate shooting with high-speed shooting, you can get used to it very quickly, you can easily get used to the PM-T, and its drawbacks can be easily compensated by working with a pistol.

Among the most important advantages of the gun, which was created by Nikolai Fedorovich Makarov, is the reliability of work in the most difficult operating conditions. This quality has been proven both on the tests and during the operation in the active army, and in the harsh combat conditions in various countries of the world. In PM combines the best qualities of short-barreled self-defense weapons. This gun is very reliable, compact, safe, durable, easy to maintain and handle. All the properties of the Makarov pistol are also relevant for the PM-T. This traumatic gun does not seem to be a plastic toy or cheap alloy work. It is a reliable and durable gun that you can rely on in an emergency. And here, in theory, a much more powerful cartridge is needed than the currently available 9mm PA - traumatic cartridges, since even the new model PM-T pistol can withstand much greater loads. However, this issue is beyond the competence of those who acquire a gun to protect the health and life of themselves and loved ones.

According to many, the PM-T pistol today is one of the best self-defense pistols on the Russian market, made on the basis of a combat model with a steel frame. Having studied the disadvantages and advantages of various traumatic revolvers and pistols, we can conclude that it is the PM-T that meets most of the requirements for this type of weapon, namely: reliability of operation regardless of operating conditions; ease of maintenance and use; stealth while hidden and compact; sufficiently high accuracy of shooting at long distances of self-defense; base - exclusively military weapons; frame material - steel. Plus, the PM-T has historical value.

Here is what a user writes about this gun: “My acquaintance with this gun happened in the middle of June. Like most PM-T pistols, the selected instance had traces of operation and time in the form of a shabby coating and the presence of small scratches on the handle. But this circumstance did not upset, but gave the weapon charisma and anturazhnost. The “seen species”, this PM was made in 1972 with excellent quality using excellent weapon steel. The first impression of this gun is a real, normal weapon, a proven and reliable PM! And even the fact that I am holding a PM-T in my hands, which uses rubber bullets, did not add "fly in the ointment." The weapon is quite simple, but at the same time elegant in its own way, with the charisma of good weapons from the times of the Soviet Union - a great country that no longer exists. A wide anti-glare plate, a beautiful black burnish, a big beard in front of the cover-casing ... A fuse, a trigger and an ejector with the original red burnishing, which is typical of Soviet-made Makarov pistols. Even a very narrow grip does not seem so uncomfortable when you hold in your hands not a cheap plastic craft, but a high-quality and reliable Soviet pistol made of high-quality weapon steel.

On the same day, the pistol was tested using powerful cartridges. PM-T showed excellent accuracy at a range of seven meters. Automatic weapons worked on the "five". However, later, due to the variation in the power of cartridges and in order to ensure reliable extraction when using low-power ammunition, the native return spring was replaced with a somewhat weaker one. The sound of the shot is biting and very loud, and the recoil is very similar to the shooting of Makarov's military pistols. For shooting they used the most powerful of the available cartridges 9mm PA - AKBS Magnum for Inna. Pistol PM-T in combination with these cartridges is a very effective weapon for self-defense. The results of firing do not give reason to doubt it. In general, I want to use a gun again and again. Of course, today in the arms market for self-defense, you can buy “with hands” and more powerful pistols with two-row capacious shops, for example Thunderstorm-02 with a v4 barrel of 9mm PA caliber without pins and “teeth” in the barrel channel or Grand Power T-12 under 10x28T. But the quality of workmanship, steel, and surface treatment of the PM-T pistol made in Soviet times is, in my opinion, superior to Thunderstorm. In addition, the variant having a trunk v4 is usually sold at an inflated cost, given the lack of their historical value. T-12 is a really good gun, but its very large dimensions, in particular width, as a rule, do not allow using this gun for concealed carry. ”

The PM-T pistol is acquired not only by ordinary citizens for the purpose of self-defense, but also by collectors, lovers of weapons and Makarov pistols. However, today among the samples of pistols fired with rubber bullets and made of combat pistols from the times of the Soviet Union, available to ordinary citizens of Russia, there are several rather interesting models. These are Leader, Leader-M and MP-81, from TT pistols. APS-M and MP-355, made from Stechkin automatic pistols. But ... All models of weapons based on TT have a lot of changes, which significantly reduces their historical value. All these pistols require certain modifications for reliable operation and some correspondence to the historical original. A similar situation is observed with the APS-M, which, among other things, due to the design of the trunk, which tears rubber balls, is just a working model of the APS, but not a weapon for self-defense. MP-355 does not have some of the flaws of APS-M, but at the same time there are no original numbers and stamps, which reduces its historical value to a minimum.

Against this background, PM-T looks like the best choice. It is valued both as a collector's item and as a reliable weapon for self-defense. It is quite pleasant to shoot from it and nice to hold in your hands. PM-T is very convenient for hidden wear, not only in an armpit or belt holster, but also in a waist bag. The gun is lightweight and light enough. For him, there is a very large selection of cartridges that can be purchased at any weapons store anywhere in the country. For most PM-T, first of all, part of the history of a great state. So far, citizens of the Russian Federation have not been given the right to carry and possess combat short-barreled rifled weapons — revolvers and pistols firing live ammunition with a solid bullet, and Gloki, Makarova, Kolty, Walter and Smith-Wesson have not appeared on store shelves, PM-T pistols will be one of the best examples of small arms.
- high strength;
- reliability;
- ease of maintenance;
- habitual in circulation;
- compactness;
- availability of spare parts.

- not ergonomic handle;
- Great effort and trigger stroke;
- rudimentary sights;
- low quality of the barrel and adaptations for 9mm PA cartridges

Key Features:
caliber - 9mm RA (9 × 22);
weapons - 161,5 millimeter;
stem - 93,5 millimeter;
height - 126,5 millimeter;
width - 30,5 millimeters;
weight - 730 grams (without cartridges);
magazine capacity - 8 cartridges.

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  1. Oladushkin
    Oladushkin 3 May 2012 09: 14
    Bring to mind the law on the legalization of self-defense weapons. Let the weapon be registered for a specific owner, like a car, but people need it for defense. Why can bandits carry weapons, albeit illegally? Am I an adequate person legally can’t?
    1. Ion coaelung
      Ion coaelung 3 May 2012 10: 31
      I recently saw a kid in the metro, about 15 years old, a Chechen or a Dagestani, a PM handle was sticking out from behind, I'm not sure if it's a combat one, but still, a man of those bloods, and even more so at that age, can do a lot of trouble with this "toy" .. and what to say about those who are older ??? Normal people definitely need to have weapons for self-defense ...
      1. 755962
        755962 3 May 2012 12: 11
        The pressure on weapons is increasing: the State Duma Committee on Security and Anti-Corruption is preparing amendments to the legislation on increasing responsibility for carrying and using traumatics while intoxicated. The media exaggerate the facts of armed clashes between citizens, although statistics, in general, do not give grounds for alarmism ("panic", "alarm") in this regard: over the past year, 12 people died from traumatism, about 100 were injured - this is several times less than, say, from cold steel. That is, in order to reduce the crime rate, it would be more logical to introduce restrictions on the purchase and wearing of kitchen knives and axes.
        1. Neighbor
          Neighbor 3 May 2012 16: 21
          Quote: Ion Coaelung
          Normal people must have a weapon for self-defense ...

          Well, buy Osa or the same PM-T! Who forbids you - especially if you:
          Quote: Oladushkin
          an adequate person

          And what they are - not a weapon for self-defense. - so that shopping and from work - calmly return home!
          Well, if you mean - self-defense of a house or apartment - so buy a gun! Who does not give you! - especially if you - see above laughing And protect yourself - to your health. belay
          And if you - not quite Adequate - do not give a license - so do yourself a sawn-off shot - there is nothing particularly complicated - for self-defense (a few shots) - that’s it. And hunting cartridges are not a problem for any hunter.
          And WITH A BATTLE RED-DRUGED WEAPON - NOTHING to hang around the streets. Especially - if they are - everyone who has Salvage is superfluous, but there are few brains. Or there is no money - but there is a trunk - robbery - I do not want any store or any apartment.
          Who has more gun - he is right. There is no trunk and no money - so give it to the head from behind - to the one who has it - and take it! - and go rob and kill! Stumble!
          It’s not enough for us - robberies, robberies and armed raids. Few - drunk in the trash cops - people shoot in shops and courtyards - we also need any other Alkash, who has finished himself up to a squirrel, to shoot left and right. We need - so that people come to school and lay down - 20 people each - everyones .....!
          am am We wanted a fun life - Gangster!
          I AM AGAINST LEGALIZATION OF SHORT-TERM RUNNED WEAPONS !!!!! If we legalize it - so the price - you have to do - 150-200 thousand per barrel. Otherwise, we will choke in our own blood. belay
          1. Ion coaelung
            Ion coaelung 3 May 2012 17: 27
            Do you think that it is necessary to take seriously the selection of citizens who can be given permission? Well, not every drunkard or unbalanced ....
            1. Neighbor
              Neighbor 3 May 2012 18: 37
              Quote: Ion Coaelung
              Well, not every drunkard or unbalanced ....

              Not everyone is written. Permissions - it will be easier to buy and cheaper - than now.
              Any HEALTHY person has a roof that can go - at any moment!
              Pull on like a pig - anyone can - at any time.
              Any healthy person can have an Affect. Stress. Crazy. Oddity.
              I personally know about a dozen drug addicts - who have never - never been accounted for - have not come across and have driving licenses and drive a car. Moreover, their moral character - leaves much to be desired - far from the best.
              I know about a dozen drunks and scumbags - who have never been treated for alcoholism / schiza and have never been registered anywhere - but they ALCOHOLICS. And on their forehead - it is not written. For it is 1-2 days to sleep - a man as a man. And then - you can and again - thump a month without drying up with breaks for work.
              1. Ion coaelung
                Ion coaelung 3 May 2012 20: 34
                I don’t envy you at all, with so many familiar drug addicts and drunks, as you say, of course the world around you will not look favorable, but there are normal people who, even drinking, do not lose their heads, and under stress and affects would not allow jeopardize someone’s life.
                Of course, this issue is very controversial, it needs to be reasoned and disassembled, but we don’t make a decision ...
              2. Yoshkin Kot
                Yoshkin Kot 4 May 2012 09: 31
                Yeah, all the Russian drunks, all the Russian women whores, you know? is not it? am
            2. Yoshkin Kot
              Yoshkin Kot 4 May 2012 09: 30
              did you buy rights? or learned to drive? Did you receive the help yourself? Or bought the same? if you introduce criminal liability for such tricks, then there is no problem, the procedure is the same
          2. Yoshkin Kot
            Yoshkin Kot 4 May 2012 09: 29
            um, but didn’t think about liability insurance? it should not be cheap
          3. almost demobil
            almost demobil 4 May 2012 19: 45
            Quote: Neighbor

            I fully support! In our country, there is no culture of handling weapons. I am absolutely sure that all the gopota will be armed with real weapons in a short period of time. Just today I watched, many probably saw, a plot about the action "stop ham" about guys who are forced to clean up incorrectly parked cars. Have you seen the reaction of this Moscow cattle to a legitimate request to remove the car? These rush at the activists with bats, knives and injuries. Do you think they will not get a combat pistol in the frustration? DON'T LET GO !!! Maximum traumatic ..., and then with the strictest verification with an unofficial questioning and consent of neighbors.
            1. justas-xnumx
              justas-xnumx 26 August 2012 19: 59
              Bullshit, sorry for being rude. Culture is brought up not for years but for decades, BUT in the presence of the rudiments of culture. There will be no weapons on hand - there will be no culture of handling weapons. Did you serve If not, then your attitude is clear, but if you served, then on the contrary, it is not clear. Have you been taught the rules for handling weapons? If something is forgotten, then when the trunk is in your hands - just remember!
  2. Krilion
    Krilion 3 May 2012 09: 52
    the cartridge would have been more powerful and the two-row store .. Makarov and now there would have been no price ...
    1. Kibb
      Kibb 3 May 2012 10: 00
      They did, they did PMM, but they never did. And they did not accept the cartridge and there is a supply problem with the magazine.
      And so PM today is one of the best in its class
    2. Yoshkin Kot
      Yoshkin Kot 4 May 2012 09: 32
      what for? as a weapon of defense personally, he is quite, but with a free shutter. you won’t play with particularly powerful cartridges, it’s better than the work of Moses Browning
  3. Middle-brother
    Middle-brother 3 May 2012 10: 06
    "Until the citizens of the Russian Federation were returned their right to carry and possess combat rifled short-barreled weapons ..." - when did the citizens of the Russian Federation have such a right? Or does the author mean pre-revolutionary Russia? So then the mentality was different. The same cabbies on the streets, when the cabs were interlocked with their axles, did not smack each other with revolvers and did not stab with knives. And now almost every black person has an injury. So, don't overtake him on the track and don't look askance ... And the so-called "adequate people" show adequacy only when they argue about the legalization of weapons.
    1. Yoshkin Kot
      Yoshkin Kot 3 May 2012 11: 30
      Yeah, we Russians see stupid cattle, we can’t trust our weapons, aren’t you tired?
  4. patriot2
    patriot2 3 May 2012 11: 07
    Article +
    Well all is told and most importantly - intelligibly.
    True, when you get a traumatic gun outwardly identical to a combat one, you have a chance and a great chance to get a combat bullet in response. So think.
    1. Yoshkin Kot
      Yoshkin Kot 3 May 2012 11: 31
      injuries and gazushniki should be prohibited, reduce the level at which they get weapons
  5. Yoshkin Kot
    Yoshkin Kot 3 May 2012 11: 32
    pm beautiful barrel, for self-defense and in no time weapons of professionals.
  6. Dust
    Dust 3 May 2012 11: 33
    I did not like the article, just as I do not like the very idea of ​​a traumatic weapon in general!
    I like the old time. when even toy guns could not be confused with real ones! I already wrote that in general I am against anyone’s weapon, except for those to whom it is laid ...
    To everyone, too, in my opinion, weapons should not be given ...
    Above was about a kid with an incomprehensible barrel - with us he could already sit down, depending on what it was, even for pneumatics he would have made a full shell ...
  7. Middle-brother
    Middle-brother 3 May 2012 13: 03
    in fact, the article is very informative, for which it is a plus. And legalization still does not happen)))
  8. alex shnajder
    alex shnajder 3 May 2012 23: 08
    and I have the same))) alteration from 54goda) release under the rare-rubber band)
  9. vylvyn
    vylvyn 4 May 2012 03: 25
    PM is a good weapon. But it’s impossible to call it excellent anyway. Familiar with this gun since 1989. The sign is very good. I personally did not like the pistol grip, how many shot, so really I was not used to it. The second minus is a short barrel and, as a result, the proximity of the front sight and the aiming bar from each other (in this regard, the TT is better). The third minus is that you can learn to shoot well from the PM only after completing training on a special electronic simulator, where a laser target designator is mounted in the PM barrel. As far as I can remember, since 1989 no one has had stable results when shooting from the PM. Let's say 2 times you shoot at good and excellent, for the third time you must shoot at three or 2. And only when we were dragged to an electronic simulator and for each individually after firing a laser beam at the monitor, the computer gave a graph with three diagrams (aiming time, moment pulling the trigger and the moment of the shot), the instructor (again, each individually) made certain comments and we shot everything at 4 and 5. Such results (the percentage of triples sharply decreased) gave a very long time. And of course, the fourth minus is the weight of the PM, especially in running order with a spare store. For weapons of personal protection and self-defense, PM is heavy.
    All of the above disadvantages can be attributed to PM-T.
    It's my personal opinion. However, most shooting instructors consider the PM to be the best weapon. But. Until recently, there were no alternatives for PM in the USSR or in modern Russia (I do not take revolvers into account). TT was outdated both morally and physically, plus it was unsafe to wear. At present, decent models have appeared - ПЯ, ГШ-18, СПС, the same modernized ПМ - П-96М. It is interesting how they will manifest themselves in the coming years in terms of reliability, safety when wearing personally, ease of use and more. A trauma based on them already exists and is available for purchase in hunting stores (I saw it myself last year).
    1. justas-xnumx
      justas-xnumx 26 August 2012 20: 04
      And I shot for PM. Twice a year, I shot from different barrels - there was always a solid four and there were no simulators - three trial ones, six test credits, and the whole simulator. We didn’t have enough for all pistols, and therefore they fired from which they will.
  10. mazdie
    mazdie 4 May 2012 22: 14
    So I registered wink
    Take ....
    The gun is fully consistent with the description in the article. The demand for it is huge, since only 4999 barrels were produced, the price from 13000r in free sale rose to 50-100 kilo rubles in the secondary. What he even achieved the famous 6P42-9.
    ps Opponents of legalization, look at crime statistics in the countries of the former USSR, where the short barrel is legalized, you will be very surprised.
  11. ZUI
    ZUI 6 May 2012 09: 49
    PM-T is perhaps the best representative of injuries, BUT is no longer available, because There was a ban on the redistribution of military weapons in injuries.
  12. Corporal
    Corporal 28 May 2012 17: 06
    Give legalization! Good baking.
  13. philosopher
    philosopher 28 May 2012 18: 59
    He looked at the pistol. Licked. Good, but what good is the picture? Citizens of my country cannot buy and have it at their disposal. (Excluding deputies, judges, police, lawyers, some journalists, millionaires).
    He himself tried to find out everything in the licensing system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Not sitting, not a drug addict, not registered and, anyway, impossible.
    And our crime is armed, and not at all with traumatic weapons.
    As there in Shakespeare: "Oh, times, oh, manners" ...
  14. Gavrn
    Gavrn 29 September 2012 14: 07
    Crime is always armed., I don’t understand, why can’t you take a gun to protect your house? While you will open the door and you will have time to get it out of the safe and equip it. And with a gun. Do you really think that they will allow him to be carried with him, equipped? And it will be easier for any gopnik to arm himself. Indeed, 100%, few people after buying a short barrel will go to the shooting gallery at least once every half a year. And to take any courses on owning a short-barrel and using it, this will already be a feat. And estimate how much time you will need to get the gun from the waist holster, load it, remove it from the fuse, take a warning shot into the air ... Then it’s easier to take it by the barrel and hammer it on the attacker's head.