Military Review

Rehabilitated posthumously. “You are forcing us to fly on coffins!” (Part of 2)

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Top of career


In 1939, Pavel Vasilievich became commander of the 9th Army Air Force, which took part in the war with Finland. After that, Levers was again transferred to the Far East. Receiving the rank of lieutenant general in July aviation, Pavel Vasilievich took the position of Head of the Main Directorate of the Air Force of the Red Army. At that time he was only 29 years old. And in March 1941, Rychagov became deputy People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR.

Pavel Vasilyevich faced a difficult task - to launch a new generation of aircraft. Therefore, he was a frequent guest in the units that began the development of Mig-3, Yak-1, LaGG-3, Pe-2 and Il-2. Rychagov helped pilots to “tame” new equipment and advice, and deed. He was afraid of failure, because the situation in the country was heated to the limit. The repression continued, and none of the commanders could feel safe. Levers knew perfectly well what made him able to occupy a high position. After the execution of Alksnis, they did not stay long at such a high post. Loktionov lasted from November 1937 to November 1939. He and Smushkevich (took office after Loktionov) were shot on 28 in October on 1941 (this date will be fatal for Rychagov with Nesterenko).
Rehabilitated posthumously. “You are forcing us to fly on coffins!” (Part of 2)

Dmitry Panov recalled this: “The last time I saw Rychagov was at the gate of the General Staff courtyard, where he was called after China. A luxurious black lacquer “ZIS” drove up and out of it, through the lowered glass, Pashka Levers began to smile at me. Everything on him was red: and diamonds, and for some reason a reddened face. “Healthy!” Pashka greeted me with a wave of his hand, and I saluted, not without respect for the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force, with whom I had recently stumbled around Kreshatik. A good jet carried Pasha, but he rode, greeting me, straight to his death. God forbid from the lordly anger and lordly love, or as they say in the army: "Every curve around the authorities, in short, any straight line." The leading place for Pasha Rychagov turned out to be slippery, still covered with the blood of his predecessor, the glorious Alksnis. ”

Pavel Vasilyevich differed explosive temper. He did not like, as they say, to beat around the bush, preferring to tell the truth in the forehead. Moreover, this model of behavior was used by him and with subordinates, and even with the “top”.

Being in a management position, Rychagov quickly figured out the situation regarding the skill of the pilots. He realized that their qualifications needed to be raised, and it was necessary to make it “yesterday”. And Pavel Vasilievich did not hesitate to talk about this issue.

Once, together with other chiefs of the Levers, I was at a meeting with Stalin. Joseph Vissarionovich wanted to hear a report on the development of new flight technology. Then came the topic of pilots training. And here Pavel Vasilyevich declared to Stalin: “30 hours will be enough unless the pilot has crashed. And he still needs to be able to fight. 120 hours are required as a minimum! ”To this statement, Joseph Vissarionovich responded:“ 120 hours of flying time ... Boyish reasoning. We are not going to throw fuel into the wind. ” But, despite this reaction, the words of Rychagov produced the desired effect. The fact is that after some time an order was signed to increase the flying hours for combat pilots.

And all the same, despite the loyal attitude of the authorities, Pavel Vasilyevich walked around the edge. According to the memoirs of contemporaries, Levers never broke, and did not want such a high position and power. But he could not refuse. Moreover, Rychagov perfectly understood the precariousness of his position. And once he said: "I came from the troops, to the troops and leave."

Pavel Vasilyevich had two serious, if I may say so, flaws. The first is his character, and the second is friendship with Yakir. Most likely, all this influenced the fate of Rychagov. But first, the head of the Main Directorate of the Air Force made a mistake.

Once, during a regular meeting with Stalin on aviation, a question was raised about the death of the pilots. A record appeared in the protocol: “Every day, on average, one dies in case of accidents and catastrophes of an 2 — 3 aircraft, which is a year of 600 — 900 aircraft.”

Admiral Ivan Isakov, who also attended the meeting, recalled in his memoirs: “It was about the accident rate in aviation, the accident rate was great. According to his habit, Stalin smoked a pipe and walked along the table. Those, then other explanations of accidents were given, until the turn reached Rychagov. He was young at all, and he looked like a perfect boy in appearance. And when the turn came to him, he suddenly said:
- Accident and will be big, because you are forcing us to fly on the coffins!
It was completely unexpected, he blushed, broke, there was absolutely deathly silence. There were only Levers, not yet withdrawn after his cry, purple and agitated, and Stalin stood a few steps away. Stalin gave a lot of effort to aviation, he worked on it a lot and understood the issues related to it.

Undoubtedly, this remark of Rychagov in such a form sounded for him a personal insult, and everyone understood that. Stalin stopped and was silent. Everyone was waiting for what will happen. He stood, then walked past the table, in the same direction in which he was walking. Reached the end, turned, walked the whole room back in complete silence, turned around again, and taking the pipe out of his mouth, said slowly and quietly, without raising his voice:
- You shouldn't have said that!
And he went again. I reached the end again, turned around again, went through the whole room, turned around again and stopped at almost the same place as the first time, and again said in the same low calm voice:
“You shouldn't have said that,” and, after a tiny pause, he added: “The meeting is closing.”
And the first out of the room.

Soon, namely 12, April, 1941 Rychagov was removed from his post. No, he was not arrested, but sent to the Air Force Academy of the General Staff to study. Probably, then Pavel Vasilyevich thought that trouble had passed by. He was engaged in improving skills and dreamed of returning to his usual work.

But there was another failure behind him, which, due to the stubbornness of the head of the Red Army Air Force Main Directorate, cost the lives of several pilots.

Dmitry Panteleevich Panov recalled in his book: “As I know, I don’t know if it’s true, or they lied to Pashka, but the reason for his arrest is the following. In 1940, our industry for the first time released a batch of upgraded DB-ZF aircraft, long-range, forced bombers. Levers decided to send them to the Far East. Allegedly, he was warned about bad weather on the route, but he ordered to fly. If a complete bummer from his own success, still turned his head, it was no wonder. With us this happens quite often: only a person will be knocked out on the top, as he begins to fool. But it is also possible that a scapegoat was simply made from Pashka, and someone higher gave orders, say Tymoshenko himself. And was it possible to foresee the weather on the many thousands of kilometers of the Siberian route? Our fathers - the commanders were masters of all provocations. In any case, the new bombers left the route, but did not arrive at the destination. They got lost and, having developed fuel, got somewhere in the Siberian taiga. I don’t know, maybe they slander Pashka, or maybe he completely lost his temper, but they say that when he was offered to report the incident to the Minister of Defense Tymoshenko, in order to organize large-scale search and rescue of crew members, he responded in the sense that, they say ... them, just do not know how to fly. Crews died. This was reported to Stalin, who did not like it when his favorites were more rude than him. According to rumors, Stalin ordered to organize large-scale searches and aircraft, albeit with a significant delay, but were discovered. Some pilots kept diaries in which it was stated that they were still alive for almost a month and died of hunger, without waiting for help. ”

In general, Pavel Vasilyevich, due to his youth, made a number of serious miscalculations. He gradually began to lose the sense of reality, comparing all with himself. Of course, among the pilots he was not equal in talent and skill. And Rychagov stopped understanding this, being in a high position. But this was well understood by other people preparing reports to Stalin about conspiracies in the Red Army. And if earlier Pavel Vasilyevich did indeed go to the favorites of Joseph Vissarionovich, then after these failures he lost interest in him.

This and took advantage of Beria, who has long looked out for too young, too capricious, and too talented boss. He was by definition dangerous.

Here, on the hand of Beria, she also played a friendship with Ion Emmanuilovich Yakir, who was shot back in 1937. And although several years have passed, Beria and Stalin himself most likely never forgot about their friendship. After all, Yakir was repressed as a member of the "military conspiracy." And what prevented Rychagov from being in the know or even taking a personal part?

And if so ... Already 24 June 1941, he was arrested. Following the custody concluded and Maria Nesterenko.

It is known for certain that Pavel Vasilyevich was beaten and tortured, trying to beat him out of his confession of treason, and at the same time preparing various kinds of sabotage. But Levers turned out to be a tough nut to crack, and it was not easy to split it. The interrogations continued until autumn. After his two dozen arrested "traitor" (including Nesterenko, Loktinov and Smushkevich) went to Kuibyshev. At the same time, Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria decided that it was time to finish with them. Therefore, he sent a secret dispatch with a courier, which said: “Stop the investigation, do not betray the court, shoot it immediately!”
The facts of the beatings of those arrested later confirmed the testimony of witness P. Semenov: “... In 1941, when Vlodzimirsky occupied office No. 742, and I was in the waiting room, I witnessed the beating of those who were arrested by Lodzimirsky ... Loktionova, Rychagova and others. The beating was brutal. Those arrested, being beaten with a rubber truncheon, roared, groaned and fainted. ”

Vlodzimirsky himself did not deny this: “In my office, physical measures were applied, as I have already shown, to Rychagov, maybe to Loktionov ... They beat the prisoners with a rubber stick ... I remember that once they beat Rychagov very badly, but he did not give any evidence, despite the beating. "

Another witness, A.A. Bolkhovitin, said: “... During interrogations that I conducted, Rychagov did not recognize himself guilty of enemy activity and gave testimony about certain non-party actions. Wlodzimir in every possible way sought from me to obtain evidence from Rychagov with acknowledgment of his anti-Soviet activities, although there was no convincing and verified data incriminating him. At the direction of Wlodzimir in early July, 1941 was confronted between Smushkevich and Rychagov. Prior to this confrontation, Vlodzimirsky sent Zimenkov and his deputy Nikitin, the head of the first department of the investigation department of the NKGB of the USSR, to my office. Nikitin, at the direction of Vlodzimirsky, in order to “prepare” Rychagov for a confrontation, Rychagov was brutally beaten up. I remember that Rychagov immediately declared to Nikitin that he was no longer a pilot, since during this beating he had his ear membrane broken. After that, Smushkevich was brought to my office and the confrontation began. Smushkevich, judging by his appearance, obviously, was repeatedly beaten. During the investigation and confrontation, he gave vague testimony about Rychagov’s belonging to the military conspiracy and his espionage activities. Levers denied espionage. ”

The arrest of Pavel Vasilyevich, many of his colleagues were not surprised. They believed that Rychagov himself was to blame. He took a high position, but turned out to be completely unprepared for her. So in fact it often happens when a person, having made a dizzying climb, begins to abruptly "lose height". After all, as you know, the higher it took off, the harder it was to fall. And on October 28, Rychagov's 1941, along with other arrested officers, were taken to the village of Barbysh, near Kuybyshev (now Samara).

Dmitry Panov recalled: “The noise of a three-ton motor, instituted to silence the sound of shots and screams of those executed, was the last sound that Pasha heard in his short but stormy life. It would have been better if he did not have his dizzying career and would listen to the dashing pilot Pashka Levers, who turned out to be unbearable for Monomakh’s cap, only the roar of aircraft engines. How much benefit could he still bring in air battles ... ”

And it's hard to disagree with this, because during the service Levers made more than 3000 landings, of which about 500 - night ones. And managed to fly over 170 000 kilometers. In the war with the Germans, such an experienced and experienced pilot oh seemed to be useful, but история does not tolerate the subjunctive mood ...

At the same time, Pavel Vasilyevich’s wife was also shot. Prior to her arrest, Major Maria Nesterenko held the position of commander of a special-purpose aviation regiment. She was, in fact, accused of only one thing: “being the beloved wife of Rychagov, she could not have been unaware of the traitorous activities of her husband.”

Later, during the period of mass rehabilitation of the repressed, the USSR Prosecutor General Roman Andreyevich Rudenko put an end to the Rychagov case: “Despite the lack of objective evidence of Rychagov’s guilt in committing serious state crimes, he, among other 25 detainees, was October 28 1941 of the year Beria was shot at the criminal order, and the enemies of the people of Kobulov and Wlodzimir in 1942 in the past year falsified the conclusion about Rychagov’s execution, knowingly falsely indicating in him that have an accusation proven. The case of Pavel Vasilyevich Rychagov by the Procuracy of the USSR was discontinued due to the lack of corpus delicti in his actions and he was posthumously rehabilitated. ”

Rehabilitated Pavel Vasilyevich 23 July 1954 of the year.
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  1. Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 April 24 2018 05: 38
    +5
    Insolent, in short, Pavel Vasilievich.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 24 2018 08: 08
      +8
      For this it was necessary to beat him and shoot him? Or maybe the one who appointed him to the post to which he could not correspond even theoretically is guilty.
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion April 24 2018 08: 19
        +17
        Are you okay with your head? Tales about how everyone was beaten and shot for no reason remained in perestroika. The USSR was broken under them, but it never dawned on you that this was just an enemy tool.
      2. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 April 24 2018 08: 19
        +4
        Stalin even appointed students to ministerial posts. And when they were insolent, they smeared their forehead with green paint.
        1. avt
          avt April 24 2018 12: 12
          +9
          Quote: Mordvin 3
          Stalin even appointed students to ministerial posts.

          Yes!? And the last name is possible and most importantly - from which course and which institute. Well, the person involved in the article, really, the person is not ordinary, of course, the coast was lost from a quick take-off to the post, which he did not correspond to.
          Stalin stopped and was silent. Everyone was waiting for what would happen. He stood, then walked past the table, in the same direction in which he was walking. I reached the end, turned, walked the whole room back in complete silence, turned again and, taking out the pipe from his mouth, said slowly and quietly, without raising his voice:
          - You shouldn't have said that!
          and gave a second chance!
          Soon, namely April 12, 1941 Rychagova was removed from his post. No, he was not arrested, but sent to the Air Force Academy of the General Staff to study.
          BUT .... request pride has taken its toll and so has given nothing to learn. He sought to category A, and there also needed extraordinary agility. Not everyone is given, like Mikoyan - between the trickles. Again, Stalin forgave a lot, for example, when Gorshkov, when he was at the Pacific Fleet, seemed to have killed a destroyer in a storm, forgave him when they said to him: “Who is a little tired?” He said - ,, For scientific and technical lack of knowledge ... we do not punish. "
          Quote: aKtoR
          Cooling to the higher commanding staff of the Stalin falcons was at least present at the beginning of 1941. This is evident from the book of Golovanov about his conversation with Smushkevich, when he asked him to write a letter to the government. Golovanova was still surprised that such a person would not heed the government. The reason is probably the unsuccessful actions of the Air Force in the winter war.

          For a second - Stalin ,, got cold "and, according to Finnish results, even called Voroshilov, even summoned Shaposhnikov and PERSONALLY - ,, They will not understand us if we remove the People’s Commissar, we’ll leave us as chief of the general staff." Sent to his personnel reserve. With regards to Smushkevich and young nominees in general, much was given and asked to them based on the results. Moreover, without age discounts - they had combat experience, but to master the knowledge necessary for new posts ..... request
          1. aKtoR
            aKtoR April 24 2018 16: 37
            +2
            You are somewhat wrong. Voroshilov from the group of those who sold what they shot others for. He was forgiven the Winter War and 41-th Leningrad. Such close, no Voroshilov. Mehlis, Tymoshenko, Kulik. There are no less cases for them than for Levers, otherwise it is total and more. Only these devotees and their
            1. DimanC
              DimanC April 24 2018 18: 15
              +8
              Well, actually, Voroshilov just did not let the Germans take Leningrad.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado April 24 2018 18: 57
                +3
                Well, actually, Voroshilov just did not let the Germans take Leningrad.

                just take Leningrad Germans did not give Zhukov.
                1. Alf
                  Alf April 24 2018 21: 45
                  +5
                  Quote: Mikado
                  just take Leningrad Germans did not give Zhukov.

                  How ?
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado April 24 2018 21: 54
                    +4
                    cruel measures, including repressive ones. Who sent the sailors to the trenches? If I’m not mistaken, I ordered the anti-aircraft guns to be put on direct fire. Wikipedia, of course, poorly describes, but to help. No need to sculpt from Voroshilov the genius who defended Leningrad. He was a child of his time, and that time had already passed by that time. Respectfully, hi
                    1. Alf
                      Alf April 24 2018 22: 15
                      +10
                      Quote: Mikado
                      Who sent the sailors to the trenches?

                      The first part of the marine corps (4th MP brigade) took up their positions on September 9th of the 41st, manned from ship crews.
                      Zhukov arrived in Leningrad on September 19th.
                      "Zhukov ordered naval artillery to shoot in the interests of the ground forces and thereby thwarted all attempts by the Germans."
                      The KBF naval artillery opened fire for the first time at SV requests on August 30, the ships took up positions for firing in the interests of the SV on September 29, also on September 29, Rear Admiral Gren, artillery commander of the KBF, ordered the whole corps of artillery to be ready for immediate fire on the coastal goals of the first army command.
                      Zhukov has nothing to do with it.
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado April 24 2018 23: 42
                        +1
                        well, for God's sake, Voroshilov so Voroshilov. And Sandpiper to the heap. I will not argue.
            2. nafanal
              nafanal April 24 2018 18: 38
              +5
              Well, actually, Voroshilov was one of the first military commanders to incriminate the Germans, namely Manstein. ,, Germany’s best operational mind was scrambling under Soltsy, having lost secret documents and a large part of artillery. Voroshilov’s call from Leningrad was dictated by political reasons. He negotiated with the British before the war about alliance against Germany. And during the war he continued. It was thanks to Voroshilov that the land lease was successful
              1. DimerVladimer
                DimerVladimer April 25 2018 10: 50
                +6
                Quote: Nathanael
                It was thanks to Voroshilov that the land lease was a success


                Bu ha ha - this ridiculous tale has not yet been encountered. Lend-lease was a success thanks to Churchill and Roosevelt.

                Red Marshal's career:
                Filmed for the failure of the Finnish company in 1940 (replaced by Tymoshenko)
                Near Leningrad, he distinguished himself only by personally leading in bayonet attacks, instead of competent defense organization. Removed - replaced by Zhukov. Since then, the command was not allowed due to complete professional unsuitability - further only the position of "wedding general":
                representative of the Headquarters for the formation of troops (October 12, 1941 - September 5, 1942),
                representative of the Supreme High Command Headquarters on the Volkhov Front (February 15 — March 25, 1942),
                Commander-in-chief of the partisan movement (from September 1942 to May 1943),
                Chairman of the Trophy Committee at the GKO (May-September 1943), Chairman of the Armistice Commission (September 1943 - June 1944).
                That is - in general, he did not command anything else - so the observer from the rate and the secondary, third-rate commissions.
                November 22, 1944 K.E. Voroshilov was removed from the State Defense Committee. He is the only one who was withdrawn from the GKO for the entire time of its existence (1941-1945).
                Great unsuitability, except that Budyonny distinguished himself.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado April 25 2018 21: 50
                  +2
                  Dmitry Vladimirovich, you see, the trend is now on the site - to justify the figures of the 30s, the heroes of the Civil. Well, the trend is such an alternative story .... request I'm telling you in all seriousness!
                  Great unsuitability, except that Budyonny distinguished himself.

                  Budyonny - yes, he was more a horse breeder and a dashing cavalryman than a marshal. Of course, Semyon Mikhailovich was not worth putting at the head of the direction in the 41st. About the unsuitability of command of such a site during the war, which until now was unknown to him .. perhaps I agree. hi There are, however, spoons of honey in Budyonny’s personality: 1. he did not leave his signature on the “lists”. 2. he might not understand the situation "online", as they would say now, but if everything was discussed in detail at the military council, he quickly delved into it and took the side of the most correct decision. 3. he was for leaving Kiev when it was still possible .. he was removed for it. But then they handed over Kiev anyway. With respect, Nicholai hi
                  1. DimerVladimer
                    DimerVladimer April 26 2018 11: 02
                    +2
                    Quote: Mikado
                    1. He did not leave his signature on the “lists”. 2. he might not understand the situation "online", as they would say now, but if everything was discussed in detail at the military council, he quickly delved into it and took the side of the most correct decision. 3. he was for leaving Kiev when it was still possible .. he was removed for it. But then they handed over Kiev anyway. With respect, Nicholai


                    I subscribe to all of the above.
                    There is only one claim to Budyonny - that he did not besiege Mehlis on time and did not insist on a change of lieutenant general D.T. Kozlov - the commander, which would probably prevent the disaster of the Crimean Front in 1942 and the subsequent loss of Sevastopol ...
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado April 26 2018 12: 10
                      +1
                      There is only one claim to Budyonny - that he did not besiege Mehlis on time and did not insist on a change of lieutenant general D.T. Kozlov - the commander, which would probably prevent the disaster of the Crimean Front in 1942 and the subsequent loss of Sevastopol ...

                      it's yes .. just that Mehlis was conditionally "unsinkable" then, and it was appointed from above. And about Kozlov, Stalin wrote to the Mehlis: "We do not have the Hindenburgs in stock".. During any war, the command structure of any army undergoes" natural selection ", and instead of peacetime generals come those who discovered talent during the war. hi
              2. aKtoR
                aKtoR April 25 2018 16: 07
                +2
                If he was at least a mediocre commander, then we would see him at least ONCE in command positions. Otherwise, he from a cage close to the owner, whom he knew, trusted and did not merge at the time in question. Although it is at this time obsolete. And Levers and other aviation generals the owner leaked on his whim. And merits or blunders, especially, did not play a role. Also after the war, the owner leaked Golovanov, Admiral Kuznetsov and the Commander of the Air Force Novikov
          2. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 April 26 2018 16: 13
            +1
            Quote: avt
            Yes!? And the last name is possible and most importantly - from which course and which institute

            Sorry, Orlov-Feldman was confused. According to him, the People's Commissar Chvyalev was a student.
  2. aKtoR
    aKtoR April 24 2018 05: 41
    +4
    Thanks to the author for the work!
    Although not everything is clear, as indicated in the article. I think the main thing is not to forget these people.
    Cooling to the higher commanding staff of the Stalin falcons was at least present at the beginning of 1941. This is evident from the book of Golovanov about his conversation with Smushkevich, when he asked him to write a letter to the government. Golovanova was still surprised that such a person would not heed the government. The reason is probably the unsuccessful actions of the Air Force in the winter war.
    The next reason or pretext is a discussion of the increased accident rate of the Air Force in the spring of 1941. But by the beginning of May the case began to fade. For arrested, they even offered to take into account their military background. Great aircraft designers in that period began to knock on specialists who revealed that TK was not being carried out for an instant.
    But 25 May received an intelligence post from the Lyceum (behind which was Hitler himself). In the message in T.ch. It was pointed out the inept actions of 2500 Soviet aircraft against 250 Finnish. Messages from this source were viewed by the owner himself and they were delivered to him very promptly. Two days later, a wave of arrests began for high-ranking commanders of the Air Force, most of whom had experience in hostilities (including in Spain)
    1. Same lech
      Same lech April 24 2018 05: 54
      +6
      It would be better if he did not have a dizzying career and the dashing pilot Pashka Rychagov listened to whom the Monomakh cap was unbearable, only the roar of aircraft engines. How much benefit could he bring in air battles ... ".

      Yes, I agree here ... a wonderful pilot but a mediocre commander of the highest rank ... you can’t give the commander of a higher rank to give free rein to feelings and his language.
      It is a pity that such a person got into the meat grinder of interrogations of the Beria NKVD.
      1. Monster_Fat
        Monster_Fat April 24 2018 07: 34
        +3
        Yes, yes, “Stalin” you need and “Beria” -that they would have used the special services and the "National Guard" with "full efficiency" .... winked
        1. Same lech
          Same lech April 24 2018 07: 38
          +8
          Yes, yes, "Stalin" you need and "take"

          Yes, some people in Russia dream of returning interrogations with an addiction of the first degree.

          Then write is gone ...
          tomorrow someone will write an anonymous letter on you that you are a disguised agent of Mossad and are carrying out subversive activities against GDP at the VO ...
          further followed by interrogation using physical means ... then a confession and a court with execution ...
          I don’t feel like repeating old lessons again.
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol April 24 2018 07: 57
            +11
            everyone who dreams of Stalin dreams of Stalin not for himself, but for his neighbor
            1. EvilLion
              EvilLion April 24 2018 08: 18
              +1
              So you dream. In Stalin, as you know, everyone sees themselves.
          2. Monster_Fat
            Monster_Fat April 24 2018 08: 04
            +9
            Well, take a look around how many “apologists” there are in order to clean up the country with an “iron hand”, lying on soft deans, with a beer in the refrigerator and rolling their eyes in rapture from the phrase: “Well, Stalin would quickly put things in order” ".... They don’t know that it’s them who are chained to a wheelbarrow in a camp robe and will be forced to put this order in order and“ revive the economy ”if (God forbid) the“ new Stalin ”comes to power. They don’t believe this , their argument: "And us for what! We are "patriots"! "They do not understand that this" argument "of them is easily interrupted by the" iron "" Stalinist "argument:" If there was a person, there would always be a "business" for him ..... "
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 April 24 2018 08: 24
              +16
              And you google how many prisoners were in the Stalin camps, and how many today. Baska will go.
              1. Weyland
                Weyland April 24 2018 16: 07
                +9
                Quote: Mordvin 3
                And you google how many prisoners were in the Stalin camps, and how many today. Baska will go.

                It's not even about the number of prisoners - google, what is the proent of acquittals! With the king - 20%. Under bloody Stalin - 10%. Under Putin’s democratic regime,
                100 times less than under Stalin!
              2. Gopnik
                Gopnik April 24 2018 16: 35
                +4
                And you google how many executions were and what was the death rate in the camps under Stalin and now. To head went even further.
          3. Cartalon
            Cartalon April 24 2018 08: 09
            +10
            And these comrades are sure that they will write denunciations and conduct interrogations.
            1. Hantengri
              Hantengri April 25 2018 00: 04
              +2
              Quote: Cartalon
              And these comrades are sure that they will write denunciations and conduct interrogations.

              Misha, and yet, what the hell are Vs so nervous ?! It is enough to introduce the old, Russian rule: "The scammer is the first whip", and the status quo will already stand, as if no one had touched him! laughing
              1. faiver
                faiver April 29 2018 08: 55
                +2
                They’re probably nervous because they have something to write on. laughing
          4. 97110
            97110 April 24 2018 08: 38
            +11
            Quote: The same LYOKHA
            I don’t feel like repeating old lessons again.

            About which everything was told to you by the holy man Nikita the Wonderworker, who has never been messed up, unlike the creator of the terrible atomic bomb of Beria ...
          5. justas-xnumx
            justas-xnumx April 24 2018 19: 31
            +7
            But what, do policemen not conduct “interrogations with addiction” now? But what about those who have been tried to death, in Kazan, in St. Petersburg, in Moscow? Of course, these cases are far from always advertised, but there were tortures then, and now they are no less (if not more).
            1. segamegament
              segamegament 2 May 2018 00: 36
              0
              less, much less than 15-20 years ago
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich April 24 2018 06: 32
    +9
    Destroying YOUR aces during the war, when thousands of pilots have already perished, is beyond the reach of the mind. The State has already assessed these crimes.
    We will remember the wonderful. talented, unbroken real pilot Pavel Rychagov
    1. kalibr
      kalibr April 24 2018 07: 28
      +11
      She, in fact, was accused of only one thing: “being Rychagov’s beloved wife, she could not have known about her husband’s treasonous activities.”

      This is very significant, as well as the fact that they rehabilitated in the 1954 year, even before the XX Congress. Criminal regime, criminal clique ... why be surprised?
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion April 24 2018 08: 17
      +10
      We will remember the bastard, precisely, as the bastard because of which thousands died.
      1. Gopnik
        Gopnik April 24 2018 12: 47
        +1
        Yeah, this Georgian bastard cannot be forgotten, the Stalinists give him 2 cloves every year.
        1. EvilLion
          EvilLion April 24 2018 16: 53
          +5
          Yes, comic thinking and belief in supervillains. Typical for Americans.
    3. fighter angel
      fighter angel April 24 2018 09: 42
      +17
      For Olgovich:
      He is a real pilot, and he has not grown to the level of Air Force Commander-in-Chief. Well, it was not given. And he remained at the level of the Com. Regiment-Com. Diva, nothing more. A miracle did not happen, Pavel did not grow up in an aviation general. And his phrase about coffins is the level of a drunken comez in vomiting, after receiving a salary, but not the Air Force commander in chief! If it’s good, it is his duty and responsibility to ENSURE SUBSIDIARIES WITH APPROPRIATE AIRCRAFT, AND SAFETY OF FLIGHTS - ALSO ITS CARE! For some reason, A.S. Yakovlev, also a young man, managed to grow up to the deputy commissar of the AP himself, deal with the mess in the NKAP and begin the process of rearmament! This I understand - Head! And Pavel, you’ll excuse me, just a SCROLL! Instead of doing business, he makes such populist statements! In the tactics of the Air Force, man did not understand at all - all the air units were subordinate to combined-arms commanders under him! And do not prove anything to me! The man was out of place unambiguously and there was no need to make of him a "great martyr of the bloody regime."
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich April 24 2018 11: 12
        +2
        Quote: fighter angel
        He is a real pilot, and he has not grown to the level of Air Force Commander-in-Chief. Well, it was not given.

        He was young. Over time, he would have grown. He, by the way, did not appoint himself.
        Quote: fighter angel
        And his phrase about coffins is the level of a drunken comez in nausea,

        Roughly, but sharply outlined the truth:
        Quote: fighter angel
        If it’s good, it is his duty and responsibility to ENSURE SUBSIDIARIES WITH APPROPRIATE AIRCRAFT, AND SAFETY OF FLIGHTS - ALSO ITS CARE!

        The Commander does NOT provide the equipment, this is the business of the military-industrial complex.
        Quote: fighter angel
        ! And Pavel, you’ll excuse me, just a SCROLL! Instead of doing business, he makes such populist statements!

        He led the Air Force from August to April, i.e. absolutely NOTHING! In contrast to the same Yakovlev: how many years did he do?
        Quote: fighter angel
        And do not prove anything to me! The man was out of place unambiguously and there was no need to make of him a "great martyr of the bloody regime."

        Martyr? No, a crime victim. See Government Decisions on this.
        Do not agree, this is your problem.
        1. fighter angel
          fighter angel April 24 2018 15: 27
          +13
          Olgovich:
          Your hatred of everything related to the reign of Joseph Vissarionovich is known to everyone here. Therefore, I do not see much reason to get involved in an argument with you. I will not prove anything to you, but neither will you - prove anything to me either.
          However, a few general touches.
          Perhaps something is stirring in your consciousness "stunned by perestroika trends".
          I quote 1
          "He was young. Over time, he would have grown. He, by the way, did not appoint himself."
          Youth has nothing to do with it. Doros, if he worked on himself. But -Pavel and did not hit a finger on a finger to raise his level. At least he graduated in absentia from the academy. NO ACTION, NO DESIRE WAS ABSOLUTELY.
          I quote 2
          "..Roughly, but sharply outlined the truth ..."
          To begin with, this is NOT THE TRUTH. And the Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force of the Red Army signed this phrase in its insolvency.
          Can you imagine that if suddenly Evgeny Savitsky, or Pavel Kutakhov, or Peter Deinekin, or finally Viktor Nikolayevich Bondarev would "freeze" this on the carpet of the Supreme ??? You can’t imagine what would happen to them after that ... These People worked for the good and glory of the Country and its Air Force, they RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL MILITARY AIR FORCES. Pavel was engaged in unknown things, but only not strengthening the defense capability and effectiveness of the Air Force Red Army.
          I quote 3
          “The Commander-in-Chief does NOT provide equipment, this is the business of the military industrial complex ...
          It is here that a person is issued in you, absolutely far from aviation.
          How could it be easier for you to explain here, “non-aviation” you are our ...
          You see, the post of Commander-in-Chief, it implies the management of the development, testing, adoption, and operation of ALL AIRCRAFT TECHNOLOGY in the troops !!! Simply put, the HEAD of the Air Force is responsible for everything that happens in the Air Force. And the Air Force RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FIRST QUALITY for the quality of the aviation equipment delivered in the aviation part!
          I quote 4
          "... Martyr? No, the victim of a crime. See the decisions of the State on this matter."
          He is not a victim, Paul is a CRIMINAL! He saw perfectly that he was not pulling, he could not cope, he lacked strength, knowledge and energy. WHAT BEST SITTER ON POP EXACTLY ???
          Why didn’t he leave ???
          Do you like the big stars, the apartment, the cottage and the personal ZiS-101 or Packard?
          He liked the power! Probably decided to live, Pavel, and then the war broke out ...
          And in the Air Force, as it turned out, the monstrous losses and unavailability of most of the air units and formations ... This is where he is a criminal! Definitely! And he received, excuse me, tough, but according to the laws of the war!
          I quote Vladimir Semenych in a cult film:
          "AND REMEMBER, SHARAPOV, PERFORMANCE WITHOUT GUILT DOES NOT HAPPEN!".
          1. Gopnik
            Gopnik April 24 2018 16: 41
            +1
            Quote: fighter angel
            But -Pavel and did not hit a finger on a finger to raise his level. At least he graduated in absentia from the academy. NO ACTION, NO DESIRE WAS ABSOLUTELY.


            For this, undoubtedly, it was necessary to shoot him without trial, and not to put him to the position of which he corresponded. And of course, it was also necessary to kill his wife without trial, yes ...

            Quote: fighter angel
            WHAT BEST SITTER ON POP EXACTLY ???


            He did not sit on the priest evenly, but at the highest level declared that the military-industrial complex is driving an open marriage. For this he was removed, the military-industrial complex did not cease to drive the marriage. It was necessary, yes, how to pour everything into Stalin’s ears of honey “all is well, beautiful marquise”.

            Quote: fighter angel
            And the Air Force RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FIRST QUALITY for the quality of the aviation equipment delivered in the aviation part!


            Not true. The military-industrial complex, and specifically the NK Aviation Industry, is responsible for this.
            1. fighter angel
              fighter angel April 24 2018 16: 50
              +11
              Dear, yes, Paul should not have declared, but taken control of the situation and corrected it! How did Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev in the NKAP.
              What is the use of his statement? What did he specifically do as the Chief of the Air Force did to eliminate this problem? Besides, what did you discover? YES HE DID NOT DO ANYTHING! FROM THE WORDS AT ALL! For this I received.
              And for you, apparently, also far from aviation - I repeat. The Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force is responsible and responsible for the state of aviation technology.
              1. Gopnik
                Gopnik April 24 2018 17: 04
                +3
                You’re just like at a rally - a bunch of slogans and emotions and zero facts.
                And the facts are as follows - a person was put on a post (and he didn’t climb onto it); after he told the truth about the disgusting quality of the equipment it was removed; then, for their own miscalculations, they made a scapegoat - killing lawlessly, without a court decision on frankly absurd and idiotic accusations. And besides, his wife was killed, which is completely absurd. The murder of Rychagov and his wife is an absolute crime.

                Quote: fighter angel
                And for you, apparently, also far from aviation - I repeat. The Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force is responsible and responsible for the state of aviation technology.


                And I repeat again, this is nonsense. NK AP is responsible for the quality of equipment, which does not obey the Air Force Commander.
                1. Hantengri
                  Hantengri April 24 2018 19: 14
                  +13
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  killing lawlessly, without a court order on a blatantly absurd and idiotic accusation. And besides, his wife was killed, which is completely absurd. The murder of Rychagov and his wife is an absolute crime.

                  Have you studied the materials of the Rychagov case? Not? What about his wife? Also no? On what basis, in this case, do you draw conclusions? Only on the basis of the fact that, like Olgovich, you consider the entire Soviet period of history to be a criminal booth led by bloody commies? So personal opinions and, all the more so, emotions of sobriety do not add to anyone.
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              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich April 25 2018 11: 19
                0
                Quote: fighter angel
                I have no desire to continue the discussion with you

                belay Why write then? request
                Quote: fighter angel
                Maybe it's time to stop your liberal howl on this occasion?

                Strange, but so far only yours is heard request
                Quote: fighter angel
                All the best, I’ve finished talking with you.

                Have a nice one you too! yes
              2. The comment was deleted.
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich April 25 2018 11: 34
                  +3
                  Quote: DimerVladimer
                  At the time of the arrest, he called himself a sapper general and subsequently testified in relation to the following:
                  about the defenses erected for the needs of the Red Army on the approaches to Bryansk and along the banks of the Desna River;
                  about the exact number of labor involved by the Soviet authorities in the construction of these same defensive lines;

                  Not surprised...
                2. fighter angel
                  fighter angel April 25 2018 12: 22
                  +9
                  DimerVladimer:
                  "Here is an example of criminal activity ..."
                  I don’t understand something. Have you and I already switched to "you"? A huge request, if you want to communicate, stop "Poke." I don’t poke you.
                  You gave an example, and you think that this was happening everywhere? For one freak, do you judge the rest? This is fundamentally wrong. But do you know how many really in the country there were deficiencies who, upon the arrival of the Germans, brought them bread and salt? And how many real spies and traitors were neutralized by the OGPU-NKVD before the war? There were bastards and bastards like the one you describe. But to hang the stigma on the whole "office", calling all the Chekists "bloody executioners" - is absolutely wrong. There was arbitrariness in some cases. Real numbers, see above, Bortnikov brought, not me.
                  And I can give you other examples.
                  The fact that the combined units, divisions of the NKVD were at the initial stage of the war, in 41-42, one of the most combat-ready units of the Red Army. Fought, stood to the death! In the most difficult sections of the front. There are many examples. The Battle of Stalingrad, Voronezh, the defense of the North Caucasus - these are just a few episodes. But you probably find it easier to put them all in one heap by labeling them "Stalin's Butchers".
                  1. DimerVladimer
                    DimerVladimer April 26 2018 11: 15
                    +1
                    Quote: fighter angel
                    Do you know how many really there were shortages in the country that they brought bread and salt to them upon the arrival of the Germans? And how many real spies and traitors were neutralized by the OGPU-NKVD before the war? There were bastards and bastards like the one you describe. But to hang the stigma on the whole "office", calling all the Chekists "bloody executioners" - is absolutely wrong. There was arbitrariness in some cases. Real numbers, see above, Bortnikov brought, not me.
                    And I can give you other examples.
                    The fact that the combined units, divisions of the NKVD were at the initial stage of the war, in 41-42, one of the most combat-ready units of the Red Army. Fought, stood to the death! In the most difficult sections of the front. There are many examples. The Battle of Stalingrad, Voronezh, the defense of the North Caucasus - these are just a few episodes. But you probably find it easier to put them all in one heap by labeling them "Stalin's Butchers".


                    I know how much it was - the father remained a kid in the occupied territory, he told who went to the police - the local drunkard was the most poor. As soon as the Red Army retreated and the Germans came, the former collective farmers first looted the general store.
                    In the occupied territories, the Germans dismissed the collective farms (at least in Belarus), cut the land and allowed them to farm - to grow bread, taxed much less than the collective farm was taxed. They put the headman, who monitored the delivery of grain. That is, under the Germans, the villagers lived better than on the collective farms - just not in joy - because relatives were at the front.

                    Few people in the village loved Soviet power - because the Soviet power robbed the peasants - deprived them of land and rights.
                    Maybe someone fought "for Stalin" - and the partisans fought with the invaders for their land - for their homeland.

                    By the way, yes - under the Germans there wasn’t much hunger when they were liberated from the invaders - food detachments came and seized the remains of grain - then a real famine came ...
                    1. The comment was deleted.
  4. EvilLion
    EvilLion April 24 2018 08: 16
    +11
    Horse racing on the "innocently repressed" continues. I am waiting for statements about the genius of Yakir.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 April 24 2018 08: 27
      0
      Quote: EvilLion
      I am waiting for statements about the genius of Yakir.

      In, plin, some Jews around. laughing
      1. fighter angel
        fighter angel April 24 2018 09: 45
        +5
        And at the same time about Uborevich ...
        1. Mikado
          Mikado April 24 2018 12: 32
          +1
          I am waiting for statements about the genius of Yakir.

          Before the execution, Yakir wrote to Stalin a very long letter about his thoughts on the organization of the Red Army. Probably vaguely hoped for another pardon .. people tend to hope ..
          And at the same time about Uborevich ...

          Zhukov spoke very warmly about Uborevich. In something, apparently, he considered a teacherhi
  5. Operator
    Operator April 24 2018 08: 26
    +16
    I didn’t hit the leverage fingers to implement the orders of the Red Army General Staff on the creation of a network of field airfields and the dispersal of aircraft in the western military districts, which were hit by German aircraft on 22 on June 1941.

    As commander of the Leverage was a negative value. His phrase about the coffins was an attempt to defend himself against charges of the complete absence of leadership in the military branch entrusted to him. At the same time, Rychagov did not resign, but as a tick stuck to the position, limousines, apartments, cottages, etc. etc.

    Rychagov’s conscience was the defeat of the aviation of the western districts and the deaths of thousands of pilots and hundreds of thousands of foot soldiers left without air cover.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich April 24 2018 08: 49
      +5
      Quote: Operator
      I didn’t hit the levers for the implementation of the orders of the General Staff of the Red Army to create a network of field airfields and the dispersal of aircraft in the western military districts that were hit by German aircraft on June 22, 1941.

      You should at least take a look at the BIOGRAPHY to read it: the head of the Main Directorate of the Air Force of the Red Army. he became only in August 1940, and in the beginning April 41-Has already been REMOVED. So much for the "dispersal of aviation" on the eve of the war ..
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon April 24 2018 08: 55
        +2
        But what for, the enemy of the people of Ms., and the tavarsch Stalin could not be mistaken, correctly appointed, correctly shot, all this is a cunning plan to fight enemies.
      2. Operator
        Operator April 24 2018 09: 24
        +7
        Do you think that the order of the General Staff of the Red Army on the construction of field airfields (with workshops, fuel and ammunition depots, access roads from the railway and highway) in the western districts was issued only in May 1941? laughing
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich April 24 2018 09: 50
          +2
          Quote: Operator
          Do you think that the order of the General Staff of the Red Army on the construction of field airfields (with workshops, fuel and ammunition depots, access roads from the railway and highway) in the western districts was issued only in May 1941? laughing

          Here it is not necessary to consider, but KNOW that the order was issued on December 27, 40, and by April 1941according to him, it was only necessary to imagine plansat the disguise of each airfield, the same disguise itself by July 1, 1941.
          Rychagova in April, already removed. yes
          1. Operator
            Operator April 24 2018 10: 41
            +3
            What is your native language - French? laughing

            I wrote "construction" in Russian, in black and white, and you drive the blizzard about "disguise".
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich April 24 2018 11: 42
              +2
              Quote: Operator
              What is your native language - French?

              Human yes
              Quote: Operator
              I to you in Russian
              Write already in Russianand not "in Russian" lol
              Quote: Operator
              he wrote “construction” in black and white, and you drive the blizzard about “disguise”.

              Not the air force Builds and builds airfields: Don't you know that either? request The Air Force receives and operates them. But the disguise was precisely for the Air Force (except for the newly accepted airfields, they were supposed to be taken with disguise already).

              For the construction of airfields by order of the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs No. 00328 of March 27 1941 was established GUAS (Main Directorate of aerodrome construction) pursuant to Decisions of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.) of March 24, 1941 year, according to which the NKVD of the USSR was entrusted with the construction of airfields for the air forces of the Red Army

              And more:
              The order to deploy the construction of operational airfields

              № 0039

              18th of June 1941

              The situation with the construction of operational airfields is unacceptably bad. As of 1.6.41, only 50% of the aerodrome construction plan I approved for 1941 was covered by the construction.

              Is Leverage again to blame? fool
              1. Alexander Greene
                Alexander Greene April 24 2018 18: 29
                +6
                Quote: Olgovich
                Is Leverage again to blame?

                To blame. Under Smushkevich there was already a complete collapse of the Air Force, Rychagov was appointed instead in the hope that the energetic young man would be able to rectify the situation, there was no time for swinging, and he was even worse than Smushkevich, thinking at the level of a squadron commander. Therefore, it was removed. And they shot Rychagov for deceiving and hiding a mess in the Western Special Military District, which led to grave consequences.
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich April 25 2018 09: 01
                  +2
                  Quote: Alexander Green
                  To blame. Under Smushkevich there was already a complete collapse of the Air Force, Rychagov was appointed instead in the hope that the energetic young man would be able to rectify the situation, there was no time for swinging, and he was even worse than Smushkevich, thinking at the level of a squadron commander. Therefore, it was removed. And they shot Rychagov for deceiving and hiding a mess in the Western Special Military District, which led to grave consequences.

                  Your talk is not worth a penny: Levers and Smushkevich by the State are justified and rehabilitated.
                  Respect the laws of the Russian Federation!
                  Oh, you are now independent, thanks to the THIEF. lol Then respect Soviet laws!am lol
                  1. DimerVladimer
                    DimerVladimer April 25 2018 13: 21
                    +3
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    Your talk is not worth a penny: Levers and Smushkevich by the State are justified and rehabilitated.
                    Respect the laws of the Russian Federation!


                    Green is a stubborn Stalinist and beriaphil - it is useless to argue with him - in his understanding, Beria is an incomprehensible genius.
                    It doesn’t click in a person’s brain what exactly after Stalin and Beria - the USSR achieved its power and strength - when the threat of sudden unmotivated arrest did not loom behind every commander / minister / scientist and people creatively developed their directions, and the highest decisions were made collectively, not a single old man (albeit very intelligent).
                  2. Alexander Greene
                    Alexander Greene April 25 2018 16: 49
                    +5
                    Quote: Olgovich
                    Your talk is not worth a penny: Levers and Smushkevich by the State are justified and rehabilitated.

                    I bring you facts for which they repressed Rychagov and Smushkevich. The rehabilitation was carried out by Rudenko, who appeared in a submarine of documents on the arrest of Beria. under Khrushchev, he released the German SS men. Bandera, Vlasovites, policemen, returned them all rights. There is no confidence in the actions of Rudenko.
  6. bober1982
    bober1982 April 24 2018 08: 57
    0
    Thanks to the author.
    The article provides excerpts from the memoirs of Dmitry Panteleevich Panov, quite curious, from his book Russians in the snow or the fate of man against a historical snowstorm
    , with all due respect to D.P. Panov, in my opinion, he feels a certain bias towards Rychagov and the pilots - “Spaniards”, by the way the book of memoirs was printed in “Bandera” Lviv
  7. baudolino
    baudolino April 24 2018 09: 20
    +1
    It turns out that not only General Miller did not hand over anyone during interrogations to the NKVD. And among the red commanders, too, came across strong spirits.
  8. EvilLion
    EvilLion April 24 2018 10: 07
    +8
    I understand that I want to skip and blame the "criminal authority" for executions without trial, but here is what E. Prudnikova writes in her recent book 1941: The Real Reasons for the Failure of the Blitzkrieg.

    Now let's remember the famous "25-tee list." These are twenty-five people who were shot on October 28 1941 of the year in Kuibyshev. It is believed that they were executed without trial, on the basis of Beria’s order, but in fact, the text of the order says in black and white that the special assignment officer of the NKVD special group (in other words, the shooter) “is invited to leave for Kuibyshev and carry out the sentence is the death penalty (shoot) for the following prisoners ... ”40 So, the sentence was. Why shouldn’t it be - in the first months of the war quite officially, according to the court, enough people were shot with considerable stars, this is why there is a special relation to it?

    And here's what is interesting: of the 25 members of this list, at least a third are somehow related to the Air Force.

    Colonel General Stern - Head of the Main Directorate of Air Defense of NPOs. Pilots recall that there were very few or no air defense systems at the airfields.

    Colonel-General Loktionov - from November 1937 to November 1939-th - the head of the Red Army Air Force, then, until July 1940 of the year - Deputy People's Commissar for Aviation.

    Lieutenant General Smushkevich - replaced Loktionov as head of the Red Army Air Force, in August 1940 became Air Force Inspector General, and in December - Assistant Chief of the Red Army General Staff for Aviation.

    Lieutenant General Rychagov was Smushkevich’s successor as chief of the Red Army Air Force, and from February to April he was also deputy commissar for aviation.

    Divac engineer Sakrier - Deputy Head of Armament and Supply of the Main Directorate of the Air Force of the Red Army.

    Major General Volodin - Chief of Staff of the Red Army Air Force.

    Lieutenant General Proskurov - this one generally has a winding career. Dashing ace of the Spanish war, on his return from some fright, he was appointed head of the Intelligence Directorate of the Red Army. As one would expect, he could not cope, after which in September 1940 he was appointed commander of the Air Force of the Far Eastern Front, and in October - assistant to the chief of the Main Directorate of the Air Force of the Red Army for long-range bomber aviation.

    Lieutenant General Arzhenukhin - in 1938 – 1940 was the chiefs of staff of the Air Force of the Red Army, then became the chiefs of the Military Academy of the command and navigator of the Air Force.

    Major Nesterenko - deputy commander of the special regiment and wife Rychagova. Women in the Soviet Union were rarely shot, and the highest measure applied to the woman suggests that the case was very serious.

    These nine include Lieutenant General Ptukhin, Air Force Commander KOVO, Major General Ionov, Air Force Commander PribOV, Major General Tayursky, Deputy Air Force Commander ZapOVO and, undoubtedly, Air Force Commander of this district, Major General Kopec, if he hadn’t shot himself. There were also more generals arrested and executed by aviation generals - a pogrom at the top of the Air Force staged a brutal one. All these people were accused of an anti-Soviet conspiracy and, of course, long rehabilitated. We did not have a conspiracy or sabotage. And the cannons from the planes were removed only under the direct instructions of Stalin - the mustachioed villain wanted more people to die, more ...


    Still have questions about airplanes and lack of judgment, can you read extracts from the interrogation protocols of some of these characters in the same book? However, there is also about the accident rate and the unfortunate Pasha Rychagov: <see below>
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 April 24 2018 10: 35
      +4
      Quote: EvilLion
      However, about the accident rate

      The accident rate in aviation has always been high; order was brought in only under P.S. Kutakhov.
      Where could good pilots, commanders and planes come from before the start of World War II? The country was feverishly creating industry, poverty, illiteracy, pilots recruited everyone, there were the same commanders, there were no others — where did they get them from.
      Now to beat and kill or something to blame for wrecking, as the "mustachioed" did
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion April 24 2018 16: 54
        +2
        Wrecking is sabotage, if it does not. However, read the second part of the message.
    2. Gopnik
      Gopnik April 24 2018 12: 59
      0
      Quote: EvilLion
      I understand that I want to skip and blame the "criminal authority" for executions without trial, but here is what E. Prudnikova writes in her recent book "1941: The Real Reasons for the Failure of the Blitzkrieg"


      And what is she writing? Well-known facts about the execution. At the same time, an excellent argument is "Why not a sentence." Well, give a link to the verdict, by what court, what date.
    3. smaug78
      smaug78 April 24 2018 14: 00
      +2
      Prudnikova, the same Suvorov with a different sign ...
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion April 24 2018 16: 55
        +6
        Well, yes, the only modern author who understands the era and works with documents, not the memories of some witnesses who fled to Argentina.

        Download above.
  9. EvilLion
    EvilLion April 24 2018 10: 09
    +4
    Everyone who is at least somewhat interested in the history of the Red Army is well aware of the conflict between Stalin and the head of the main directorate of the Air Force of the Red Army, Lieutenant General Rychagov. The writer Konstantin Simonov with the submission of Admiral Isakov leads him like this:

    “This happened at the Military Council ... before the war itself. It was a question of accident rate in aviation, the accident rate was big ... Those and other explanations of accident rate were given, until the turn reached the commander of the then air force Rychagova. He seemed to be a lieutenant general, was generally young, and already looked like a perfect boy in appearance. And when the turn came to him, he suddenly said:

    “The accident will be big, because you make us fly on coffins.”

    It was completely unexpected, he blushed, broke, there was absolute deathly silence. Only Levers stood, not yet departing after his cry, crimson and excited, and Stalin stood a few steps away ...

    Everyone was waiting for what would happen. He stood, then went past the table, in the same direction in which he was walking. I reached the end, turned, walked the whole room back in complete silence, turned again and, taking out the pipe from his mouth, said slowly and quietly, without raising his voice:

    “You shouldn't have said so!”

    And he went again. I reached the end again, turned around again, went through the whole room, turned around again and stopped at almost the same place as the first time, and again said in the same low calm voice:

    “You shouldn't have said so,” and after a tiny pause, he added: “The meeting is closing.”

    And the first to leave the room ... And a week later Leverage was arrested and disappeared forever. ”48.

    That is, the tyrant was angry - and there is no person. But in reality, the tyrant merely removed Rychagov from his post and sent him to study at the Military Academy of the General Staff. Considering that the head of the Soviet Air Force had only a flying school, it is not out of place. They arrested him only on 24 of June, for which - we know.

    But why is Stalin so angry?

    Yes, because it is not a matter of airplanes at all, and in order to know this, one does not have to finish academies. The same Levers on Soviet cars of older models fought well in Spain, and here people fight during training flights. And it was not at all necessary to look for “explanations for accidents”, its causes were well known long before this historical conversation. They are reflected, for example, in the order "On Measures to Prevent Accidents in the Red Army Air Force" dated 4 June 1939 years - certainly not the first and not the last.

    “... The number of flight accidents in the 1939 year, especially in April and May, reached extraordinary proportions. During the period from January 1 to May 15, 34 disasters occurred, and 70 personnel died in them. During the same period, there were 126 crashes in which an 91 plane was broken ...

    These heavy losses ... are a direct result:

    a) criminal violation of special orders, regulations, flight instructions and instructions;

    b) the extremely poor work of the command and political staff of the air forces and military councils of districts and armies in training flight technical personnel of air units;

    c) poorly organized and even worse planning and consistency in training and combat training of aviation units;

    d) inability of senior commanders and commissioners to establish flight technical training with each crew and pilot individually in accordance with the level of their special knowledge, preparedness, and their individual and specific abilities and qualities;

    e) the personnel’s still unsatisfactory knowledge of the material part, as a consequence of this, its poor exploitation, and

    f) the most important thing is the unacceptable weakening of military discipline in units of the Air Force and laxity, unfortunately, even among the best pilots, including some Heroes of the Soviet Union.

    Literally every catastrophe and incident serves as a confirmation of all that has been said, since when you get to know them very quickly, the reason is usually either indiscipline, looseness, or an inattentive and unacceptable negligent attitude to your duties as a flight-lifting and technical personnel ”49.

    Leverage could be blamed on the "coffins" if he had eliminated all the above shortcomings. Do you think he has outlived them or not?

    And examples, of course, are given in the order, among which - the death of “ace number one” of the Soviet Union Valery Chkalov. Whatever legends they composed up to the point that Stalin wanted to make Chkalov the people's commissar of internal affairs (and Beria, apparently, was sent to test the planes). In fact, everything turned out to be much more prosaic. The cause of the death of the famous pilot was a well-known syndrome: "I am the coolest!"

    Chkalov was supposed to experience a new fighter, not yet brought to mind, with a bunch of defects, which the pilot knew very well. Did he have the opportunity to abandon the test, or did the animal-chiefs forcefully drive the brigade commander into a malfunctioning car? Not just had the opportunity, but Stalin himself, to whom the NKVD reported what was happening, personally banned the tests. And what do you think Comrade Chkalov did? Not only flew to the test unfinished aircraft, but also went outside the airport. The plane, as expected, crashed, there was no level place nearby, and during an emergency landing, the devil knows where the pilot died. Well, and who made him "fly on coffins"?

    Here is another story that perfectly describes the situation in the Soviet Air Force. On October 4 on October 1938, the Rodina plane crashed in the Amur taiga, on which a female crew led by the famous Valentina Grizodubova made a record flight Moscow - Far East. The story about the flight itself is also impressive. the first model of the plane fell apart in the air, the second almost fell apart, the third seemed to fly, and on this occasion they joyfully rushed across the country. Surprisingly, the plane flew - but where? During the flight from the cockpit to the open one of the participants, the hatch “blew out” the maps, so we had to go further by compass; there was not enough gas to the final destination; the pilots could not call for help on the radio, because they forgot to put spare batteries and were given the callsigns of last month. When gas ran out, the girls managed to land the plane in some kind of swamp, after which the epic of their search began. Searched for nine days. The seaplane commander who flew these places in all directions found the “Homeland”. And then the actions of the authorities began - it would be better if they drank vodka in the cabinets, honestly ...

    Air Force Commander of the 2 Separate Red Banner Army Sorokin went on a heavy bomber TB-3 to the landing site of the "Homeland", as suggested in the order, "obviously, for the sole purpose, so that later it could be said that he, Sorokin, also took part in the salvation of the crew "Homeland" ". At the same time, at the Douglas, the army commander Konev (incidentally taken without demand) flew the famous test pilot brigade commander Bryandinsky, whom no one had sent there either.

    Recalls the seaplane commander Mikhail Sakharov (who, in fact, found the girls):

    “Having decided to fly to the landing site of the Motherland, the commander Sorokin ordered me to fly on his TB-3 for the navigator. But I always eschewed the noisy and naughty bosses and explained to the divisional commander that I already had a task from my superiors ...

    ... I remember a strange detail before the flight. The flag-navigator of the Air Force A. Bryandinsky, to whom I wanted to show how to get out better and with greater accuracy at the place of emergency landing of the Rodina plane, dismissed me in a rather sharp form. With a red pencil, he circled a circle on his map and put a cross on it. Someone who watched this scene joked gloomily that no matter how this cross turned out to be an oak ... ”50

    And so it happened. Both the self-confident tester and the division commander couldn’t get exactly to the landing place of the "Homeland". Preoccupied with searching, they circled over the forest until they collided. The result is 15 corpses.

    This is where the "Stalin's coffins" have absolutely nothing to do with it!
    1. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer April 24 2018 11: 52
      +4
      Quote: EvilLion
      “... The number of flight accidents in the 1939 year, especially in April and May, reached extraordinary proportions. During the period from January 1 to May 15, 34 disasters occurred, and 70 personnel died in them. During the same period, there were 126 crashes in which an 91 plane was broken ...
      These heavy losses ... are a direct result:
      a) criminal violation of special orders, regulations, flight instructions and instructions;
      b) the extremely poor work of the command and political staff of the air forces and military councils of districts and armies in training flight technical personnel of air units;
      c) poorly organized and even worse planning and consistency in training and combat training of aviation units;
      d) inability of senior commanders and commissioners to establish flight technical training with each crew and pilot individually in accordance with the level of their special knowledge, preparedness, and their individual and specific abilities and qualities;
      e) the personnel’s still unsatisfactory knowledge of the material part, as a consequence of this, its poor exploitation, and
      f) the most important thing is the unacceptable weakening of military discipline in units of the Air Force and laxity, unfortunately, even among the best pilots, including some Heroes of the Soviet Union.
      Literally every catastrophe and incident serves as a confirmation of all that has been said, since when you get to know them very quickly, the reason is usually either indiscipline, looseness, or an inattentive and unacceptable negligent attitude to your duties as a flight-lifting and technical personnel ”49.
      Leverage could be blamed on the "coffins" if he had eliminated all the above shortcomings. Do you think he has outlived them or not?


      - at the beginning of 1939, the Red Army had 8139 combat aircraft, of which 2225 were fighters
      - as of 01.01.1940/12540/50, only in the western military districts there were XNUMX (!) combat aircraft excluding long-range bomber aviation - almost a XNUMX% increase
      By the end of 1940, these numbers almost doubled (!) To 24 thousand combat aircraft. The number of training aircraft only was brought to 6800 pcs.
      - As of 01.01.1941, the Red Army Air Force totaled 26392 aircraft, of which 14628 combat and 11438 training aircraft. Moreover, 10565 (8392 combat) were built in 1940.

      Imagine an increase in the number of Air Force in 50% for the year and 100% in the next year? Where did the experienced pilots prepare in a year?

      Hence the sharp increase in accident rate, since quantitative growth is always ahead of qualitative.


      So 91 crashed aircraft with 4000 prepared for 1939 and 12000 in 1940 pilots - this is not such a big accident indicator.
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion April 24 2018 17: 00
        +4
        Yes, growth is largely due to the fact that there are more aircraft. As a result, Pasha Rychagov was still kicked in Spain and the planes rolled up to him as good as possible. There were more planes and all kinds of kicking Pash and Chkalovs, who imagined themselves as Rainboy Dash, and they began to miss what is written about. But what does Vissarionitch with the coffins have to do with it, and what did Pasha do to restore order, except for the raids on Vissarionitch?
    2. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer April 24 2018 12: 08
      +1
      Quote: EvilLion
      “... The number of flight accidents in the 1939 year, especially in April and May, reached extraordinary proportions. During the period from January 1 to May 15, 34 disasters occurred, and 70 personnel died in them. During the same period, there were 126 crashes in which an 91 plane was broken ...

      34 lost aircraft with an increase in the number of the Red Army by 50% from 8139 combat aircraft as of 1.01.1940/12540/1939 in the western military districts there were 28 combat aircraft excluding long-range bomber aircraft, it does not look large-scale - in the USSR in 30, XNUMX-XNUMX combat aircraft were produced per day.
      In order to prepare pilots for them, I had to fly intensively, which led to rapid deterioration of the equipment and, of course, accident rate was growing, since the quantitative growth of the fleet and inexperienced pilots was very high at that time.
  10. kalibr
    kalibr April 24 2018 11: 00
    +5
    Quote: fighter angel
    The man was out of place was unequivocally

    But there is such a thing as the selection and placement of personnel. The party also did this. And the staff needed to be grown. And if the higher ones incorrectly selected the frames from the lower ones, then ... it was necessary to send back, and not shoot without trial together with his wife ... Or did she also fail?
  11. kalibr
    kalibr April 24 2018 11: 07
    +2
    Quote: EvilLion
    Under them broke the USSR

    How little, it turns out, it was necessary to break it ...
    1. Svarozhich
      Svarozhich April 24 2018 12: 02
      +4
      More than 40 years. It is not enough?
  12. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer April 24 2018 11: 37
    +5
    among the other 25 arrested, on October 28, 1941 without trial he was shot according to the criminal order of Beria

    Who is there yelling about what is the correct, effective, irreplaceable "comrade" Beria?
  13. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA April 24 2018 11: 44
    +1
    And here Pavel Vasilyevich told Stalin: “30 hours is enough unless the pilot crashes. And he still needs to be able to fight. 120 hours at least! ” To this statement, Joseph Vissarionovich replied: “120 hours of flying ... Boyish reasoning. We are not going to throw fuel into the wind. ” But, despite such a reaction, Rychagov’s words produced the desired effect. The fact is that after some time an order was signed to increase flight hours for combat pilots.

    The reasoning, in truth, is truly naive. Because with aviation gas in the country was the fifth point.
    As a rule, every year, comrade People’s Commissar, at the height of flights in the summer, starting from the month of July, and sometimes from the month of June, the supply of gas is stopped, parts switch to a hungry rations, making flights to the better months because of this for flights (June, July, August). This situation is further intolerable. You won’t learn to fly without gas.
    © Novikov A.A., Major General of Aviation, Air Force Commander of the Leningrad Military District
    And the second fifth point was with training machines for the "final" training of pilots and maintain class:
    We now have such a situation that there are 4 pilots per UTI-35 aircraft. UTI-4 flies only 45 minutes, after which recharging is required. Thus, at maximum voltage during the day on this plane, you can bring out or check the training no more than 10 people. So, the remaining 25 people are waiting for the next day, the next turn.
    At least we need to have at least 5 training aircraft on a regiment. We have a lot of training machines, but these are not the ones you can test on. There are a large number of aircraft, not only in the Leningrad District, but also in other districts - UT-1, but you cannot train on these aircraft, because they are single-seat and the instructor cannot check pilots.
    © he
    And yet, about the raid:
    The situation is better in the troops of the Far Eastern Front and the Trans-Baikal District, mainly because they had the ability to give more air raids, having fuel. FEF has a flying time of more than 100 hours per pilot, according to ZabVO - more than 70 hours of flying per pilot, and some internal districts have 35 to 40 hours per pilot.
    I want to say about night training, which is bad with us. For example: the whole Leningrad district flew 141 hours on bomber aircraft, i.e., that 3 pilots should fly a year. Oryol district flew only 36 hours.
    In such large districts as LVO, OdVO, etc., we have five bombings per year per crew. Under these conditions, accuracy cannot be. There are 2,3 bombings per crew per year in the Transcaucasian Military District. In addition, in the field of fire training, we did not achieve the position for aviation to use a fully photographic machine gun, because without this it is impossible to train aerial combat. Regarding aerial firing. We teach shooting cones at speeds of 200 - 250 [km per hour], because at high speeds the cones come off.
    © Y. V. Smushkevich, Lieutenant General of Aviation, Assistant Chief of the General Staff for the Air Force
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik April 24 2018 13: 06
      +1
      This is not naive, but sound reasoning. There is no way to train pilots and give fuel - nefig riveting poor-quality aircraft and untrained pilots, driving a shaft. Which, in the end, will either fight on their own or replenish the accounts of well-trained German pilots who fought not in quantity but in quality. Better less, but better. And then the country's resources, it’s better to switch to something else.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA April 24 2018 15: 15
        +8
        Quote: Gopnik
        There is no way to train pilots and give fuel - nefig riveting poor-quality aircraft and untrained pilots, driving a shaft. Which, in the end, will either fight on their own or replenish the accounts of well-trained German pilots who fought not in quantity but in quality. Better less, but better.

        But only in the end the victory was won by those who drove the shaft and exchanged 3-4 average pilots for one ace (and 5-6 of their tanks for 1 enemy tank).
        Supportersbetter less yes better"they lost aces one by one - and as a result, by the middle of the war, their air forces fell into the crater"we need more pilots - we reduce the program - losses increase - we need more pilots"They say that the same Eshonnek shot himself precisely after he analyzed the statistics of the level of training and the number of shot down and replenishment.
        1. Gopnik
          Gopnik April 24 2018 16: 51
          0
          Quote: Alexey RA
          But only in the end the victory was won by those who drove the shaft and exchanged 3-4 average pilots for one ace (and 5-6 of their tanks for 1 enemy tank).


          Well, it’s clear that if the victory were won by exchanging at least 1 to 1 (or even better, losing less than the defeated adversary) it would be "unprotected", it would not look so impressive, right?

          Quote: Alexey RA
          Supporters "better less, better" lost aces one by one - and as a result, by the middle of the war, their air force fell into the crater "we need more pilots - we reduce the program - losses increase - we need more pilots." It is said that the same Eshonnek shot himself precisely after he analyzed the statistics of the level of training and the number of shot down and replenishment.


          This is only because you can’t beat the lash with how many riveting airplanes and pilots, "but the elephant is still thicker," in the sense that the Anglo-Americans will still exhibit more better trained pilots on more excellent aircraft with an unlimited fuel supply .
          The USSR did not have such a problem - Germany did not have a quantitative superiority.
          You know, I hope that our Western Allies won the war in the air, having shot down most of the German planes?
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA April 24 2018 17: 33
            +4
            Quote: Gopnik
            Well, it’s clear that if the victory were won by exchanging at least 1 to 1 (or even better, losing less than the defeated adversary) it would be "unprotected", it would not look so impressive, right?

            It’s good to be healthy and rich. But in fact, even the Yankees in that war "crushed the masses." Although, it would seem, already to them, sitting overseas and reverently related to losses, God himself ordered the unit aces to fight on piece superplanes.
            Quote: Gopnik
            This is only because you can’t beat the lash with how many riveting airplanes and pilots, "but the elephant is still thicker," in the sense that the Anglo-Americans will still exhibit more better trained pilots on more excellent aircraft with an unlimited fuel supply .

            The Yankees did not have excellent aircraft. It was their opponents who pursued aerodynamics and outstanding performance characteristics. And the Yankees riveted machines that were maximally adapted for construction at existing factories with available personnel and for further operation in combat units. The same "Hellket" carried tens of kilograms of excess weight - in the name of manufacturability and excess strength.
            And, by the way, they crossed the ridge of the Luftwaffe and Japanese aviation even on the “axes”, “whitetets”, “lightnings” and “barrels”. And then they continued on the Mustangs against jet engines.
            And once again - the Americans had every opportunity to go along the road "the best piece pilots in the best piece cars." But they chose the mass training of the middle peasants.
            Quote: Gopnik
            The USSR did not have such a problem - Germany did not have a quantitative superiority.

            The USSR had another problem - the lack of technical superiority. Well, we will prepare one ace instead of 4-5 middle peasants - and this ace will sit in the same Yak-1 of serial production. Or in LaGG-3. For we have no other cars, other engines and other plants. And this ace will be torn right away into 4 tasks: the left hand will fly to cover the bombers, the right - its troops, the left foot - the railway junction, and the right - will be on duty over its airfield. smile
            1. Gopnik
              Gopnik April 24 2018 18: 02
              0
              Quote: Alexey RA
              But in fact, even the Yankees in that war "crushed the masses." Although, it would seem, already to them, sitting overseas and reverently related to losses, God himself ordered the unit aces to fight on piece superplanes.


              And why should they fight in pieces, if it is possible to prepare a mass of pilots, giving them many hours of raid before releasing them into battle; to put them on airplanes on which aluminum was not saved with excellent motors and devices; and supplying with fuel even pour in ?? Maybe they reasoned sensibly that "the best enemy of the good", but they did not reach the "better bad, but more".
              Germany and the USSR had, like, limited resources (although the USSR had a lot of oil and aluminum), so the Germans did as many pilots and planes as they could without losing quality, and the USSR riveted frankly bad pilots and planes, but a lot.

              Quote: Alexey RA
              The USSR had another problem - the lack of technical superiority. Well, we will prepare one ace instead of 4-5 middle peasants - and this ace will sit in the same Yak-1 of serial production. Or in LaGG-3. For we have no other cars, other engines and other plants. And they will tear this ace immediately into 4 tasks: the left hand will fly to cover the bombers, the right - its troops, the left foot - the railway junction, and the right - will be on duty over its airfield


              Not 1 ace instead of 4-5 middle peasants, but 1 normal, instead of 2 bad ones. And we put him in a production aircraft, where, at least for the sake of saving aluminum, they did not put a tree, and not in Lagg-3 in 1944 (!!!), because Tbilisi plant continues to rivet them en masse, because can't go to yaki. As a result, by the way, due to a shortage of fuel, these bad pilots on bad planes still often sat at airfields, inferior in the number of flights to their German colleagues, because all the same, there was not enough fuel at all. Those. all 4 tasks still could not be completed until the German fighters merged en masse into the West, and even after that, the Germans quite themselves created episodic air superiority when and where they needed it. If there is not enough fuel for everyone, why so many pilots and planes?
              1. DimerVladimer
                DimerVladimer April 25 2018 10: 32
                +1
                Quote: Gopnik
                Yaki. As a result, by the way, due to a shortage of fuel, these bad pilots on bad planes still often sat at airfields, inferior in the number of flights to their German colleagues, because all the same, there was not enough fuel at all. Those. all 4 tasks still could not be completed until the German fighters merged en masse into the West, and even after that, the Germans quite themselves created episodic air superiority when and where they needed it. If there is not enough fuel for everyone, why so many pilots and planes?


                And why was there not enough fuel?
                Because fighter aircraft were not used efficiently - very often it was aimless barrage over troops - a waste of resources and fuel trying to be strong everywhere, which was a losing tactic.
              2. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA April 25 2018 12: 10
                +1
                Quote: Gopnik
                And why should they fight in pieces, if it is possible to prepare a mass of pilots, giving them many hours of raid before releasing them into battle; to put them on airplanes on which aluminum was not saved with excellent motors and devices; and supplying with fuel even pour in ??

                ... and release them into battle on the Mustangs against the Me-262. Or on “aerocobra” and “lightning” against “Zero”. Il and generally on the "buffalo" and "wildket" against the same "zero". smile
            2. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh April 25 2018 16: 55
              0
              "But they chose the mass training of the middle peasants" ////

              That's right. All pilots must fly about the same.
              The main thing is the correct collective tactics.
              Americans have any pilot after a certain amount
              combat missions forcibly went to the instructors. To bring up a shift from my own experience.
        2. Gopnik
          Gopnik April 24 2018 16: 54
          0
          By the way, almost the same garbage happened with submariners by the middle of the war - the Anglo-Americans stupidly build transports more and faster than the Germans drown them, while incurring inevitable losses.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA April 24 2018 19: 08
            +3
            Quote: Gopnik
            By the way, almost the same garbage happened with submariners by the middle of the war - the Anglo-Americans stupidly build transports more and faster than the Germans drown them, while incurring inevitable losses.

            Duc ... with the submariners the Germans had no chance from the very beginning. The Americans did not even invent anything new - they simply brought to the end what they did not have time to do in WWI due to the early surrender of Germany. smile
            By the way, it’s funny that the United States began preparing for the battle for the Atlantic back in 1936 by adopting the state support program for American shipping - the Merchant Marine Act. The state undertook to order a series of modern transports for private companies and lease them, as well as provide subsidies for the reconstruction of shipyards for the construction of these ships and their further operation. In response, private companies included in this program were obliged to bring the percentage of US citizens in the crews of their vessels to 90%, and also keep their vessels only under the flag of the United States and, in case of war, provide them for mobilization for the needs of the Navy.
    2. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer April 24 2018 15: 13
      +2
      Quote: Alexey RA
      and some inland counties have 35 to 40 hours per pilot.
      I want to say about night training, which is bad with us. For example: the whole Leningrad district flew 141 hours on bomber aircraft, i.e., that 3 pilots should fly a year. Oryol district flew only 36 hours.


      36 hours of flying is not so bad.

      In general, on paper it looks more or less:
      ORDER No. 105 ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A PREPARATION SYSTEM AND ORDER
      KITS OF UNIVERSITY OF THE AIR FORCE AND IMPROVEMENT
      QUALITY PREPARATION OF FLIGHT AND TECHNICAL COMPOSITION
      080 3 March 1941
      In pursuance of the decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks of February 25 1941:
      I. Establish the following training system for the flight and technical personnel of the Red Army Air Force:
      A. TRAIN PREPARATION

      1. School of primary education. Duration of study: in peacetime - 4 months, in wartime - 3 months.
      The school’s task is to teach pilot cadets piloting on a training aircraft and to give general knowledge of aviation technology, aviation theory and military training.
      Plaque on each cadet pilot set 30 hours.

      The acquisition of primary education schools is carried out at the expense of the junior command personnel of the aviation and ground troops with secondary education, and by persons who graduated from special schools of the Air Force.
      In schools of primary education, organize selection by type of aviation. Cadets who were unable to perform flight service should not be allowed in military schools and sent back to their units.

      2. School of military pilots. Duration of study: in peacetime - 9 months, in wartime - 6 months.
      The school’s task is to teach a pilot cadet: piloting and using a combat aircraft during the day in simple weather conditions; group flights as part of a link and give practice on route flights, landing on unfamiliar airfields, for which purpose such flights should be included in the 10 program. Fighters, in addition, to teach the initial aerial shooting and the basics of aerial combat, and in bombing schools to teach diving on aircraft USB and SB to angles 40 °.
      To establish in schools of military pilots a general raid on a cadet on training and combat aircraft:
      a) For bombers - 20 hours, of which: control and export - 8 hours; independent - 12 hours.
      Training should be done on CSS and SB with preliminary training on P-5.
      b) For fighters - 24 hours, of which: control and export - 9 hours; independent - 15 hours.
      Training should be conducted at UTI-4, I-16 and I-15, and from the end of August I-15 should be replaced by UTI-26.
      c) Starting from 1 of January 1942, specialize pilot schools by type of aviation, accordingly revising the programs.

      3. Military aviation schools pilot-pilots. Duration of study: in peacetime - 2 years, in wartime - 1 years.
      The task of the schools is to teach the cadet: to master the technique of piloting day and night; to drive the unit and squadron at all heights, day, night and in difficult weather conditions, to the maximum radius of the aircraft and with combat use; conduct an air battle singly and in a group.
      Set a raid for each cadet on combat training aircraft 150 hours (75 hours per year).
      The term of training for the first set is to set the 1 year with a flying time of 75 hours, with the exception for the first set of tasks of preparing for actions in difficult weather conditions and to the maximum radius.
      Aviation schools should be equipped with pilots who have served in service for at least two years.

      B. PREPARATION OF A STURMAN COMPOSITION
      1. School of bomber shooters. Duration of study - 1 year, with a raid on each cadet - 40 hours.
      The task of the school is to teach the cadet: to own in the air shooting equipment; bombing during the day; conduct a detailed and general orientation; in addition, to instill cadet skills in airplane navigation by radio ¬ compass and establish communication with the ground.
      Recruitment is carried out by junior commanders and Red Army men of all military branches who have secondary education, persons who graduated from special schools of the Air Force, as well as conscripts with secondary education.
      Starting from 1 of January 1942, specialize schools by type of aviation, accordingly revising training programs, and by this time transfer the flight exercises of cadet-shooter cadets from TB-3 to DS-3 aircraft.
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer April 24 2018 15: 29
        +2
        But in fact, until 1944, young German pilots were sent after schools to the eastern front - to have internships (gain experience). Since the more poorly trained Soviet pilots were the main active force in the fighter aircraft of the Red Army, who also fought on qualitatively inferior German technology.

        The main personnel of the Red Army Air Force was knocked out in 1941, but those guys put quite a few experienced German pilots:
        - in the first week of the war with the USSR, the losses of the Luftwaffe amounted to 445 aircraft of all types - in the first week of the Second World War, the Red Army Air Force lost 4000 aircraft (including 800 on the ground in the first hours of the war, 2000 aircraft by the second day);
        on 05.07.1941/800/XNUMX - the Germans lost more than XNUMX combat aircraft;
        in 4 weeks of battles - 1171 aircraft of all types,
        in 10 weeks of battles - 2789 aircraft of all types - the most intense weeks of air battles
        Germans lost in 6 months of fighting - 3827 combat aircraft - that is, in the first 2 months more than in the next 4 ...
        - during 6 months of the Second World War the USSR lost 20159 aircraft of all types, of which the Air Force 16620 combat aircraft (including non-combat losses 56,7% - the average figure for the war)

        The reasons for the reduction in the effectiveness of the Red Army Air Force by the end of 1941 were the depletion of the materiel and the death of pre-war training pilots (more than 4500 flight personnel) and the exposure of fronts due to increased Moscow air defense (by July 22.07.41, 29 there were 585 fighter regiments in the Moscow air defense system, armed with XNUMX fighters - about the same as the Germans on the entire Eastern Front) and the lack of material parts (there were not enough planes).
        In 1942, 6178 (24%) of Soviet military pilots died
        http://beloepyatno.blogspot.ru/2013/02/blog-post_
        9.html

        This is an illustrative - a bloody indicator of the difference in the preparation of command and flight personnel for the beginning of the Second World War, the Air Force control services of the two sides, one of which began to revive only in 1933, and the second by 1940, lost a few senior commanders - HR RECORDS SOLVES EVERYTHING!
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA April 24 2018 19: 29
          +2
          Quote: DimerVladimer
          But in fact, until 1944, young German pilots were sent after schools to the eastern front - to have internships (gain experience).

          There is one subtle point: EMNIP, in the Luftwaffe, due to heavy losses in 1942, the intermediate link for training pilots between schools and combat units was destroyed - the German analogue of the spare air regiments, where the green pilots were brought to condition, which allowed them to be released under the supervision of the elders in battle . These regiments were transferred to the front and made combat - and the pilots began to fall into combat squadrons directly from the schools.
          1. DimerVladimer
            DimerVladimer April 25 2018 10: 15
            +2
            Quote: Alexey RA
            There is one subtle point: EMNIP, in the Luftwaffe, due to heavy losses in 1942, the intermediate link for training pilots between schools and combat units was destroyed - the German analogue of the spare air regiments, where the green pilots were brought to condition, which allowed them to be released under the supervision of the elders in battle . These regiments were transferred to the front and made combat - and the pilots began to fall into combat squadrons directly from the schools.


            Right.
            It seems to me that such a practice is quite justified - since in the current combat regiment, newcomers received the latest information about the enemy’s tactics, their latest technology and were trained in modern battle tactics from practicing commander instructors.
            Since 1943, ours have also been trying to gradually introduce “youngsters” into the battle, so that they would not be beaten in the very first battles, but this did not always succeed - it all depended on the situation on a particular front.
  14. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx April 24 2018 11: 51
    +2
    I do not give an assessment comrade Leverage, but amateurs to operate with "the absence of repression on the basis of a small number of death sentences" I advise you to re-read this phrase carefully again
    “Despite the lack of objective evidence that Rychagov was guilty of serious state crimes, he, among the other 25 arrested, 28 October 1941 year without trial was shot by the criminal order of Beria,

    And this is in relation to a person from the upper echelons of power. What can we say about ordinary people ...
    1. sdv68
      sdv68 April 24 2018 13: 34
      +4
      Everything was done correctly. Under Stalin, there were no untouchables. Guilty - answer. And what is “without trial” is wartime. Moscow is a front-line city. At that time it was not up to compliance with formalities, but lived "according to the laws of wartime." T.ch. it is possible to evaluate a criminal order or not only by examining those materials of the investigation that formed the basis of the execution order. And so, I can remind you that before the war, Beria rehabilitated about half a million people. And the “common man" 100% had nothing to fear from the authorities. Not only ordinary people, but also the top party leadership did not suspect "of great terror" (read the memoirs of the participants of the XX Congress), until the corn-grower, one of its organizers, "opened his eyes to the people." True, in this case, he shifted responsibility to others, slandering their campaign. But this is the topic of a separate article.
    2. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene April 24 2018 18: 45
      +3
      Quote: Trapper7
      I advise you to re-read this phrase again carefully
      “Despite the lack of objective evidence that Rychagov was guilty of serious state crimes, he, among the other 25 arrested, was shot without trial on October 28, 1941, according to Beria’s criminal order,
      And this is in relation to a person from the upper echelons of power. What can we say about ordinary people ...

      You can think up and write whatever you want. The paper will endure.
  15. Operator
    Operator April 24 2018 12: 21
    +4
    Quote: Olgovich
    "The situation with the construction of operational airfields is unacceptably bad. At 1.6.41, only 50% is covered by the construction"

    Who in 1940-41 years was the customer of the construction of operational airfields? And who at that time tried about coffins? Incidentally not the same person?
  16. sdv68
    sdv68 April 24 2018 13: 11
    +4
    Just because he was rehabilitated does not mean at all that he was innocent. In those years, the khrushchik "rehabilitated a carbon copy" of many in order to hang even more dogs on its predecessor.
  17. bandabas
    bandabas April 24 2018 17: 34
    +1
    There are 3 options in life. Or have your “I”, or sit on the priest exactly, or ... The third involves a choice of the first two. Most choose the second. And if you have chosen the first, then be prepared. What if. the second is to each his own.
  18. tolancop
    tolancop April 24 2018 17: 58
    +8
    Bad stuff. I read it hastily, but this was enough to understand that the author does not understand what he is writing about.
    I have never been interested in the fate and personality of Rychagov, and I will only comment on the basis of this material.
    "... Beria took advantage of this, who has long looked closely at a too young, too wayward, and too talented boss. He was, by definition, dangerous ..."
    And what was the "dangerous" Leverage? By youth? Waywardness? Talent? And for whom is it dangerous? For Beria or for the Air Force? If the latter, I can agree ...
    About the talent Rychagova. Apparently, the pilot was talented. But as the head, apparently, did not shine with talents. At all...
    "... Pavel Vasilievich faced a difficult task - to commission a new generation of aircraft ...."
    The task was. Complex. How will it be decided not even by a talented, but simply by a capable boss? He will select people, some of whom will monitor the production of aircraft in factories. The other part will be involved in assisting in the development of new equipment in the troops (pilots, equipment, etc.). The third part ... will do other necessary things. The boss is the ORGANIZER.
    And how did the Levers solve the difficult task?
    "... Therefore, he was a frequent guest in the units that began to develop the Mig-3, Yak-1, LaGG-3, Pe-2 and Il-2. Levers helped the pilots to“ tame ”the new equipment with advice and deed .. .. "
    Like this!!! Dangled in parts in person, doing rough work for others. Was there nothing more to do for the Air Force chief? To leave "in place" a couple of times - it is possible and necessary that subordinate noodles are not hung, but to be a "frequent guest" is a bust (he went to visit, you see !!!). Those. the comrade was clearly not engaged in his own business, and to the detriment of his basic duties.
    ".... Then a topic came up regarding the time of training pilots. And then Pavel Vasilyevich told Stalin:“ 30 hours is enough to make a pilot crashed. And he still needs to be able to fight. 120 hours are required at least! ” To this statement, Joseph Vissarionovich replied: “120 hours of flight ... Boyish reasoning. We are not going to throw fuel into the wind.” But, despite this reaction, Rychagov’s words had the desired effect. The fact is that after some time an order was signed to increase flying hours for combat pilots .... "
    Levers put forward a practical proposal, which was accepted, despite the initial negative reaction of senior management. Accepted, apparently not immediately, but after further study of the issue. And what prevented Rychagov from putting forward this proposal early? Waiting for a chance? Maybe so, sometimes you have to go out with suggestions carefully. And not out of selfish motives, but for the good of the cause.
    "... April 12, 1941 Rychagov was removed from his post. No, he was not arrested, but sent to the Air Force Academy of the General Staff to study ..."
    It should be understood as follows: "Okay, you dunce .... the head of you is bad, go learn a little, and then we'll see ..."
    "..Already on June 24, 1941 he was arrested .."
    Those. Leverage was arrested after the consequences of his "leadership" of the Air Force. IMHO, quite rightly. But what did he have to submit to the award?
    The case is not unique. An excellent pilot (sailor, etc.) turned out to be a very poor commander. Each person has a ceiling on his capabilities. But Levers clearly exceeded his ceiling. And part of the blame for this lies with the people who appointed him to an impossible position.
  19. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene April 24 2018 18: 12
    +7
    The author continues to rewrite myths from various sources, and therefore sometimes contradicts himself.
    In the beginning he writes that “... a topic was raised regarding the time of training pilots. And here Pavel Vasilyevich told Stalin: “30 hours is enough unless the pilot crashes. And he still needs to be able to fight. 120 hours at least! ” To this statement, Joseph Vissarionovich replied: “120 hours of flying ... Boyish reasoning. We are not going to throw fuel into the wind. ”
    As you wish. but I will never believe it, Stalin simply could not say so, this is another invention. Stalin was well versed in issues and weapons. and they didn’t spare anything for the training of personnel, and for the army, and even more so for aviation. Moreover, the author further disproves himself by writing that ".. Stalin devoted a lot of effort to aviation, dealt with it and dealt with issues related to it" .
    Further, the rehash of the fakes of the prosecutor Rudenko, who, allegedly during the period of mass rehabilitation of the repressed, put an end to the Rychagov case ....
    Rudenko is still that forger, for 65 years now the people have not known the truth: they killed Beria during the arrest, or six months later they tried and shot him. Rudenko completely falsified the case of Beria, so that he has long been no longer believed.
    And the passage that “Dmitry Panov recalled: “The noise of the three-ton engine, which was established to drown out the sound of shots and screams of the executed, was the last sound that Pashka heard in his short but stormy life.”.Avator is clearly never heard even a pistol shot, and therefore decided to compare it with the sound of a working three-ton engine. This stupidity walks on all the "evidence" of the mass executions of the NKVD. Everywhere in them, the NKVD shoots in the center of a residential place and drowns out the sounds of shots with motors or music.
    And they shot Rychagov not for friendship with Yakir, not for a daring answer, but for a war crime. He was sent with an inspection to verify the implementation of the order of the NGOs for dispersal, camouflage and ensuring readiness for the immediate departure of aircraft of the Western Military District. He reported that the order in the district was executed, everything was alerted, and in the morning of June 22 .... Everyone knows what happened. As you wish, qualify it: irresponsibility, negligence, betrayal ... but in any case, for this rout of Leverage, he is fully responsible and deserves his sentence.
    1. ventel
      ventel April 24 2018 19: 11
      +1
      They found scapegoats at all, but the main culprits of the tragedy of 41 years were not punished. There are many materials on the Internet about the pre-war readiness of the army. So if you read it, the picture will appear completely different. It was necessary to come up with this idea six months before the war several times to revise the mobilization plan and who was involved in the victory marshal. And who was contracted to cost the NKVD border airfields, aviation fuel besides planes and tanks were eaten but tank corps were inflated both staff and numerically. That’s why the pilots fought that they could know the theory well, but with practice without fuel, a complete kapets.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh April 25 2018 10: 06
      +2
      "The author is seen never even heard a pistol shot,
      so I decided to compare it with the sound of a working three-ton motor "///

      Have you heard, interesting? And what is louder, in your opinion?
      The engine is guaranteed to drown pistol cotton
      shots. Which and just in the talking crowd is not always heard.
      Therefore, the working trucks were used by the Chekists in the civilian, and then the NKVD executioner during executions.
      Your phenomenal ability to justify any crimes committed in the name of communism is amazing. The happiness that this bloody gloom, like Nazism, has no continuation.
      1. Alexander Greene
        Alexander Greene April 25 2018 16: 53
        +2
        Quote: voyaka uh
        Your phenomenal ability to justify any crimes committed in the name of communism is amazing. The happiness that this bloody darkness ... has no continuation

        No, dear, it strikes your ability to constantly lie and distort reality. And how you do not want to believe in it, but the future is communism.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid April 25 2018 23: 35
          +2
          Quote: Alexander Green
          ........ And as you do not want to believe in it, but the future lies with communism.
          I am compelled to inform you, dear Alexander, that not everything is known to you about the WARRIOR, someone's brother. Namely, to an article about an Austrian diplomat, he wrote that he fears both the restoration of socialism in our country and socialist ideas in other countries. Including in his present country! What time! Somehow quietly said then .....
  20. Snoop
    Snoop April 24 2018 19: 00
    +6
    By the way, before the liberals all laughed that in our war the bulk of the aircraft were not radio-fired. Rychagov’s merit is in this. He led a group of soldiers from the Air Force who were against the radio in cars. The fact is that the first radios were bad, the connection was often interrupted and naturally there was background noise. Therefore, they argued that there was no sense and chatter on the air would distract the pilot during the battle. As a result, the first radio stations were decommissioned by the Air Force in general. And the radio stations that were already installed on the aircraft were removed. And leave them? Carry out research, experience of use - it is logical that in the future they would be improved. And they would approach a war with radioactive aviation.
    1. ventel
      ventel April 24 2018 22: 33
      +2
      You know such an army proverb “A strong Red Army but a bond will ruin it” are echoes of the Second World War. After all, they reported to Stalin about the poor state of communications in the Red Army, but industry already gave above the norm and still did not have enough. And the pilots themselves admitted that the sense of domestic aircraft radio stations is not enough, it is an indicator of the level at which the radio-electronic industry of the USSR was before the war.
  21. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet April 25 2018 19: 01
    0
    How many Georgians have heaped up, and everything we write about the "most effective manager" in the press. And now there are only amateurs in power and their party is the same ... laughing tongue wassat
  22. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet April 25 2018 19: 14
    +1
    USSR Air Force: ____ 47.844 aircraft, _34.500 killed
    German Air Force: __ 85.650 aircraft, ___ 57.137 killed
    British Air Force: _15.175 aircraft, ____ 56.821 killed
    US Air Force: __41,575 aircraft, _40,061 killed
    Japanese Air Force: ___ 49.485 aircraft, __60,750 killed

    that's how everyone fought in the second world ...
    1. ventel
      ventel April 26 2018 21: 56
      0
      That's just the USSR Air Force fought on one theater of operations and the German air force on three and against three allied air forces so that your arithmetic does not roll. And this is how the story is distorted where with the numbers they begin to prove that our war was won and the allies across the oceans were hiding.
      1. sdv68
        sdv68 April 27 2018 15: 27
        0
        Quote: ventel
        so your arithmetic doesn't roll


        Count the losses of the German Air Force on the east and west - then it will roll. It is enough to recall that June 22, 1941 turned out to be a rainy day not only for Soviet aviation (which for the most part was destroyed at airfields) but also for German. For the whole Great Patriotic War (as far as I know), the Fritz did not lose so many of their planes in one day.
  23. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet April 25 2018 19: 45
    +2
    To the question that our pilots were sitting at airfields ...
    Maybe the Soviet military leaders hesitantly used aviation, "cherished" it? Not! The USSR aviation used THREE more intensively than Germany: during the years of the war on the Eastern Front, German aviation made 1 sorties, and Soviet aviation - 373 sorties!

    This fact alone breaks into tales the legends of the Lapotny Roly, who, they say, is stupid, stupid and not too far to fight on equal terms with the "civilized Aryans" - for military aviation is always, then and now, the technical elite of the army. And a combat pilot is a unique fighter that combines the knowledge and intelligence of an engineer with the skills and reflexes of a professional Olympic-level athlete. Therefore, the main thing is to save the pilot, since compared to the cost of his training, the plane itself is a penny ...
  24. Lyutoyar R.
    Lyutoyar R. April 26 2018 00: 04
    +3
    Quote: DimerVladimer
    Quote: Olgovich
    Your talk is not worth a penny: Levers and Smushkevich by the State are justified and rehabilitated.
    Respect the laws of the Russian Federation!


    Green is a stubborn Stalinist and beriaphil - it is useless to argue with him - in his understanding, Beria is an incomprehensible genius.
    It doesn’t click in a person’s brain what exactly after Stalin and Beria - the USSR achieved its power and strength - when the threat of sudden unmotivated arrest did not loom behind every commander / minister / scientist and people creatively developed their directions, and the highest decisions were made collectively, not a single old man (albeit very intelligent).

    After their death, the collapse and degradation of the USSR began. Just a margin of safety for 50 years was almost enough. Or does someone think that everything that happened after Stalin came from nowhere?
  25. Jerk
    Jerk April 26 2018 02: 46
    +2
    Q. Who was he at the time of the loss of the DB-three rubles ?! His personal order - the mind with the ears was enough, was it? Not. Shot? Yes, if it was like that now, I won’t even say it. who would be against. First of all, yours. Take off your epaulettes. Secondly, the trained crews, I know how many - ours, here, prepare ... IMHO one navigator is more valuable!
  26. Earnest
    Earnest April 27 2018 01: 09
    +1
    Quote: Olgovich
    ... Your chatter is not worth a penny: Levers and Smushkevich by the State are justified and rehabilitated.
    Respect the laws of the Russian Federation! ...:

    Your chatter is not worth a penny: they were rehabilitated because of violations during the investigation and because of execution without trial, and not because of angelic behavior or the fight against "tyranny and the cult of personality." At that time, everyone was snooping down, in any country - as soon as he got out above the level of the sheriff / precinct / foreman, he had to be burned like that, know how to turn around, what’s in the pan ...
  27. shuravi
    shuravi April 27 2018 09: 27
    +2
    Quote: DimerVladimer


    I know how much it was - the father remained a kid in the occupied territory, he told who went to the police - the local drunkard was the most poor.


    Of the fists mean? Clear.

    As soon as the Red Army retreated and the Germans came, the former collective farmers first looted the general store.


    What "scum" is just awful, not to give to the new owners. laughing

    In the occupied territories, the Germans dismissed the collective farms (at least in Belarus), cut the land and allowed them to farm - to grow bread, taxed much less than the collective farm was taxed. They put the headman, who monitored the delivery of grain. That is, under the Germans, the villagers lived better than on the collective farms - just not in joy - because relatives were at the front.

    Few people in the village loved Soviet power
    - because the Soviet government robbed the peasants - deprived them of land and rights.
    Maybe someone fought "for Stalin" - and the partisans fought with the invaders for their land - for their homeland.

    By the way, yes - under the Germans there wasn’t much hunger when they were liberated from the invaders - food detachments came and seized the remains of grain - then a real famine came ...



    How bizarre at times some veil their dreams of Bavarian. lol
  28. shuravi
    shuravi April 27 2018 09: 31
    +1
    Quote: DimerVladimer


    Imagine an increase in the number of Air Force in 50% for the year and 100% in the next year? Where did the experienced pilots prepare in a year?


    For a year, you can provide 150-200 UTP hours without tension. And this is a fully trained pilot.
    In Afghanistan, an average of 300-400 hours flew over the year.
  29. segamegament
    segamegament 2 May 2018 00: 46
    0
    Quote: DimerVladimer
    That is, under the Germans, the villagers lived better than on the collective farms - just not in joy

    Well, let’s check how the organs of the "blood executioners" work now. Are you ready?