Military Review

Government debts? Only cowards pay them!

38



“Collect money as much as possible, for money is the artillery of war,” wrote our sovereign Peter the Great from the fronts of the Northern War to his own courtiers. He was very proud of the fact that all the military campaigns he led carried out “on his own”. And, against the custom of European rulers, he did not make public debts to other powers. The state vaccination from his elder brother, Tsar Ivan the Fifth, with whom he had divided the throne for fourteen years, was strong in him. It was under the joint rule of the kings Ivan and Peter buy from Poland for cash, Kiev and all of Ukraine, located on the left bank of the Dnieper. The stable financial position of Russia allowed these kings of FOURTHES to lower taxes for the population, to conduct extensive stone construction in Moscow and to transfer the army to new, European orders.

State taxes at the beginning of the 18-th century almost entirely went to the army and the maintenance of the court. Gathered a little more than four million rubles. Upon the death of Emperor Peter the Great, Catherine the First lowered taxes, the reduction amounted to 4 pennies per capita, with the condition that the serpent spent the money on "the eternal remembrance of the emperor's memory." She liked that the budget would be equal to a round sum of four million rubles. Catherine the Second, who, during her reign, made crazy war debts to the Dutch States, canceled this relief. Russia paid these debts to 100 for years and settled at the very end of the 19 century, during the reign of the young Nicholas II.

Such long payments on military credits are not news for military storiesNot so long ago, the United Kingdom paid off some debts that had been hanging since the middle of the 18 of the 20th century.

State loan - weapon much more terrible than gunpowder; the weapons that the state was supposed to use under the threat of national humiliation, - so did the economist of 19 of the century, J. B. Say He was echoed by Malthus, who considered a large public debt "cancer, eating away at the political life of the people and their welfare." But not everyone was so pessimistic.

Economist Karl Dietzel proclaimed to the applause of the financial elite: “The people are richer, the national economy the more progressive, the greater the share of public expenditures of total government revenues is absorbed by interest payments on public debt” ("Das System der Staatsanleihen im Zusammenhang der Volkswirtschaft betrachtet", 1855).

At the end of the 19-th century, the industry of Russia was built unusually quickly. Hundreds of enterprises, banks, kilometers of tram lines, mines and mines appeared by magic. Those who are curious about what they built, refer to the directory “Factories and Plants of All Russia”, 1913 Year, the publishing house of the partnership L.M. Fish, Kiev. The handbook gave information about 31523 plants and factories, was sold for 4 rubles. A wealth of material for reflection is given by the surviving shares of joint ventures that some lovers of antiquity collect in the collection. Brilliant life, lackeys, cadets and the crunch of French bread in the ravishing evenings were paid for by private and public loans abroad. Already in 1884, Russia should have spent five and a half billion rubles and spent more than 200 millions from the 750 million annual budget to service the debt. The growth of debt occurred in what was then England, but it was hardly anyone who scratched, for the welfare of the nations and budget revenues grew by leaps and bounds.

And everything was great until a protracted world war broke out. All warring states have sunk in revenues. But bankers and creditors did not want to enter the position of emperors. It became somehow uncomfortable in the ministries. State programs were reduced, and prayers were extended. For 1914 a year 2,5 billion rubles were spent on the war, 1915 billion in 9,4, 1916 billion in 15,2, and 1917 billion in two months 3,3. That is, the war ate 30,5 billion. This is the country's income for almost 10 years! We had to win, because then it was possible to get reparations from the defeated Germany. But something was not defeated. Citizens hid the cash gold, then silver, and then it became stupid to miss paper money to maintain the normal operation of the state machine. Suddenly, they remembered about saving, by which they finally finished off the economy.

In February, the 1917 monarchy in Russia self-destructed, unable to withstand the tears of the empress after the death of Rasputin, the shortage of French rolls in the shops and the sailors, who were deprived of cocaine and idleness in the barracks. The sufferings of the Russian imperial house were not impressed by anyone in the world, since the German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires disappeared almost overnight from the map. That's just the debts.

The external pre-war debt of Russia, taking into account mutual claims, was determined in the amount of 4,2 billion gold rubles (excluding the German one about 1,1 billion) plus 970 million ruble railway loans, 340 million city loans and 180 million land bank loans. Total about 5,7 billion gold rubles. In addition, 3 billion in foreign investments in joint-stock and non-equity enterprises were mentioned. The military (1914 — 1917) foreign debt of Russia was approximately 7,5 billion gold rubles. Russia in fact was bankrupt, it would have been necessary to spend 100 years with hooks on the correct payment of debts. In 1918, the Leninist government defaults on foreign powers and refuses to pay its debts. Entente responded with intervention. The hungry and lousy proletarians took up their rifles, from which they did not have time to wean.

In 1922, Lenin sends comrade Chicherin, Krasin and a group of specialists to the Genoese conference, who, after epic, incredible negotiations and scandals with bourgeois, slowly dissolve most of the money claims, mainly due to offsets. Nobody wanted to fight again with the RSFSR, and only because they had to negotiate.

In Germany, things were even worse. The economy is in ruin, deprived of colonies, the land was taken. It was hard - inflation, starving fainting in the lines for bread. Parsley planted between railway sleepers. The victor states counted a huge contribution to the former empire. The Germans said no money. Debt counted downwards. And so it is not. Debt once again counted. The Germans paid a little and asked for a loan again. The debts were recalculated once more and the final amount of gold marks for Germany was appointed. It seemed that bankers life is getting better. And here comes Hitler to power. In 1933, he combed his mustache in front of the mirror, stroked his bald patch and imposed a moratorium on the payment of public debt.

In 1945, after the victory over Nazism, the victorious countries remembered the debt for the First World War. The Germans threw up their hands and said: "There is no money, however, our country is divided." Churchill, Hoover, de Gaulle and others said sadly: “Ok, give when you are one.” It's been almost 50 years. Germany swallowed the GDR, shining from sausages and beer. Everything is fine. The Bundeswehr is tiny, military spending does not exceed one and a half percent of GDP. And then ... "Germans, let's go to the cashier, you have to pay the costs of the First World War." Men with the corporal manners in Germany in the middle of the 90's were not found. Germany paid in gold its imperial debt.

In Russia, the army in 1996 year in deep knockout. Soldiers and junior officers suck paw. Against the background of the first Chechen war, airplanes are vigorously sawn and missiles poured with concrete. Submarines go to scrap for the price of scrap. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin and his French counterpart Lionel Jospin agree on the figures ... and Tsarist Russia’s debt to the French holders of “Russian bonds” was fully paid in the same 1996 year. 50 million dollars as one penny. Now, in 2018, a new wave of claims to Russia is about maturing in France by about 30 billion dollars. Russia is not bankrupt for a long time, let it pay.

Our politicians, like the Little Prince from the writings of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, feed on sunshine and good wishes. They are not as greedy for money as their overseas and European counterparts. Or maybe they just live with complete amnesia of historical memory.

In September 2017, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced that our state had written off more than $ 20 billion in debt to African countries. For all the years of the new Russia, we forgave debts to other states. For example, Vietnam was written off $ 9,5 billion, Algeria - $ 4,7 billion, Libya - $ 4,6 billion, Syria, in which there was no war in 2005 in the year, forgiven about $ 10 billion. And Iraq and others are on the list not the poorest countries. In 2012, Russia forgave 90% of its $ 11 billion loan for North Korea, which was issued to the USSR for the development of industry, the purchase of weapons and other purposes. A natural question arises: what, really, absolutely no power to get gold and silver from debtors? Where we rush to write off debts? Maybe you need to stupidly wait?

Apparently, we can neither wait nor take. No leverage. Here is America. 17 March 2018, her debt has passed the mark of 21 trillion. dollars and amounted to 106% of US GDP. The political elite of the world expresses deep concern, but, in principle, everyone deeply does not care how much the States should. The principle of power in accounting has not been canceled. Come and get it.

Japan’s national debt (which the liberals like to give us as an example as a civilized country) amounts to slightly more than 250 percent of GDP. What does not prevent the descendants of the samurai to make scary eyes and demand from Russia the Kuril Islands.

France, bombing Syria along with America, should roughly its annual GDP. But Macron does not wake up in a cold sweat because of government debts. Does not turn out the pockets of French taxpayers. Imperial ambitions and nuclear bombs make it possible to delay debts for an indefinitely long term. The economist Karl Dietzel, whose business is flourishing, knew the history of the Middle Ages. All European sovereigns were to the Italian money-changers, but they could never dictate their will to the strong. At all times they only profit from the weak. On the tables of world history, it is stamped in gold letters: "Only cowards pay debts."
Author:
38 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. dog breeder
    dog breeder April 25 2018 05: 59
    +3
    But, despite the fact that "the strong do not pay," the desk with a red sign is chewing.
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee April 25 2018 06: 02
      +8
      "Only cowards pay debts."
      And our debtors are very brave! Forgive them!
      1. dog breeder
        dog breeder April 25 2018 06: 05
        +7
        And ours can, referring to the sanctions, send everyone!
        1. bandabas
          bandabas April 25 2018 09: 23
          +5
          Ours is who? Type of Deripaska?
          1. dog breeder
            dog breeder April 25 2018 10: 11
            +5
            Maybe yours ... But certainly not ours! I believe it is high time for our government to think about business owners in Russia. You do not live in Russia, sorry, there is no oxygen!
            1. wellaut
              wellaut April 25 2018 14: 39
              +4
              We really need to decide for a start - whose are they in the government? Ours, not ours, for whom?
              Judging by the pace and geography of debt relief, it is certainly not Russian interests that are being protected.
          2. your1970
            your1970 April 25 2018 11: 02
            +2
            only we write off? !!! yeah ...
            "However, Russia is not alone in its financial mercy. In 2004, the United States wrote off the 4 billion debt of Iraq. Later, the G40 forgave XNUMX billion dollars to poor countries (for example, Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua and several other countries). The same Cuba freed from a loan to China (6 billion), Japan (1,4 billion) and Mexico (500 million dollars). The IMF has written off $ 268 million in Haiti debt. "
    2. Pax tecum
      Pax tecum April 25 2018 12: 16
      +4
      The suffering of the Russian imperial house did not impress anyone in the world, since almost overnight disappeared from the map German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires.

      4 empire disappeared. The author did not mention Russian.
  2. samarin1969
    samarin1969 April 25 2018 06: 11
    +9
    About Peter 1 is too optimistic. His controversial reforms were paid for by bringing the peasantry to the state of slaves with appropriate exploitation. And so it was about a hundred years.
    And the rest is right. The "source of power" has chosen power, and she, at the expense of his interests, is trying to play the "honest guy." A good article for fans to claim that "Strength is in truth." More relevant: "And only force will stop power." ...... And they pay the expenses of foreign countries - cowards and the vanquished.
    1. Chichikov
      Chichikov April 25 2018 07: 06
      +3
      Quote: samarin1969
      About Peter 1 is too optimistic. His controversial reforms were paid for by bringing the peasantry to the state of slaves with appropriate exploitation.
      So, after all, the reforms were grandiose - with the complete "change of shoes" of the Russian State!
      1. samarin1969
        samarin1969 April 25 2018 07: 15
        +11
        The result of the reforms is that the fleet has rotted, the guards have turned into “Praetorians,” the dear hotbed of Westernism in the swamp, thousands of crooks of their Europe, ridiculous clothes ... with the exception of the army - all these achievements are dubious.
        1. Egoza
          Egoza April 25 2018 08: 42
          +6
          Quote: samarin1969
          The result of the reforms is that the fleet has rotted, the guards have turned into “Praetorians,” the dear hotbed of Westernism in the swamp, thousands of crooks of their Europe, ridiculous clothes ... with the exception of the army - all these achievements are dubious.

          Something you all mixed in a bunch. Did the fleet rot? Under Peter 1? Turning the Guards into Praetorians, too? To enslave the peasants more Katyusha tried, which is Great. But the fact that Peter did not make debts, but from his "oligarchs" (boyars and merchants), including the "holy" three skins tore - this is a fact! And from his arrogant and stealing friends, he could well so “demand the treasury” - also a fact. So maybe instead of borrowing - to turn to the experience of Peter?
          1. andrew42
            andrew42 April 27 2018 17: 55
            +1
            The fleet really rotted. But under Anna Ivanovna. Stupidly, most of the ships built in haste went dead. And Admiral General Golovin was a witness to that.
        2. Chichikov
          Chichikov April 25 2018 10: 22
          +1
          Quote: samarin1969
          The result of the reforms - the fleet rotted, the guardsmen turned into "praetorians"

          Where did you teach history? The fleet, like guardsmen and marines, appeared precisely under Peter I!
          1. samarin1969
            samarin1969 April 25 2018 15: 47
            +1
            He taught a little ... laughing
  3. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich April 25 2018 06: 47
    +5
    The article makes you think ... what
    1. wellaut
      wellaut April 25 2018 14: 42
      0
      Rather, the old song is about the main thing - how numerous rulers are selling the country.
      But the excursions into history are not bad, informative.
  4. Altona
    Altona April 25 2018 07: 11
    +18
    Our state, with some kind of sadism, demands the last penny from a single mother and forgives the debts of the "fraternal" peoples with the goal of "improving business relations." Isn’t it true? And then "no money, but you hold on." But the “head of state” cannot do anything, “his hands are tied with the Yeltsin’s colonial constitution.” Well, isn't it nonsense?
  5. rotmistr60
    rotmistr60 April 25 2018 07: 29
    +6
    Replenished debts really for a huge amount. Well, if only political dividends had been received from this, but even that would have passed by. Even the "allies" surrounded by Russia from neighboring countries, when making any significant decisions, try to distance themselves from our country. Okay, "the giraffe knows better than him."
  6. geniy
    geniy April 25 2018 08: 26
    +9
    If there was an opportunity, I would put the author for this magnificent article - many many pluses!
  7. geniy
    geniy April 25 2018 08: 33
    +3
    Quote: samarin1969
    The result of the reforms - the fleet rotted, the guardsmen turned into "praetorians"

    Yes, the fleet has rotted. But after all, wooden ships at that time served only 10 years all over the world - and then they rotted and they were sorted for firewood. But the fact that the Petrovsky fleet has decayed is not the main thing. More importantly, he taught Russia how to build ships. And then they built a new fleet. And more than once.
    And the fact that the guards turned into "Praetorians" - more importantly, the Russian army learned how to fight, and two hundred years later it defeated all enemies. Moreover, Peter introduced the rule that the shells of one gun would fit to another.
  8. geniy
    geniy April 25 2018 08: 42
    +3
    But the question is: what will happen to the Debts of the USA, Britain, Germany, Japan, France, Poland, Ukraine and all countries of the golden billion? After all, there is no war now, and writing off a debt just does not work. Many fools suggest that they say America will print heaps of new dollars, and Germany and France will print heaps of new euros. But because of this, they will simply have gigantic inflation and the confidence of all countries of the world in the dollar and the euro will drop. And as a result, all countries will stop taking both the dollar and the euro. And from this, the financial giants of the United States, Britain, Germany and France are very impoverished.
    If the United States and other giants can still suffer, then Ukraine is obliged to start paying huge debts this year. And she has no money at all. And in the same way Poland should start paying debts in 19020, and all these midgets: Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia - must also pay debts from the year 20. I believe that these five countries will default first, and financial giants will roll down behind them.
  9. sleeve
    sleeve April 25 2018 08: 46
    +2
    And it’s not even a matter of bombs ... Bombs are a tool for realizing economic tasks. The point is the "civilized economy" itself, built on disrespect for "naturalness." If we compare the real GDP and “everything-with everything” that is written in the GDP reporting, in some way miraculously in the real sector it will remain good if a quarter, and the hyper-billion states, military budgets and the “financial component” of world GDP hang in the “digital” zone, in the "dark matter" of the modern economy, about which egghead economists argue, somehow managing not to go into understandable details. And so that it all spun, you need a bomb ... BOMB, that's better. Well, as there is some kind of ghoul with the thought "Yes, you go with your miracles ... How much you earned, how much you ate." And that's it ... Kayuk ... Or not))?
  10. Professor
    Professor April 25 2018 08: 57
    +3
    Here is America. 17 March 2018 year her debt passed the mark in 21 trillion. dollars and amounted to 106% of US GDP. The political elite of the world expresses deep concern, but, in principle, everyone does not care how much the States owe. The principle of power in accounting has not been canceled. Come and get it.
    Japan’s national debt (which the liberals like to give us as an example as a civilized country) amounts to slightly more than 250 percent of GDP. What does not prevent the descendants of the samurai to make scary eyes and demand from Russia the Kuril Islands.
    France, bombing Syria along with America, should roughly its annual GDP. But Macron does not wake up in a cold sweat because of government debts. Does not turn out the pockets of French taxpayers. Imperial ambitions and nuclear bombs make it possible to delay debts for an indefinitely long term. The economist Karl Dietzel, whose business is flourishing, knew the history of the Middle Ages. All European sovereigns were to the Italian money-changers, but they could never dictate their will to the strong. At all times they only profit from the weak. On the tables of world history, it is stamped in gold letters: "Only cowards pay debts."

    So they basically owe to themselves relatives. Will they send bailiffs to themselves?
    The author mixed everything in a heap. He started about external debt, and finished with internal debt. These (as we say in Odessa) are two big differences.

    The domestic debt of Afghanistan is only 8%, Singapore's 112%. Will we focus on the economic model of Afghanistan, or is it Singapore? request
    1. Monster_Fat
      Monster_Fat April 25 2018 09: 50
      +4
      In fact, the "welfare" of the "leading" states is based on ..... on-lending, that is, on growing domestic debt. Simply put, an enterprise or company is re-credited many times in a row without paying off the initial loan - and in the end goes bankrupt without paying off - this debt goes into a bag with the same "toxic" "deaf" debts and is "extinguished" by the collapse of the exchange rate or simply written off over time, scattering losses on various market instruments. Back in the 60 years of the 20 century, it was proposed to ban on-lending as long as there is no reckoning with the original debt, but then you would have to live “within our means” and all economies would be roughly equal, which would prevent the “golden billion” living in “infinite” "loan ..
      1. Professor
        Professor April 25 2018 09: 57
        +3
        Quote: Monster_Fat
        In fact, the "welfare" of the "leading" states is based on ..... on-lending, that is, on growing domestic debt. Simply put, an enterprise or company is re-credited many times in a row without paying off the initial loan - and in the end goes bankrupt without paying off - this debt goes into a bag with the same "toxic" "deaf" debts and is "extinguished" by the collapse of the exchange rate or simply written off over time, scattering losses on various market instruments. Back in the 60 years of the 20 century, it was proposed to ban on-lending as long as there is no reckoning with the original debt, but then you would have to live “within our means” and all economies would be roughly equal, which would prevent the “golden billion” living in “infinite” "loan ..

        Come on you. Would the economies of Afghanistan and Singapore equal? There Greece in the first places on public debt, and live no better than Germany. Less need to look at domestic debt is what I mean.
        1. Lynx33
          Lynx33 April 25 2018 13: 45
          +1
          Greece is a good example of the destruction of industry (shipbuilding) through the IMF.
  11. Oleg Jacket
    Oleg Jacket April 25 2018 09: 48
    +3
    any credit is evil am especially public debt
    which hangs on the state and will have to give it to grandchildren and great-grandchildren
    I think that in VO there are few people who will take
    loan for (mosratetti) and ride and have to give their children wink
  12. vlad007
    vlad007 April 25 2018 10: 01
    +3
    The facts in the article are interesting, but it is not clear what conclusions the author suggests drawing from the consideration of these facts. If you do not repay old debts, then no one will lend in the future. Regarding the debts of African countries that we have forgiven them - this was done in exchange for preferences in mining. Our firms will take precedence over firms in other countries when considering candidates for mining.
  13. Stalingradpobeda
    Stalingradpobeda April 25 2018 10: 45
    +3
    Russia needs to live within its means and not get into debt. You should not follow bad examples. Given the current situation, Russia is forced to spend more on weapons. And this can undermine the economic situation. No need to fight, no need to threaten countries. We must live in peace.
  14. Lynx33
    Lynx33 April 25 2018 13: 41
    +3
    This is not a repayment of debt, it is a tribute to the winners of the Cold War. And debt forgiveness is an attempt to establish new trade relations, another thing is that the US always manages to work ahead of schedule. Any relations favorable to Russia are immediately severely blocked, weak countries such as Libya and Venezuela, friendly to Russia, are simply destroyed, puppets are placed in strong ones like France and appointed by Trump's beloved wife laughing So it seems to you that Putin did something stupid, he forgives the duty to one ruler while negotiations are being held on cooperation - and the country is no longer there, the gangster junta rules, and continuous terrorist acts every single day. There is only one way out - to be self-sufficient and invest in your economy.
  15. cedar
    cedar April 25 2018 15: 06
    +2
    There is such a concept of public debt as "sovereign debt."
    So here. The more sovereign debt, the less sovereignty of the state and sovereign.
    In other words - "Who owes to whom, he is the slave."
    Everything else is from the evil one.
  16. Pichalka
    Pichalka April 27 2018 10: 19
    0
    Quote: Egoza
    To enslave the peasants more Katyusha tried, which is Great. But the fact that Peter did not make debts, but from his "oligarchs" (boyars and merchants), including the "holy" three skins tore - this is a fact! And from his arrogant and stealing friends, he could well so “demand the treasury” - also a fact. So maybe instead of borrowing - to turn to the experience of Peter?


    Right)
    Under Catherine the nobility turned into a class of parasites. No obligations to the state at all.
  17. Pichalka
    Pichalka April 27 2018 11: 11
    0
    Quote: wellaut
    Rather, the old song is about the main thing - how numerous rulers are selling the country.
    But the excursions into history are not bad, informative.


    there are inaccuracies: the Eternal World (or the World of Gzhimultovsky), as a result of which the Left-Bank Ukraine with Kiev, Zaporizhia, Smolensk, Chernigov and others, were sold to Russia, was concluded with Poland in 1686 under the reign of Sophia, and Peter became king in 1689 .
  18. realist
    realist April 27 2018 17: 29
    0
    most likely our officials forgive debts to other states for a small gesheft, the less they pay, and ours with a black sheep even have a shred of wool, the main thing is in your pocket.
    1. 89969343125
      89969343125 April 28 2018 19: 25
      0
      Yes, we must forgive them our debts and that's it! To answer that we are not up to this now. At the same time, do not sell RD-180.
      1. 89969343125
        89969343125 April 28 2018 19: 27
        0
        And in response to the bases in the Caspian, put yours in Venezuela! Yes, and in Cuba too.
        1. realist
          realist April 30 2018 15: 36
          0
          if you ask my opinion then I am for!