The reason for the intervention of the troops of the Entente countries to the north of Russia was the signing by the Bolsheviks of a peace treaty with Germany, which allowed Berlin to transfer part of the troops from the Eastern Front to the Western Front, as well as land landing forces in Finland. In London and Paris, they were concerned about the possible seizure by the German troops of the strategically important ports of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk. Moreover, the equipment supplied by the Entente countries was in Arkhangelsk. The landing of the troops was to ensure the overthrow of the Bolsheviks with the subsequent opening of a new front against Germany. But this was only one of the reasons for the intervention.
Political chaos in Russia created extremely convenient conditions for the division of the country into spheres of influence, up to the establishment of direct control over the most interesting territories in the military-political or economic sense. Murmansk was just very interesting in the same England - as the largest port in the region. Since England and France themselves did not possess at that time enough forces to conduct an intervention, they turned to the United States for help. President Woodrow Wilson readily agreed to help.
The most interesting thing is that the intervention of the Entente troops to the north of Russia began in the form of an alliance of Bolsheviks and the Entente for protection against the Germans and the White Finnish. 1 March 1918, the Murmansk Council informed the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR that the British command was proposing to organize the defense of the Murmansk Railway against German and White Finnish troops.
People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Leon Trotsky replied that such a proposal should be supported and accepted. Therefore, the chairman of the Murmansk Council, Alexei Yuryev, already on March 2 of 1918, concluded a “verbal agreement”, which in fact provided the British, French and Americans with the opportunity to rule the Murmansk land. The first two groups of English marines landed in Murmansk already 6 March 1918 of the year, and then came the turn of the French and Americans.
By the summer of 1918, more than 10 of thousands of foreign soldiers landed in the Murmansk region. Already 14 June 1918, the People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs of the RSFSR protested over the presence of foreign troops in the ports of the country, but the United States, Britain and France ignored the protest. On July 6, the interventionist command concluded an agreement with the Murmansk Regional Council. From this point on, all orders of the military command of Great Britain, the United States and France became binding, the formation of separate Russian military units was prohibited, in the extreme case mixed Russian-foreign units could be formed. The agreement was signed by the representative of the USA captain 1 of the rank of Berger, the commander of the American cruiser Olympia.
On July 4, the Supreme Military Council of the Entente was held in Versailles, during which the situation in North-West Russia received a description of anarchy. It was decided to expand the military presence in the north of Russia, sending the 6 British, French and Italian battalions and the 3 American battalion there. At the beginning of July, 1918 was taken to Kem, then to Soroka station, and on July 30 to 1918, an operation began to take Arkhangelsk. 17 of the Entente warships approached Arkhangelsk, landing 2-thousandth troops in the city of August 9.
4 September 1918 4800 of American soldiers landed in Arkhangelsk, and 20 of September 500 American, 500 English and 700 French soldiers landed. Arkhangelsk was under the control of the invaders. For further advancement, a fleet was formed, which was to operate on the Northern Dvina and Vahe. However, the Red Army units gradually disabled the interventionist ships. Despite a clear advantage in numbers and weapons, the interventionists were forced to somewhat reduce their onslaught, faced with serious resistance from the Red Army.
The total number of interventionists was about 24 thousand people - 10334 people were planted in Murmansk, 13182 - in Arkhangelsk. But the interventionists did not succeed in advancing deep into Russia; in the fall of 1918, they were forced to stop progress and begin preparations for the winter. Naturally, this training was accompanied by the appropriation of property of the local population, which was both organized (at the initiative of the command) and spontaneous (actions of lower ranks) in nature.
The seizure of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk turned the heads of the American elite. Increasingly, voices began to be heard about the need for a complete dismemberment of Russia, and the United States, according to many American politicians, should have taken advantage of the situation in Russia and gained control over the endless expanses of Siberia. 3 August 1918, after the landing in Arkhangelsk, the United States decided to send military contingents to Vladivostok. The Far East and Eastern Siberia, rich in natural resources, were very interested in the United States. Of course, the US did not intend to directly occupy these regions and turn them into their colonies, but their goal was to create puppet governments on the territory of the Russian lands that would allow Americans to plunder the country's wealth and natural resources with impunity.
16 August 1918, the American troops landed in Vladivostok. The number of American expeditionary force was 9 thousands of troops. Commanded by the American expeditionary corps "Siberia", Major General William Sydney Graves, who had extensive experience in the Philippines, where American troops opposed the local rebels. By the way, the backbone of the expeditionary corps consisted of precisely those infantry regiments that had previously operated on the Philippine Islands and became famous there for their cruelty to the local population.
One of the priorities of the United States in the occupation of the Far East and Eastern Siberia was to establish control over the Trans-Siberian railway. The American leadership convinced other allies that such a measure would contribute to a general improvement in the political and economic situation in the region. In fact, the establishment of control over the most important highway was for the United States, first of all, of economic importance, since it allowed controlling the shipment of goods and natural resources.
Western countries considered the collapse of the Russian Empire along with the collapse of the Austro-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Therefore, the American leadership considered it necessary to create on the splinters of the Russian Empire a number of independent states. Since Poland and Finland separated, in the USA they considered it necessary to support the independence of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia in every possible way, they planned to solve the problem of the Caucasus separately, and to place Central Asia under the mandate management of one of the allied powers. As for Russia itself, it was planned to dismember it in Ukraine, Great Russia (the European part of the country) and Siberia. Americans hatched the idea of creating the Siberian Republic, which, of course, would be under the full control of the United States. Admiral Kolchak, supported by the West at the time as the leader of the Siberian state, enjoyed US support.
In December 1918, the US State Department adopted a program for economic development, and in fact - the plunder of Russian lands. During 3-4 months, over 200 thousand tons of goods were to be exported from the territory of Russia to the USA. In the future, the rate of export of goods was planned to increase. In order to ensure the final secession of the former territories of the Russian Empire, the United States provided significant military and financial assistance to the states formed on the national outskirts of the disintegrated empire.
The situation is very reminiscent of the post-Soviet period, when the United States also took over the financing of many post-Soviet regimes, effectively turning them into semi-colonies operating under US external control. So it was 100 years ago. For example, in 1919, Herbert Hoover came to Latvia, director of the American Aid Distribution Administration, who established contacts with Karlis Ulmanis, a graduate of an American university and the main conductor of American influence in Latvia. Ulmanis mode only in 1918-1920. received from the US 5 million dollars in service of the Latvian army.
As now in the countries occupied by Americans, then, 100 years ago, the American interventionists set about creating camps in the territory of Northern Russia they occupied. In prisons and camps created by Americans, British and French, there were thousands of people in the European North 52. By decision of the military field courts 4 thousand people were shot. The conditions in the camps were appalling, the feeding was very poor, and torture and harassment were widespread. The prisoners of the camps were forced to work for 18-20 hours, so dozens of Russian people died every day. 23 August 1918 was the most famous Mudyug concentration camp in the north of Russia, which became a real cemetery for victims of the Anglo-French-American intervention.
The American occupation forces in the Far East and Eastern Siberia acted even more brutally. Only in the Amur region, Americans destroyed 25 villages, suspecting their population in the support of the partisans. The centralized export from the territories occupied by the interventionists, forests, fur, gold, and other valuable goods began. But if the forest or gold were exported by train, under the control of the command, then ordinary soldiers and junior officers hunted for banal criminal robbery. There were not rare cases of murder, rape, beating of local residents by American servicemen.
Documentary information was kept about the torture and humiliation that the Russian invaders subjected the Russian people to before the murder. I must say that they did not differ from the atrocities of the German fascist invaders after two and a half decades. For example, the partisan N. Myasnikov was chopped to pieces alive, and the wife of partisan E. Boychuk was punctured with bayonets and drowned in a cesspool. Americans did not disdain to kill adolescents, children, women, old people, set fire to rural houses and schools. There are quite a few photographs that were taken at that time by the American soldiers themselves, who, evidently, were going to then brag about their stay in distant Siberia.
The Colonel of the American Army, Morrow, even recalled that his soldiers could not sleep peacefully without killing some Russian. On one of the days, American soldiers under the command of Morrow shot 1600 people who were brought in railway cars to Andriyanovka station. While in the countryside, Americans pretended to fight with partisans, in cities they simply dealt with criminal activity, for example, they robbed passersby, apartments of local residents. The command practically could not, and did not want, to control the chaos of the American soldiers.
After the defeat of Kolchak, the further presence of American troops in Siberia lost its meaning. In 1920, the Far Eastern Republic was formed. The American leadership was convinced that the plan for the collapse of Russia was fully implemented - a new independent state emerged in the Far East. One of its leaders was an associate of Leon Trotsky, Abram Krasnoshchekov, who was still in the early twentieth century. emigrated from Russia to Germany, and then moved to the United States. However, the Bolsheviks, as is known, deceived the interventionists, ultimately not unraveling, but uniting Russia. Already by 1921, most of the yesterday’s territories of the Russian Empire were united under the control of the Bolsheviks.
The lawlessness of the American occupation forces on Russian territory during the years of the Civil War practically stopped talking after the “perestroika”. Meanwhile, the United States did not suffer any, even moral responsibility for its excesses on the lands of Russia in the 1918-1920. Russia then experienced the same thing as in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. experienced and are experiencing the people of Iraq and Yugoslavia, Syria and Libya, Yemen and Afghanistan, Ukraine and Somalia, and many other countries of the world, visited by the “good uncle Sam”.