Military Review

Little-known wars of the Russian state: the confrontation of Moscow and Kazan in the second half of the XV century.

31
Little-known wars of the Russian state: the confrontation of Moscow and Kazan in the second half of the XV century.

In 1560's, the general situation on the border forced the Moscow sovereign to force a military solution to the conflict with the Kazan Khanate.


Kazan Khanate was a fairly large Muslim state, formed as a result of the collapse of the Golden Horde. It should be noted that the territory inhabited directly by the Kazan Tatars was relatively small, but the main part of the territory of the state was inhabited by other peoples (Mari, Chuvash, Udmurt, Mordva, Moksha, Bashkirs). The main occupations of the inhabitants of the Kazan Khanate were farming and stall cattle breeding, a great role was played by obtaining fur and other trades. Considering the fact that the Volga since ancient times was the largest trading artery, trade also played an important role in the Khanate. A significant role was played by the slave trade, the seizure of slaves was provided by raids on the land of Russia. Part of the slaves were left in the Khanate, some were sold to Asian countries. Raids aimed at capturing slaves were one of the reasons for the conflicts between Moscow and Kazan. It should be noted that the Khanate was an unstable state, where several groups struggled for power, which were guided by external forces. Some were oriented toward Moscow, others toward the Crimea, and others toward the legs. Moscow could not allow Kazan to be under the control of the Crimean Khanate, hostile to Russia, and tried to support pro-Russian forces. In addition, there were considerations of economic and strategic importance - the Russian state needed land on the Volga, control over the Volga trade route and an open road to the East.

Moscow and Kazan fought under the first Kazan Khans - Ulu-Mohammed (Uluge-Mohammed) and his son Mahmud. Moreover, 7 July 1445, in the battle in the vicinity of Suzdal, the Russian army was defeated, and the Grand Duke Vasily II was captured. Basil was forced to pay great tribute to get freedom.

1467-1469 war

In 1467, Khan Khalil died in Kazan. The throne was taken by his younger brother Ibrahim (1467 — 1479). The Russian government decided to intervene in the internal affairs of the Khanate and support the dynastic rights to the throne of one of the sons of Khan Ulu-Mohammed - Qasim. After the victory of the Kazan Tatars in the battle of Suzdal, Kasim, together with his brother Yakub, left for the Russian state to monitor the observance of the treaty and remained in the Russian service. In 1446, he received the Zvenigorod inheritance, and in 1452, Gorodets Meshchersky (it was renamed Kasimov), which became the capital of a specific princedom. Thus arose the Kasimov kingdom, which existed from 1452 to 1681. The Kasimov kingdom (khanate) became the place of settlement of noble Tatar clans, for one reason or another left home.

Part of the Tatar nobility, led by Prince Abdullah-Muemin (Avdul-Mamon), also supported Kashim’s claim to the Kazan throne. They were unhappy with the new khan and decided to support the rights of his uncle Kasim, as opposed to Ibrahim. Kasimu was offered to return to his native land and take the Kazan throne. This could be done only with the help of Russian troops, and the Grand Duke Ivan III supported this idea.

September 14, 1467 the Russian army went on a campaign. The best governor of the Grand Duke Ivan Vasilievich Striga-Obolensky and the Tver commander Prince Danila Dmitrievich Kholmsky who switched to the Moscow service commanded the troops. Ivan himself was with another part of the army in Vladimir, so that in case of failure it was possible to cover most of the Russian-Kazan border. The campaign was unsuccessful. At the crossing at the mouth of the Sviyaga River, the troops of Kashima and the Russian governor were met by the forces of Ibrahim. Kazan troops managed to prepare for war and closed the road. The governors were forced to stop on the right bank of the Volga and wait for the "ship's army", which was supposed to come to the rescue. But flotilla and did not have time to approach the frost. In late autumn, the campaign had to be curtailed and a retreat started.

Expecting a retaliatory strike, the Grand Duke Ivan III ordered to prepare the border cities for defense - Nizhny Novgorod, Murom, Galich, Kostroma, sending additional forces there. Indeed, in the winter of 1467-1468, the Kazan Tatars made a campaign against Galich and ravaged its surroundings. Most of the population of the region was promptly notified and managed to hide in the city. Galicians together with the best part of the Moscow army, the court of the Grand Duke under the command of Prince Semyon Romanovich Yaroslavsky not only repelled the attack, but in December 1467 - January 1468 made a ski trip to the lands of the Cheremis (which was then called Mari-Mari), who were part of composition of the Kazan Khanate. Russian regiments were from Kazan all in a day of a way.

The fighting went on in other parts of the Russian-Kazan border. Murom and Nizhny Novgorod devastated Tatar villages on the banks of the Volga. Russian forces from Vologda, Ustyug and Kichmengi ravaged the land along Vyatka. At the end of winter, the Tatar army reached the headwaters of the South River and burned the town of Kichmengu. 4-10 April 1468, the Tatars and Cheremis plundered two Kostroma parishes. In May, the Tatars burned out the neighborhood of Murom. In the latter case, the Tatar detachment overtook and destroyed by the forces of Prince Danila Kholmsky.

At the beginning of summer, the “outpost” of Prince Fyodor Semyonovich Ryapolovsky from Zvenichev Bor in the 40 versts from Kazan entered into battle with significant enemy forces, which included the Khan's guards, coming from Nizhny Novgorod. Almost all of the Tatar army was destroyed. In the battle, the “hero” Kolupai was killed, and Prince Khodzhum-Berde (Hozum-Berday) was taken prisoner. At the same time, a small detachment of governor Ivan Dmitrievich Runo (about three hundred fighters) through the Vyatka land raided deep into the Kazan Khanate.

The activity of the Russian troops became an unpleasant surprise for the Kazan Tatars, and they decided to subjugate the Vyatka region to secure the northern borders. At first, the Tatar forces were successful. Tatars captured Vyatka lands, planted their administration in the town of Khlynov. But the conditions of peace themselves were rather mild for the local nobility, the main condition was not to support the Moscow troops. As a result, a small Russian detachment of Governor Ivan Runo was cut off. Despite this, Runo continued to be active in the Kazan rear. A Tatar detachment was sent against the voevod forces. At the meeting, the Russians and Tatars left the nasad (a flat-bottomed, open-deck, single-masted ship) and began to fight on foot in a pedestrian formation. Russian won up. Subsequently, the detachment Runo safely returned home in a circular way.

After the battle, a short pause ensued in Zvenichev Bor’s combat. It ended in the spring of 1469. The Russian command adopted a new plan of war against Kazan - it provided for coordinated actions of two Russian rats, who were to attack in converging directions. On the main Nizhny Novgorod direction (down the Volga to Kazan), the army of Konstantin Aleksandrovich Bezzubtsev was supposed to attack. The preparation of this campaign was not hidden and wore a demonstrative character. Another army was trained in Veliky Ustyug under the command of Prince Daniil Vasilyevich Yaroslavsky, it included Ustyug and Vologda units. This detachment (it numbered up to 1 thousand soldiers) had to make almost 2 thousand kilometer throw on the northern rivers and reach the headwaters of the Kama. Then the detachment was to descend along the stream of the Kama to its mouth, and, being deep in the rear of the enemy, climb up the Volga to Kazan, where Bezzubtsev's army should have come from the south. The hopes placed on this raid were broken because of the impossibility to keep the plan of operations secret. The Tatar governor, who was in Khlynov, promptly informed Ibrahim about the preparation of this campaign, including the number of the Russian detachment. In addition, the Russian command did not yet have experience in planning such an operation, where it was necessary to coordinate the actions of forces that were at great distance from each other.

At this time, Moscow was negotiating with Kazan and, in order to “hurry” the enemy, they decided to send a detachment of volunteers to the raid. Thus, the operations wanted to give character to the raid of the “eager people”, who act on their own. However, the calculations of the Russian command did not take into account the mood of the Russian warriors, which were collected in Nizhny Novgorod. After receiving the news of the permission to conduct hostilities, almost all the collected forces marched. Voevoda Bezzubtsev remained in the city, and Ivan Runo was elected head of the army. Despite the order to destroy only the outskirts of Kazan, the Russian flotilla headed straight for the city and at dawn on 21 in May, Moscow ships reached Kazan. The attack was unexpected. Russian warriors were able to burn down the suburbs of the city, release many prisoners, take significant booty. Fearing the attack of a Tatar army recovering from a sudden strike, the Russian army moved up the Volga and stopped on Korovnich Island. Perhaps the governor, Runo, was waiting for the approach of Prince Daniil Yaroslavsky's detachment, who nevertheless went out on the road, and Vyatchan - they sent an order from the Grand Duke to help the regiments near Kazan. But the agreement on neutrality with Kazan and the real threat of stopping the delivery of bread forced the residents of Vyatka to stay away from the war.

At this time, the Kazan Tatars grew bolder and decided to attack the Russian forces on the island. But the unexpected blow did not work. The captive who fled from Kazan warned Russian commanders about the impending strike. Tatar attack was repulsed. Fleece, fearing new attacks, moved the camp to a new location - on Irykhov Island. Having no strength for a decisive battle, moreover, the supply of provisions was running out, Runo began to withdraw troops to the border. During the retreat, the Russian governors received a false report that peace was concluded. On Sunday, 23 July, 1469, on Zvenichev Island, Russian troops stopped to serve the mass and were attacked by the Tatars at that time. Khan Ibrahim sent in pursuit of a river flotilla and equestrian army. Several times the Russian nasad and ushkui turned the Tatar ships to flight, but each time the Kazan forces were rebuilt under the cover of mounted riflemen and resumed attacks. As a result, the Russian army was able to repel the attack and returned to Nizhny Novgorod without large losses.

The expedition of rati from Ustyug, commanded by Prince Daniel of Yaroslavl, was less successful. In mid-July, his ships were still on Kama. The Tatar command was informed about this raid, therefore it blocked the Volga at the mouth of the Kama by bound ships. Russian forces did not flinch and went for a breakthrough. There was a real boarding battle, in which almost half of Russian delight fell to the death of the brave. An 430 man was lost, including voivode Yaroslavsky, Timofey Plescheev was taken prisoner. The broken through part of the Russian detachment headed by Prince Vasily Ukhtomsky went up the Volga. The detachment passed by Kazan to Nizhny Novgorod.

The pause in the fighting was short. In August, 1469, Ivan III decided to move to Kazan, not only those forces that stood in Nizhny Novgorod, but also their best regiments. At the head of the army was the brother of the Grand Duke Yuri Vasilyevich Dmitrovsky. The troops included the troops of another brother of the Grand Duke - Andrei Vasilyevich. September 1 Russian army was at the walls of Kazan. An attempt by the Tatars to counterattack was repulsed, the city was blocked. The Tatars, frightened by the might of the Russian rati, began peace negotiations. The main demand of the Russian side was the requirement to issue “full in 40 years,” that is, virtually all of the Russian slaves in Kazan. That was the end of the war.

Russian-Kazan war 1477-1478 Establishment of the Russian protectorate

The lull lasted for 8 years. In the fall of 1477, the war began again. Khan Ibrahim received a false report that the Moscow army was defeated by Novgorod and decided to seize the moment. Tatar army violated the contract, entered the Vyatka land, conquered the land, took a big full. The Tatars tried to break through to Ustyug, but could not because of the flood of the rivers.

In the summer of 1478, a maritime raid commanded by Prince S.I. Khripun Ryapolovsky and V.F. Sample Simsky took place on Kazan. At the same time, the lands of the Khanate were ruined by vyatchane and Ustyuzhans. Khan Ibrahim, realizing his mistake, resumed the 1469 agreement of the year.

In 1479, after the death of Khan Ibrahim, his son Ali became the successor (in Russian sources Aligam). His half-brother and rival 10-year-old Mohammed-Emin (Magmet-Amen) became the banner of the Moscow party in Kazan. Mohammed-Emin was transferred to the Russian state, and he became a key figure in the Eastern policy of Ivan III. The presence of a contender for the Kazan throne in Moscow was one of the factors that forced Khan Ali to stay away from the struggle of Moscow against the Great Horde. For its part, Moscow also led a restrained policy, trying not to provoke the Kazan Khanate. But the victory in Ugra in 1480 did not cause an immediate deterioration in Russian-Kazan relations - the best Russian troops were transferred to the north-western border (relations with Livonia were strained). In 1480-1481 there was a Russian-Livonian war.

Having strengthened his position on the north-western frontiers, the grand duke again turned his attention to the east. The idea of ​​conquering the Kazan throne for the Tatar prince Mohammed-Emin was again relevant. In 1482, a big march to Kazan was prepared. They planned to strike a blow from two sides: from the west - on the Volga direction; and from the north - on the Ustyug-Vyatka direction. In Nizhny Novgorod, concentrated artillery, including siege. But the demonstration of power did not go further. Kazan Khan hurried to send an ambassador for negotiations. A new contract was concluded.

In 1484, the Russian army approached Kazan, the Moscow party deposed Ali, and Muhammad-Emin declared Khan. In the winter of 1485-1486, the Eastern Party, enlisting the support of the Nogai, returned Ali to the throne. Mohammed-Emin and younger brother Abdul-Latif fled to Russian territory. Grand Prince Ivan III received them cordially, gave to the city Kashira. In the spring of 1486, the Russian regiments regained power of Mohammed-Emin. But after their departure, Ali's supporters again took up and forced Muhammad-Emin to flee.

A new war was inevitable. The Grand Duke, taking into account the experience of past years, decided to achieve political subordination of the Kazan Khanate to Moscow. Deprived of the throne, but retaining the title of "king" Mohammed-Emin gave Ivan a vassal oath and called him his "father." But the plan could be fully realized only after the final victory over Ali Khan and the accession to the Kazan throne of Mohammed-Emin. In Moscow, began large-scale military preparations.

1487 War of the Year and Further Events

11 April 1487, the army launched a campaign. It was led by the best Moscow governors: princes Daniel Kholmsky, Iosif Andreyevich Dorogobuzhsky, Semyon Ivanovich Khripun-Ryapolovsky, Alexander Vasilyevich Obolensky and Semyon Romanovich Yaroslavsky. On April 24, the “Kazan Tsar” Mohammed-Emin left for the army. The Tatar army attempted to stop the Russian army at the mouth of the Sviyaga River, but it was defeated and retreated to Kazan. 18 May the city was surrounded, and the siege began. Ali-Gaza detachment operated in the rear of the Russian army, but it was soon defeated. July 9 the capital of the Kazan Khanate capitulated. Some opponents of Moscow were executed.

Ali Khan, his brothers, sister, mother and wives were taken captive. Khan and his wives were exiled to Vologda, and his relatives to Beloozero. Other notable captives were settled in the grand-ducal villages. Those prisoners who agreed to give the "company" (oath, oath) about faithful service to the Grand Duke, were released to Kazan. Mohammed-Emin became the head of the Khanate, and Dmitry Vasilyevich Shein became the deputy governor of Moscow.

This victory was of great importance. True, the problem of Kazan did not finally solve, but for many years the Khanate fell into dependence on the Russian state. In principle, the Russian government did not then put forward territorial and special political demands to Kazan. Moscow limited the obligations of the Kazan Tsar not to fight against the Russian state, not to choose a new Khan without the consent of the Grand Duke, to guarantee the security of trade. Ivan exercised supreme power, taking the title of "Prince of Bulgaria."

Mohammed-Emin enjoyed the support and confidence of Moscow until the crisis of 1495-1496. when the Khanate, with the support of part of the Kazan nobility and the leg, was seized by the troops of the Siberian prince Mamuka. Mohammed Emin took refuge in the Russian state. Mamuk ruled for a short time, with his terror he turned against the nobility and soon got out. Moscow put Mohammed-Emin Abdul-Latif (1497 — 1502) on the throne of his younger brother. Abdul-Latif, unlike his elder brother, was raised not in Moscow, but in the Crimea. Therefore, he soon began to pursue an independent policy. In 1502, he was deposed and extradited to Moscow, he was exiled to Beloozero.

In Kazan, Mohammed-Emin was put on the throne again. Initially, he remained loyal to Ivan III. But then he succumbed to the pressure of the nobility and on the eve of the death of the Grand Duke (27 in October 1505) broke off the contract with Moscow. The break in relations was overshadowed by the slaughter of Russian merchants, which the Tatars staged a few months before the death of the Grand Duke. 24 June 1505 was killed and captured by Russian merchants and their people in Kazan. The Yermolinskaya Chronicle reports that only more than 15 thousand people were killed. At the same time, grand dukes' ambassadors, Mikhail Klyapik Eropkin and Ivan Vereshchagin, were arrested.

Inspired by the success of the Tatar and allied Nogai troops, numbering up to 60 thousand people, after long peaceful years, attacked the land of Nizhny Novgorod. In September, the suburb of Nizhny Novgorod was burned. The city, in which there were no troops, could only be defended thanks to the help of Lithuanian prisoners released by 300.

Moscow in April 1506 of the year sent a punitive army led by the younger brother of Grand Duke Vasily III, the special prince Dmitry Ivanovich Uglitsky. The campaign was attended by the troops of the specific Prince Fedor Borisovich Volotsky, as well as part of the grand duke's troops under the leadership of the voivode Fyodor Ivanovich Belsky. Most of the army was on the ships. At the same time, part of the force was sent to block the Kama. 22 May 1506, the Russian army approached Kazan and entered into battle with the enemy army. The Kazan cavalry struck the rear, and the Russian army was broken at the Pogany lake. Russian regiments, having lost many soldiers killed and captured, retreated to the fortified camp. Among the prisoners was the third voivode of the Big Regiment, Dmitry Shein.

Receiving a message about an unsuccessful battle, Vasily urgently sent reinforcements from Murom under the command of Prince Vasily Kholmsky. 25 June, before the arrival of the Kholmsky forces, the Moscow army again entered the battle, and was defeated. All guns were lost. A part of the rati under the command of Dmitry Uglitsky went aboard the ships to Nizhny Novgorod, the other part retreated to Murom.

After that, Mohammed-Emin went to the world. A peace treaty was signed and peace relations were restored. Naturally, there was no talk of complete peace. The Russian government was forced to strengthen the border cities, to place there additional forces. In Nizhny Novgorod, built a stone fortress.
Author:
31 comment
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Farvil
    Farvil 3 May 2012 08: 36
    -2
    One-sidedly, the story is written by the winners and always praising it, intrigue, betrayal, etc. remain on the sidelines.
    1. Yoshkin Kot
      Yoshkin Kot 3 May 2012 09: 15
      +5
      betrayal? why? and whom? I want to remind you that there were visiting khans in Kazan, who, unlike Moscow, retained their dynasty
      1. Winter
        Winter 3 May 2012 09: 46
        +6
        Now all this is perceived as a civil war! Some ancestors defeated other ancestors!
        1. alebor
          alebor 3 May 2012 12: 16
          +3
          Well, it's for someone like. That way you can attribute the Battle of Kulikovo to a civil war. I don’t take Turkic-speaking Tatars-Muslims to my ancestors. And the conquest of Kazan, as well as the conquest of Siberia or the Crimea or the Caucasus or Finland, has nothing to do with the civil war. Just as there was no civil war, the conquest and submission in the middle of the 13th century of the Russian principalities by the Mongols.
          1. Paratov
            Paratov 3 May 2012 15: 06
            +1
            She tells you about Thomas, and you about her! For example, I don’t take Muslim Turkic-speaking Tatars of Muslims to my ancestors either, but I don’t observe Muscovites in even an observable pedigree.
        2. smile
          smile 3 May 2012 18: 02
          0
          Winter
          If you really perceive it that way - it's sad. If you continue further. then, probably, how do you think the WWII Europeans should perceive (as some people perceive it as a fratricidal conflict that prevented us from dealing with the main enemy - that is, with us)? And if we go further, then the whole European history is just one continuous frenzied massacre - brother to brother?
          Agree - there is a certain wormhole in such logic ...
        3. Marat
          Marat 4 May 2012 19: 15
          +3
          Well said Winter! and in general this past is not worth stirring up! Another thing is important - that the union of Slavs and steppes created the Eurasian Empire - just like thousands of years ago - and was able to withstand both Europe and China and the South.

          And this Union needs only to be strengthened!
      2. iulai
        iulai 3 May 2012 15: 11
        0
        in Moscow, too, were aliens - Rurikovich, literate!
  2. Alexander Romanov
    Alexander Romanov 3 May 2012 08: 36
    +7
    Yesterday, the article was about Tatarstan, today is another. Seichas cranks again start yelling about independence. They will give independence, they will overtake and still give-take I do not want
  3. Enjoy
    Enjoy 3 May 2012 09: 52
    +7
    There was such a time - everyone fought with everyone, later the Middle Ages. To incline some people against others, pulling from the nose such ancient and several times distorted stories of civil strife is simply wrecking on both sides.

    The article is interesting and thanks to the author. I’m only against someone starting now "yeah, you are so and so, 500 years ago you did this and that .."
  4. Rodver
    Rodver 3 May 2012 10: 07
    +8
    In Russia, the Russian people fraternally absorbed all the indigenous peoples of our country. And in spite of the small-town creeps of some of the local extremist separatists, we are one people.
    1. iulai
      iulai 3 May 2012 15: 22
      0
      right, no need to look back, you need to live looking into the future. earn money, grow up children, grandchildren, watch football, drink beer, sleep with women, in short, life alone and you must live with pleasure!
  5. Alsa74
    Alsa74 3 May 2012 10: 29
    +2
    And for me, this is a normal policy and much more honest than what they are doing now in Libya, Afghanistan, Iraq ... and what they are trying to do in Syria ... at least, without hiding, they supported those who were beneficial and did not betray after that .... and the goals were not hidden behind the slogans "Democracy, Freedom ..." etc.
  6. Georg Shep
    Georg Shep 3 May 2012 10: 37
    +2
    "Towards the sun!" Kazan, the Urals, Siberia, the Far East - the stages of the formation and development of the Russian state!
  7. nnnnnnnnn
    nnnnnnnnn 3 May 2012 14: 09
    +7
    http://www.spsl.nsc.ru/history/descr/kazan2.htmThe first "Kazan campaign" of Ivan IV
    (December 1547 - February 1548)
    The reason for the war: Arrival in Moscow of the embassy from the right-bank Chuvash with a request to accept them as citizenship of Russia.
    The course of hostilities:
    1. Having started training camps in December 1547, troops with access to the field, according to Russian custom, were very late; the regiments of warriors came to Nizhny Novgorod only in January 1548 (infantry), artillery, and even later - on February 2 (by luge route along the Volga).
    2. Army gathering took place on the Volga River in the area between the current settlements Kadnitsa (left bank) and Lower Works (right bank). But given that spring will come soon and the roads will become impassable, barely assembled, they immediately decided to return to Moscow as soon as possible.
    3. The other half of the army, ie The southern detachment, led by Shah Ali and the princes V. Vorotynsky and B. A. Gorbaty-Shuisky, joined the royal infantry at the mouth of the Tsivili river. He reached Kazan on February 4 and stood for about a week under its walls, not letting any of the visitors to the city pass. However, on February 10, 1548, he also decided to leave for Moscow, not seeing any opportunity to storm the Kazan Kremlin. So ingloriously and quickly (in a week!) The first campaign of Ivan the Terrible ended.
    Most likely, the campaign was not intended to capture Kazan, but was in the nature of a military demonstration to assert pro-Russian sentiments among the Chuvash on the right bank of the Volga, which confirms the further development of events. Along the way (perhaps inappropriately), I would like to note one tendentiousness in the interpretation of the facts by V.V. Pokhlebkin: if the campaign did not lead to the capture of the Kazan Kremlin, then it ended "ingloriously", "failure", at best "to no avail"; if the Russian troops were defeated, then this is necessarily a "catastrophic defeat", and so on. Didn't you think so? Approx. Shishkina S.P.
    The second "Kazan campaign" of Ivan IV
    (November 17, 1549 - February 25, 1550)


    The course of hostilities:
    1. This time, acting as a single detachment from Nizhny Novgorod, the Russian army, consisting of the Tsarist Strelets army, the Kasimov cavalry Tsarevich Shah-Ali and the Astrakhan cavalry Tsarevich Ediger reached Kazan on February 12 and began its siege and shelling. Prominent military leaders of Kazan were killed from cannons controlled by German gunners, who inadvertently stepped onto the Kremlin walls to view the battlefield and the actions of the attackers: the Crimean prince Chelbak and one of the sons of Safa-Girey.
    2. However, the onset of warm weather, the threat of early spring and thaw, forced the tsar to lift the siege and return to Moscow.
    3. Despite the huge costs and somewhat better organization than before, the campaign did not produce absolutely any results - neither military nor political. Since the middle of the XVI century. in the Russian state there are transformations and improvements in the field of military organization and military equipment:
    Firstly, new types of selected, elite, privileged troops (based on the Turkish model) are being created.
    Secondly, provincial noblemen are involved in military service by rank and file in the elite troops, which immediately raises the moral and political level of the army.
    Thirdly, technical improvements focused on the development of artillery, mainly heavy, siege, and in general on the armament of the army with firearms, which manifested a clear superiority of the European army and its difference from the eastern, where the main branch of the troops remained cavalry, and the main weapon steel arms.
    Fourth, the engineering and fortification business, which was also being rebuilt with the help of European specialists involved in the training of troops in subversive pyrotechnic operations during the siege of fortresses, also gained considerable importance in military reform.
    Fifth, for the first time in the Russian army, special attention was paid to the development of a preliminary plan of military companies, the justification of the movement of troops, the assessment of their concentration points and the conduct of hostilities according to the developed disposition, and not at random as it comes out.
    Thus, the foundations of such a new organ of the Russian army as the main headquarters of the acting army were laid, which also became an advantage of the Russian army compared to the eastern ones.
    Finally, the experience of previous failures of the Russian army was critically analyzed.
    So, on the eve of the organization of a new campaign against Kazan in 1551, the reasons for the unsuccessful campaigns of 1545-1550 were studied. and the following decisions were made:
    First: The abandonment of the practice of winter hiking, which were considered easy
    a) technically (toboggan run, straight through the swamps, and not bypassing) and
    b) in the economic (without ruining crops, without distracting peasants from field work).
    The outbreak of hostilities was postponed to spring, and the troops had to use the river routes as the main ones.
    Secondly: In advance, a plan and program of the campaign was developed by a special state commission, consisting of:
    a) boyar Ivan Vasilyevich Sheremetev - from the command of the army;
    b) Alexei Fedorovich Adashev - (member of the Elected Council under Ivan IV) from the civil authorities (government administration);
    c) clerk Ivan Mikhailov, an extremely experienced diplomat, participant in negotiations with the Swedes and Poles - from the Foreign Ministry.
    The plan for the conquest of the Kazan Khanate was developed in detail:
    I. Military program:
    1. The blockade of Kazan through the occupation of all river routes of the Khanate.
    2. The foundation of the Russian fortress-outpost at the mouth of the river Sviyaga (Sviyazhsk).
    II. Political Program:
    1. Deposition from the Kazan throne of the khans of the Crimean dynasty.
    2. The release from slavery of all Russian captives (polonyanniki)
    3. Joining to Russia the right bank of the Volga.
    4. Replacement of the khan by the Russian governor in Kazan.
    Both programs were to be implemented in stages, gradually. The military effort was to be economical and to support political demands.
    III. The military plan of the company in 1551 and the leadership of the army were approved:
    1. It was recommended that the tsar personally participate in the campaign personally (Ivan IV was 20 years old at that time) - formally commander in chief.
    2. Boyar Ivan Vasilyevich Sheremetev was appointed the chief of staff.
    3. The commander of the tsarist regiment (guard): Prince Vladimir Ivanovich Vorotynsky.
    4. Commander of the main forces of the army (Large Regiment): Prince Mikhail Ivanovich Vorotynsky.
    1. nnnnnnnnn
      nnnnnnnnn 3 May 2012 14: 14
      +5
      The third "Kazan campaign" of Ivan IV
      (April-July 1551)

      The course of hostilities:
      1. Rafting in the beginning of April of the construction forest along the Volga to the mouth of the Sviyagi River (30 km from Kazan upstream of the Volga).
      The fortress-city (walls, towers, residential huts, churches) was secretly cut down in the winter of 1550-1551 in the forests near the city of Uglich in the estate of the Ushaty boyars. By the spring of 1551, log cabins were marked, dismantled and loaded onto ships. Note Shishkina S.P.

      2. The exit units for the occupation of river routes:
      a) The 1st detachment left the ships from above on the Volga and was then stationed above Kazan.
      b) The 2nd detachment went by land, field, and was deployed below Kazan (detachment of the Kasimov Tatars).
      c) The 3rd detachment was the main Russian army, sent to Sviyazhsk together with the builders.
      d) The 4th detachment marched from the Vyatka River (detachment of Bakhtiar Zyuzin) to Kama.
      The detachments were ordered to stand on all transports on the Volga, Kama, Vyatka, Sviyaga, "so that the military people from Kazan and Kazan did not go", i.e. for the blockade of all river routes and, consequently, all transport and trade.

      3. On May 17, the Russians occupied the steep mountain at the mouth of the Sviyaga River - the dominant height (25 km from Kazan!).
      On May 24, the Sviyazhsk fortress was founded on the territory of the Kazan Khanate. During the day, the whole city grew, since hundreds of ready-made wooden log houses were fused along the Volga, which were prepared in advance during the year in Uglich and Balakhna. They could only deliver.
      At the same time, a bribe was organized for the Chuvash and Mari (Cheremis), who inhabited this territory of the Kazan Khanate, so that they accepted Russian citizenship. They were promised:
      a) freedom from taxes for three years;
      b) gifts: money, fur coats (velvet), horses;
      c) similar benefits are also partly to the Tatars;
      d) pressure was also used: Russian troops drove foreigners (unarmed) in front of Kazan, from where they shot at them. The Chuvash and Mari passed this test without running up, which proved that they are ready to completely obey the Russians.

      4. Having seized the country with a blockade ring and tearing off the virtually right (mountain, ie high) bank of the Volga, the Russian forces practically disorganized the economic life of the Kazan Khanate, since the fields and mowings were located on the meadow (left) side of the Volga, and the local population moved there Russian military units were not allowed.
      The population was told that the blockade would be lifted if the khan’s government obeyed Russian requirements: changing the khan and transferring all Russian polonyans.
      5. The blockade completely paralyzed the life of the khanate: the Volga trade was destroyed, the supply of food to Kazan ceased, navigation on the rivers was prohibited, all goods traveling from the bottom of the Volga were taken from Astrakhan. The villages of the left and right sides of the Volga were divided.
      In June, unrest began in the population: it demanded from the khan that he satisfy the Russian requirements. But the Khan's troops suppressed the rebellion of the Chuvash and Udmurts. However, inside the starving Kazan, unrest began.
      6. At the end of June, the Crimean garrison of Kazan decided to run to Kama, but all 300 people. princes, murz and other noblemen, with their several hundred guards, were ambushed by Russian outposts, and all were destroyed: ordinary soldiers were sunk, princes and murzes were taken to Moscow and executed (46 chief military commanders).
      7. Kazan was captured by the Russian army without a fight, the khan infant Utyamysh and his regent mother were overthrown, and an interim government was formed in Kazan, headed by Khudai-Kul-oglan and Prince Nur Ali Shirin. It entered into peace negotiations with the Russians, sending a delegation to Sviyazhsk.
  8. nnnnnnnnn
    nnnnnnnnn 3 May 2012 14: 15
    +4
    Russian-Kazan Peace Treaty of 1551

    6 signing date is July 1551.
    Place of signature Sviyazhsk
    Plenipotentiaries of the parties From Russia: Kasim's "Tsar" Shah-Ali;
    From the Kazan Khanate: The head of the Kazan clergy, the great Mufti Kul-Sheriff, Prince Bibars Rastov;
    The terms of the truce 1. The truce is concluded for 20 days;
    2. Kazan interim government sends ambassadors to Moscow for negotiations.
    Moscow-Kazan Peace Treaty of 1551

    Date of signature August 1551
    Place of signing Moscow, Kremlin
    Authorized parties From Russia: clerk Ivan Mikhailovich Viskovaty;
    From the Kazan Khanate: Ambassador Prince Enbars Rastov;
    The terms of the truce 1. Recognize the new Kazan Khan Shah Ali;
    2. To extradite to the Russian government the minor Khan Utyamysh (2 and a half years!) And his mother regent, Syuyun-Bike.
    3. To extradite to the Russian government families (wives and children) of the escaped and executed Crimean Tatars;
    4. Bring to the Kazan Ustye (meaning the mouth of the Kazanka river when it flows into the Volga, 7 km from the fortress of Kazan itself) and transfer to the Russian boyars Russian polonyans who were enslaved to noble Kazan (princes, murz, noblemen), and the polonyans belonging to ordinary Tatars should be transferred later, when Shah Ali will already be on the Kazan throne.
    5. Upon signing these conditions, the Russian government lifts (breaks) the blockade of river routes and traffic.
    Negotiations on the final Moscow-Kazan peace treaty of 1551
    (August 9-10, 1551)

    Authorized Parties:
    From the Moscow state: Shah Ali, Prince P.S. Serebryany.
    From the Kazan Khanate: Mulla Qasim, Prince Bibars Rastov, Khoja Ali-Merden.

    After the meeting ceremony, the verification of powers and the official opening of negotiations, the Kazan ambassadors were unexpectedly announced that the Kazan Khanate would now be divided in half into the mountain (right) and meadow (left, Trans-Volga) parts, and that only the Trans-Volga part would be considered the Kazan Khanate will move to Moscow.
    The ambassadors, who first heard such conditions that they were not told about at the preliminary talks in Moscow, refused to sign the new terms of the peace treaty, but they were threatened in case of refusal to immediately begin military operations against Kazan.
    Making desperate attempts to save their state, Kazan diplomats nevertheless managed to postpone the decision to divide the Kazan Khanate for several days and signed the peace (initialed) on the same terms as they signed the peace treaty a few days earlier in Moscow. (Apparently, these negotiations took place near Kazan - in Sviyazhsk or Kazan estuary. Only this can explain the efficiency of convocation of kurultai - after 3 days. Note. Shishkina SP)
    It was decided to transfer the decision on the withdrawal of the mountainous side to the Muscovite state for a "meeting of all the land", which was to be convened at the mouth of the Kazanka River.
    On August 11, 1551, the Kazan ambassadors agreed to give the Russian side the khan Utyamysh and the queen (hanshu) Syuyun-Bike.
    Kurultay on the Kazanka River
    (August 14, 1551)

    The place of convocation of the kurultai: The mouth of the Kazanka River at its confluence with the Volga (7 km from Kazan).
    Present:
    a) all Muslim clergy headed by Kul-Sheriff ibn Mansur, i.e. all sheikhs, sheikh-zade, mullahs, mullah-zade, hodge, dervishes;
    b) oglans - relatives of khans along all lines headed by Khudai-kul;
    c) princes and murza, headed by Nur-Ali, son of Bulat-Shirin.
    The agreement was signed under strong Russian pressure and threats: the mountain side was withdrawn to the Moscow state.
    Moscow-Kazan Peace Treaty 1551

    Date of signing August 14, 1551
    Place of signing Ustye r.Kazanki 7 km from Kazan
    Representatives of the upper classes of the Kazan Khanate who signed the agreement.
    Terms of the contract 1. The Kazan Khanate is divided into meadow and mountain parts, with the mountain leaving to the Moscow state;
    2. All polonyans will be freed. It is now forbidden to keep Christians in slavery in the Kazan Khanate. In the event of incomplete release of polonyans, the Russian government immediately declares war.

    Consequences of the peace treaty of 1551:
    1. After signing the contract for 3 days (August 16-18), a massive oath of allegiance by the Tatars to the Russian government and the contract took place. The oath was immediately pronounced by groups of 200-300 people.
    2. On August 17, the release of Russian prisoners began. On the first day, 2700 people were released (listed in the box). A total of 60 people were released within a week throughout the khanate. (set according to the lists for bread allowance!)
    3. After the release of the captives, the Russian troops were withdrawn, the blockade of rivers and crossings was stopped, the Russian embassy, ​​headed by the boyar I.I. Khabarov (soon replaced by Prince Dmitry Fedorovich Paletsky) and clerk Ivan Vyrodkov, remained in Kazan.
    4. Russian administration was introduced in Sviyazhsk.
    * * *

    But Kazan, including the new pro-Russian Khan Shah Ali, were unhappy with the division of the country. They hoped that they would be able to entreat the Russian tsar to return the mountain side of Kazan. For this purpose, an emergency embassy to Moscow was dispatched.
    Embassy of the Kazan Khanate in Moscow
    (October 1551)

    The composition of the embassy:
    Prince Nur-Ali ibn Bulat-Shirin, big Karachi;
    Prince Shah-Abass Shamov, Khan butler;
    Bakshi Abdullah, Prince Kostrov, Hodja Ali-Merden.

    Embassy Requirement:
    1) Step back down the mountain side;
    2) If they do not yield, then allow collecting taxes in it;
    3) Do not allow all taxes, then at least part;
    4) That the king would swear that he would abide by the agreement;

    The answer of the Russian government:
    1) No concessions with respect to the mountain side. All taxes must come to Moscow;
    2) The king will take the oath only after the return of all the polonyans;
    3) Ambassadors will be detained in Moscow as hostages until the full release of Russian prisoners.
    1. nnnnnnnnn
      nnnnnnnnn 3 May 2012 14: 20
      +5
      This led to completely opposite results: the prisoners were detained, as the last chance to negotiate with Moscow.
      At the same time, opposition was formed to eliminate Shah Ali as a Russian protege. The conspiracy was revealed, and more than 70 people. The conspiracy "bugs" were killed, including the Rastov brothers, princes Bibars and Enbars, oglan Karamysh, Murza Kulai and others. Since the conspirators were formally liquidated by the Russian order by Shah-Ali Khan, he was in an extremely difficult situation. The Tatar aristocrats and clergy saw in him a direct enemy of national aspirations and were unanimous in their desire to eliminate him as a hated Russian protege. At the same time, the Russian side did not at all support him unequivocally and was ready at any moment either to remove him, replacing him simply with a Russian mentor, i.e. not needing it as a "national screen", or "pay them off", ie giving it to be torn apart by the Tatars in the event of a sharp strengthening of the national party in Kazan and the impossibility of overcoming the resistance of the Tatar opposition.
      Shah Ali himself, promising his people "to beg from the Russians" to return to the Kazan Khanate the half of the territory that had been torn away from it, saw the preservation for himself and the throne and life only if he fulfilled this promise and therefore refused to play the role of an obedient Russian puppet, looked at the Russians " advisers "not as political allies, but as their own natural enemies.
      In this situation, the Russian government finally decided to discard all diplomacy and by the decisive deposition of Shah-Ali and the appointment of a Russian governor in his place to legally complete the annexation of the entire Kazan Khanate to the Moscow state. However, in order not to cause an uprising of the Tatars by this measure, it was important to find such "technical" forms of liquidation of the Kazan Khanate, which would seem to be sanctioned by the Tatar elite itself. In view of this, the Kazan embassy detained in Moscow was involved in the consultation. In January 1552, the Moscow government put before him the question: "What is the custom for their governor to be?"
      Tatar politicians who understood that the main thing in this situation was, firstly, to preserve the unity of the territory of the Kazan Khanate, secondly, to preserve the actual autonomy of the Kazan Khanate under the formal Russian authority and, thirdly, to prevent the military invasion of Russian troops and the war of extermination unequal conditions, - advised tsarist diplomats:
      1) To withdraw the Russian garrison from Kazan so that the khan, having lost the Russian protection, himself left the capital of the khanate and his deposition would take place "naturally".
      2) Send from Moscow representatives of the Kazan aristocracy, detained as hostages, to Kazan to explain the situation to the inhabitants of the Khanate and take the oath to the Russian governor.
      3) In fact, leave the Tatar Muslim administration untouched in the Kazan Khanate.
      In fact, to preserve the autonomy of the Kazan Khanate financially and economically (the treasury is controlled by the local government through the governor, and not the central government in Moscow).
      The accession of the Kazan Khanate to Russia should be considered as a personal union between Russia and the Khanate, which should be expressed only in the replacement of the khan by the Russian governor.
      All internal structure and religious Muslim organization remain intact. Only the slavery of Christian captives is destroyed; "eternal peace" is established between Moscow and Kazan, both parts of the khanate are reunited again.

      Note:
      This project of the annexation of the Kazan Khanate to Russia was approved by the Russian commission consisting of boyar I.V. Sheremetev, personal representative of Tsar A.F. Adashev, Duma clerk I. Mikhailov, and in February 1552 A.F.Adashev himself arrived in Kazan , in order to "peacefully" depose Shah Ali Khan, who "voluntarily" had to give way to the Russian governor:
      1) On March 6, 1552, the khan left Kazan for Sviyazhsk together with 84 people. princes and murz transferred to them by Moscow, as hostages.
      2) On March 6, 1552, a tsar’s letter was announced in Kazan on the liquidation of the khanate and the appointment of Prince Simeon Ivanovich Mikulinsky as governor of the Sviyazh voivode.
      3) On March 7, 1552, the citizens of Kazan were sworn in to the governor and the tsar by the "three" tsar representatives:
      from Kazan: Prince Chapkun Otuchev, Prince Burnash;
      from Moscow: the arrowhead Ivan Cheremisinov.
      4) On March 8, 1552, the provisional Kazan government, headed by oglan Khudai-Kul, went to Sviyazhsk, where it took the oath of office from the governor to distribute privileges and privileges of the Russian nobility to the Kazan (Tatar) nobility.

      It remained to implement only two more formalities:
      a) Departure from Kazan Hanshi to exile in Moscow.
      b) Entrance to Kazan of the viceroy of Prince Mikulinsky together with the mixed Russian-Tatar retinue and the Russian garrison.
      The coup on March 9, 1552

      On the morning of March 9, 1552, the governor, retinue, the Russian military detachment, the Tatars hostages (84 aristocrats) left Sviyazhsk for Kazan. At the same time, the Khansha left Kazan. On the Volga, near Krokhov Island, they were met by representatives of Kazan - the princes Shamsya and Khan-Kilda.
      Near the village of Bezhboldy (later Admiralteyskaya Sloboda), three Kazan aristocrats - princes Kebek, Islam and Murza Alik Narykov separated from the retinue’s retinue, asking permission to go ahead to arrange a meeting for the solemn entry of the governor into the Kazan gates (the distance was about 2 kilometers).
      Arriving in Kazan, the Tatar aristocrats locked the gates, urged residents to arm themselves and refused to let the governor and the Russian squad. After standing at the gates of Kazan for several hours, Prince Mikulinsky was forced to return to Sviyazhsk, to arrest the entire Tatar retinue and former hostages, but still not to start hostilities, as he still hoped for a peaceful settlement of the conflict.
      However, Kazan was determined to defend their independence. The coup was completed seriously - so the Russians were at a loss.
      The plan for "peaceful annexation" of the Kazan Khanate to Russia has failed. The project of preserving the autonomy of the Kazan Khanate also did not take place. But this could not fundamentally change the balance of power between the Russian and Tatar sides. There was a military confrontation, which simply temporarily postponed the act of annexing Kazan.

      Military events of the Kazan government in March-May 1552
      1. The new Tatar government, which decided to fight with Moscow, was formed on March 10, 1552 and it was headed by Prince Chapkun Otuchev.
      2. The remaining Russian archers (180 people) in the city were disarmed and killed.
      3. Kazan residents invited Tsar Yadiger-Muhammad to the throne of Astrakhan, began active hostilities against the Russians and even secured the deposition of the mountain side from Moscow. Thus, all the results of a year of diplomatic preparations for the annexation of the Kazan Khanate to Russia were eliminated.
      Russia had to start the war from the beginning.
      1. nnnnnnnnn
        nnnnnnnnn 3 May 2012 14: 52
        +5
        The fourth (Great) "Kazan campaign" of Ivan IV
        (June 16 - October 12, 1552) Participants in the war and their goals:
        1. Russia.
        The initiator and organizer of the 4th campaign is Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible. He set a goal to destroy Kazan and annex it to Russia.
        2. Kazan Khanate with allies (Crimean Khanate, Astrakhan Khanate, Nogai Horde).
        The Turkish sultan Suleiman II the Magnificent called on all Tatar states to unite to protect independence. Kazan. The Crimean Khan Devlet-Girey promised to save the Kazan Khanate and create a single Crimean-Kazan Tatar state that could withstand Russian aggression and conquests.

        The plan of the Russian campaign: Given the participation of not only Kazan, but also the Crimean troops, and also taking into account the lessons of the failures of the previous campaigns, the Tsar changes the time of the beginning of the war - from the traditional winter transfers it to spring-summer, and also changes the usual concentration of Russian troops at the Lower Novgorod and Vladimir-Murom (two direct routes to Kazan) by concentration at Kolomna (main forces) and Murom.
        Kolomna - on the Oka. This is the so-called "Nogaysky way", from here it is only 60 km to Kashira, where the Crimean (or Muravsky) way passed. It is easy and quick to change from one path to another under the cover of the Oka channel. Further on the Oka - Murom, this is a direct route from Moscow to Kazan - 400 km (to Kazan), 250 km (to Moscow). Between Kolomna and Murom - 150-175 km. The combination of both troops (groups of troops), their concentration, depending on the place where the enemy appeared, could be carried out quickly, maneuverably and safely. Thus, strategically, the operation was calculated correctly, in an exemplary manner.

        Armed forces of the Russian campaign: 150 thousand people, Pushkarsky outfit (i.e. field and serf artillery), supplies and siege weapons (powder supplies, materials for the assembly of Gulyai-gorod), carts with food. All reserves and artillery are fused with reliable protection along the Oka and Volga to Kazan.
        Tatar forces: The number of Kazan troops was only 63 thousand people. In addition, there was a detachment of Nogais in 3000 people. The Russians had more than a double advantage. In addition, the Russians had very strong artillery. Therefore, the Tatars did not dare to battle in the open field. They locked themselves outside the walls of Kazan. The course of hostilities:
        1. On June 16, troops from Murom and Kolomna take direction to Sviyazhsk.
        2. On June 17, the tsar receives intelligence reports about the movement to the rear of the Crimean troops. The main forces immediately concentrate on the Kashira-Kolomna section and stop the movement, awaiting further intelligence reports.
        3. On June 21 they reported that the Crimean troops were approaching Tula (the shelling of the cannons and the siege of Tula, the Crimeans began on June 22). The king directs part of the forces to Tula. On June 23, it became known that Tula had the main Crimean forces led by the khan. The king orders the main forces to cross the Oka and goes to Kashira. The Crimeans, who did not expect the Russians to go to them along the front, for they believed that from June 16 to 23 they should have made great headway to Kazan and be south of them, they began to retreat, and at that time the detachments of Prince M.N.Vorotynsky, who had reached Tula earlier, beat the outgoing units of the Crimeans on the Shivoron River, while the main forces were moving to Kazan.
        4. July 1, 1552, a military council of troops gathers (princes Vorotynsky, Humpback, Silver, Vyazemsky, Kurbsky, Boyar Morozov). It was decided: to go in two ways - in two separate detachments - to Murom (1) and to Ryazan and Meshchera (2). Connect for Alatyr. (prison, known since 1552, founded a year or two before)
        5. July 3, troops continue to move. They go a whole month. August 4 are connected on the river Sura.
        For the synchronous connection of the troops, taking into account the past blunders, a movement pattern was developed: the southern part of the army made transitions 25-30 km per day, the northern - 20-25 km. Farther north, along the water (Oka and Volga), a well-dressed detachment walked, reporting on the pace of its movement. Ahead of both ground detachments, for two or three days or more, "pososny people" were sent ahead to build bridges, gats and to cut openings, widen roads, military patrol reconnaissance went ahead of them, the so-called. "ertaul". Thus, the trip was well-planned, well-organized, and passed quickly, "on schedule." As a result, for the first time, Russian troops approached the immediate theater of military operations healthy, not exhausted, not suffering any losses and ready for battle, with faith in victory and their leadership.
        6. On August 13, the whole army — stocks, outfit, all army — joined in Sviyazhsk.
        7. On August 16, after a three-day rest, a crossing across the Volga was started, which went on continuously for 3 days, until August 19, under the guise of guard troops. By the early morning of August 20, all 150 thousand Russian troops concentrated at the mouth of the Kazanka River.
        8. At the military council on August 21, 1552, it was decided that the Russian army would impose Kazan, subjecting the city to a complete severe blockade, and the attack on the fortress itself would be conducted from the south and east, where it is more vulnerable.
        9. On 23 August the taxation was completed. The Kazanians' response to this was a large, powerful sortie, the purpose of which was to prevent taxation. The sortie was attended by 10 thousand people. infantry and 5 TVS. people cavalry. They managed to cut off part of the Russian patrol troops, but the forward regiment, which was three times larger than the Kazanians in number (40 thousand people), repulsed the sortie, driving the Kazanians back behind the walls. The Russian troops were especially assisted by the riflemen's subunits with "firefight", which instilled fear in the Tatars, armed only with pikes and sabers.
        10. The taxation was secured on the following day (they worked day and night) by the construction of "rounds", a protective tyna and "burials" - trenches, from where it was possible to conduct aimed fire at the defenders of Kazan that appeared on the walls.
        Russian regiments took up positions between r. Kazanka, creek Bulak and on the Arsk field. The positions were very profitable and well covered, strengthened.
        11. However, on August 24, a storm of rain suddenly arose, severely damaging the convoys standing in the rear of the troops (carts covered only with matting); many stocks of food and supplies, uniforms, belongings were destroyed.
        The Military Council therefore proposed moving away, replenishing supplies, staying for the winter, and continuing the siege during the winter, hoping to kill the blockade of Kazan. But the tsar, fearing that during this time the allied Crimean troops could approach Kazan and strike the rear of the Russians, ordered the siege of Kazan to be forced, relying on the remaining funds. The closest base was to be only Sviyazhsk, where an order was sent to mobilize emergency assistance.
        12. However, already on August 28 from the Arskoye field [Here we are talking about the Tatar fortified point (prison, city) east of Kazan in the upper reaches of the Kazanka River in the area of ​​the modern village of Arsk. It should be distinguished from the Arsky field near the Kazan Kremlin, on which the Russian troops were fortified (now this place is practically in the center of Kazan). Note Shishkina SP] a horse detachment of the Astrakhan prince Yapanchi (75 km from Kazan) came up to Kazan, which could greatly interfere with the siege of Kazan, striking the Russian troops in the rear at the most crucial moment. Therefore, it was decided first of all to completely destroy the Yapanchi detachment, and only then to proceed with the siege.
        13. On August 30, he was lured from his forest shelter into an open field, where three to four times Russian forces superior to the Tatars with double coverage at first surrounded and then began to destroy Yapanchi's cavalry. Although part of it nevertheless escaped from the encirclement and went to prison, the Russians decided not to allow any Tatar forces to remain in their rear areas and for a week, by September 6, they took the prison with battle and completely destroyed the Yapanchi army.
        14. Then the detachment of Prince. (Andrey) Gorbaty walked (combed) the entire rear of the Russian troops right up to the confluence of the Kama with the Volga and cleared this territory of all armed groups of Tatars, set up outposts and, most importantly, collected from the population, using force, huge reserves of food, which was in dire need Russian 150-thousand army. 45 thousand Russian warriors and riflemen took part in the operation to "clean up the rear", and Ivan the Terrible allocated for these "police-punitive purposes" not the worst, but the best, most prepared troops, leaving weaker forces to watch the walls of Kazan. This risk paid off: the rear was completely neutralized, and the Kazan citizens did not manage to make a military sortie during this respite.
        15. By September 1, Kazan was completely covered by a ring of fortification siege structures, after which an active siege of the fortress began.
        First, artillery shelling of individual sections of the wall was continuously conducted to create gaps in it, collapses.
        Secondly, at the same time, from the previously constructed trenches, trench work was carried out to undermine the walls and lay mines and powder charges into these undermines. This sapper-explosive activity was carried out under the guidance of a talented Russian military engineer-nugget of "design", i.e. "learned master", Ivan Vyrodkov, who was the builder of Sviyazhskaya and other Russian fortresses of the XNUMXth century, as well as with the participation of a German mine master ("Litvin" Erasmus).
  9. nnnnnnnnn
    nnnnnnnnn 3 May 2012 14: 52
    +5
    16. At the insistence of the tsar, the entire line of Kazan’s taxation was reinforced with special strong points where artillery and troops could be concentrated to repel attacks from Kazan. It was like a miniature fortress around Kazan. They had the appearance of redoubts and were surrounded by a system of trenches. In addition, wall-mounted guns were located along the entire line of the siege, as well as mortars for firing outside the walls of Kazan (with mounted fire). The camp of the troops and the Tsar’s Headquarters on the Arskoye Field were also protected by circular rows of convoy carts and Gulyai-city, which gave a good overview and the ability to protect against any attacks from outside.
    17. Already the first day of continuous shelling of the walls of the Kazan Kremlin and the use of wall-mounted guns and arson explosions created huge wall breaks and led to numerous fires. The Arsk gates of Kazan were also defeated. However, the defenders were constantly busy extinguishing fires and rebuilding the walls, closing gaps and breaks. So a decisive turning point in the siege has not yet occurred.
    18. Then, on the night of September 3–4, in front of the Arsk Gates, a wooden tower was assembled with a height of 6 fathoms (12,5 meters) with three tiers, on which there were 10 cannons (mortar) for firing outside the walls of Kazan (with aimed fire!) And 50 manual squeaks to repel the cavalry and infantry of the enemy in case of sorties from the fortress. As soon as Kazan discovered this tower in the morning, they began to leave their homes near the Arsk gates, and this part, thus, began to lose their defenders. Therefore, the attack of the Russians was concentrated at the Arsky gate.
    19. Despite the desperate situation and the almost complete absence of artillery, which was also completely destroyed by the Russians in the early days of the fighting, the Kazan citizens courageously resisted: they quickly corrected the destroyed walls by pushing wooden logs filled with earth into the gaps and lowered the metal barriers that protected them from artillery fire, frequent attacks did not stop, preventing them from approaching the walls with the help of round approaches to the besieged Russian soldiers.
    20. On September 4, the Russians made a powerful explosion (11 barrels of gunpowder) from the tunnel, which was conducted secretly for ten days. He destroyed the cache of the Kazan people to the water, "took the water away from them" [at the Muravlyevy Gate (ie, the Nur-Ali gate), on this place a new Taynitskaya Passage Tower of the Kremlin was later built], which greatly undermined the morale of the besieged.
    On September 30, the second major powder explosion was carried out, which was laid in a pit directly at the Arsky Gate. He was to divert the attention of the defenders and allow the Russian troops to approach directly to the gate. This goal was achieved: Kazan later came to their senses from surprise and when they made a sortie, they were repulsed, and the archers managed to occupy the tower and part of the wall at the Arsky Gate.
    The governor, Prince V.I.Vorotynsky, who commanded these archers, wanted to build on success and asked permission to storm the city on the fly, but Ivan the Terrible did not allow it, since he did not yet have an assault plan approved by the military council, and without a clear plan, at random, he decided not to do anything in this war, making sure in practice that only the implementation of a clear combat schedule provides reliable, well-prepared success. Sagittarius only strengthened themselves on the tower and blocked the moat near it with earth and brushwood, thereby providing a more convenient approach to the gates of the new infantry units.
    21. Only the next day, October 1, when the siege artillery shot down the entire section of the wall at the gate point-blank, and the sappers made several crossings over the ditch and built dozens of assault ladders, was the "rank" of the assault, that is, drawn up. his exact plan, disposition.
    In the evening, on the eve of October 2, Ivan the Terrible sent Kazan a proposal to surrender without a fight. But he was answered with a proud refusal.
    22. The assault was scheduled for October 2. The troops were raised at 6 am and began to prepare for battle. At 7.00, one after the other, with an interval of just 1 minute, two terrible explosions followed - in each of the digs, 240 pounds of gunpowder were laid. Giant gaps formed in the walls. Explosions were a signal for the assault. As soon as they sounded, tens of thousands of Russian warriors rushed to storm.
    23. Despite the hopelessness of the defense, the spirit of the Tatars was not broken, they courageously opposed the superior forces of the Russian troops and there were even moments when they managed to move to a counterattack. The most stubborn resistance met the regiment of the right hand of the Russian army.
    24. But, having mastered the walls of Kazan after a stubborn hours-long battle, the Russian troops met no less stubborn resistance in the streets and in the houses of the city, each of which had to be fought with. Towards the end of the day another obstacle for the attacking Russian troops was presented by the second defense belt of Kazan - the internal fence, where the khan with the guard was locked. Khan was captured. He was the only man who was left alive to be taken to Moscow. The rest of the male population of the city was destroyed, both soldiers and civilians and the clergy. The head of the Muslim church in the Kazan Khanate, Mufti Kul-Sheriff, was killed at the main mosque on the Tezitsky ravine. The streets of Kazan were littered with corpses, the winners did not spare either women or children. For the entry of Ivan the Terrible into the city, they were able, with great difficulty, to clear only one street from the corpses - from the Muravlevy Gate to the Khan's Palace, although the length of this street was only 213 meters!
    25. The king gave Kazan to the complete looting of his army for a week.
    He ordered to extinguish the fires, to take only the banners and guns of the Kazan army to the royal treasury, and to give all the property of the inhabitants and the inhabitants themselves - as prisoners - to plunder their army. The stench in the city from the corpses by the end of the day, despite the already cool autumn time, was so strong that the tsar, only after examining the Khan's palace for half an hour, hastened to leave Kazan for his field headquarters.
    26. October 12, Ivan the Terrible ordered the army to move in the opposite direction. The war was over. The Kazan Khanate was destroyed not only politically, but also economically. The country was looted, the population was partially exterminated, and the rest was ruined. Prince A.B.Gorbaty-Shuisky was appointed viceroy of the khanate. Having conquered the khanate, captured the last Kazan khan Yadiger captured for eternal maintenance in Russia, having destroyed Tatar statehood, Ivan IV, like Batu, did not legally draw up the victory - he did not conclude a peace treaty, because the opposing side no longer existed. The Russian authorities looked at their further task simply - from now on, Russia will collect tribute or capitation tax from the conquered territory, therefore, the treasury will have additional profit. But in reality, not everything was so simple. The death of the government, the death of the dynasty, the fall and ruin of the capital, the destruction of the army, the complete destruction of the state organization - all this did not force Kazan to completely capitulate. This was no longer the XIII, XVI century, and the struggle for national independence took on a spontaneous and national character.
    1. nnnnnnnnn
      nnnnnnnnn 3 May 2012 14: 54
      +2
      Popular uprising in the Kazan Khanate against Russian occupation
      (1552 - 1553)

      The leader of the uprising: Mamysh-Berdy, the former Sotsky head from the Meadow side.
      The purpose of the uprising: To restore the Tatar state organization destroyed by the Russians, to renew the khan's power.
      The course of the uprising:
      1. In December 1552, just two months after the ruin of Kazan, systematic attacks began on Russian messengers, officials, merchants and other Russian people following the road Vasilsursk-Sviyazhsk and Sviyazhsk-Kazan and accompanying goods, convoys and other material values .
      2. The Russian government responded with cruel terror: the participants in the attacks (real or imaginary) were found and hung up without exception. In Sviyazhsk in 1552/53 74 people were hanged (on denunciations and suspicions), and in Kazan - 38.
      3. In February 1553, cases of the murder of tax collectors were noted.
      4. Sent for "putting things in order" two Russian detachments of 800 people. were destroyed (350 archers and 450 Cossacks were killed).
      5. The mountain side of the Volga was in revolt: the detachments led by Zeyzeit and Sarah defeated the Russian punitive detachments under the leadership of the boyar B. I. Saltykov and killed (after the capture) 36 children of the boyars (ie command personnel), and 200 people. captured, including the very commander B.I. Saltykov.

      Creation of military strategic points of the uprising:
      1. A fortress was built 70 km east of Kazan - on the upper reaches of the Meshi River.
      2. Fifteen versts from Kazan, on Vysokaya Mountain (now the Vysokaya Gora railway station east of Kazan), a fortified point was created - the notch of the rebels.
      3. Fifteen versts from Kosmodemyansk (below it along the Volga) on the Sundyr mountain (the village of Maly Sundyr) the Chalym fortress was built - the main administrative and military center of the rebels (15 km above Kazan).
      The capital of the Kazan Khanate (rebels) was moved here in January-February 1553.
      Candidates for the Khan’s throne:
      1. Murza Muhammad, son of the Nogai ruler of Murza Ismail (abandoned the throne under the pressure of his father - a pro-Russian figure).
      2. Murza Ali-Akram, the son of Murza Yusuf, the Nogai ruler, the enemy of Ismail, the brother of Hanshi Syuyun-Bike, agreed to become the new Kazan khan.
      The preparation by the rebels of the war against Russia:
      1. Creation of a union of Tatar states:
      a) Ali-Akram and Kazan rebels with a center in Chalym.
      b) The father of Ali-Akram, Murza Yusuf, who trained the Nogai army of several tens of thousands of people.
      c) Astrakhan Khanate (his contribution: vessels for action and ferry on the Volga, detachment of 500 people).
      2. A speech against Russia did not take place, since the Murza Ismail in the Nogai Horde informed the Tsar about the preparation of the war and declared his alliance with Russia, preventing Murza Yusuf from preparing help for the rebels.
      The Russian government began to prepare a new war to conquer and conquer the Kazan Khanate completely.
      1. nnnnnnnnn
        nnnnnnnnn 3 May 2012 14: 55
        +5
        The fifth "Kazan campaign" of Ivan the Terrible
        (summer 1553 - August 1556)

        Purpose of the war: To finally subjugate the Kazan Khanate, stop the struggle for the independence of its population by brutal measures.
        The course of hostilities:
        1. Large punitive detachments under the general leadership of DF Adashev were sent to the banks of the Volga, Kama and Vyatka. They "combed" all the settlements along the banks of these rivers, killing everyone who was suspected of participating in the uprising, terrorizing the entire country. They seized all transports and crossings over these rivers, controlling and prohibiting the movement of Kazan citizens around the country. But this was only the first wave of occupation actions.
        2. In September 1553, a regular army was sent to the Kazan Khanate under the leadership of the governor: Prince Mikulinsky, boyar I.V. Sheremetev. Military operations unfolded all over the country - Russian troops marched, destroying everything in their path - not only the Middle Volga region, but also climbed up 250 km along the Kama. Tactics of scorched earth were used: villages were destroyed, compared with the land, cattle were taken away and driven away, the male population, as a rule, was destroyed, all the working population was taken away.
        3. Since the "war" took the character of a massacre of the unarmed population, this caused the unification of all the nations inhabiting the Kazan Khanate: the Chuvash and Mari, who had previously ceded to the Russians, and in some cases opposed the Tatars, united with them. This triggered a new wave of intensified Russian repression.
        4. In the winter of 1553/54, i.e. From November-December 1553 to February 1554, Russian troops launched a new action - the destruction of strongholds of the rebels, the destruction of housing in general in winter. A fortress on the Mesh river was burned, 6000 men and 15000 women were captured. Driven to despair, the population was forced to swear allegiance to the king and pay taxes.
        5. In the summer of 1554 hostilities resumed. The combined detachments of the Tatars and Mari began to resist the Russian troops marching with punitive goals. The attempts of the Russian governor to send against the rebellious inhabitants of the regions sworn to Russia, forced to take this step in the winter, completely failed, because the conquered again joined the rebels; the entire territory of the Kazan Khanate represented the war zone. The rebels began to kill everyone who collaborated with the Russian authorities, they approached Kazan itself and defeated the guard regiment of the Russian army standing there.
        6. Then the tsarist government sent a new large detachment under the command of Prince I.F. Miloslavsky, who occupied and devastated 22 volosts in the central part of the country, razed several dozen villages. About 50 thousand people were captured, and all of them were executed.
        The annals were not able to record and list at least part of the numerous battles that took place in different points of the khanate. It is enough to say that only Prince Kurbsky notes that in 1554 his detachment had over 20 battles with the rebels.
        7. In the Arsk region (Udmurtia), a number of prison camps were built in which military garrisons were left in order not to weaken control over the population.
        8. However, all this did not lead to the liquidation of the rebel detachments of Mamysh-Berdy; they retained their combat effectiveness and strength.
        9. In 1555, both sides took a break. The royal troops are tired. The population was suppressed not only by military repressions, but also by economic devastation - sowing was broken in the country for two years in a row and poor crops were destroyed during the war. The working population was hijacked.
        10. But in the spring of 1556, Mamysh-Berdy launched an offensive with his faithful, courageous 2th army. However, the Russian military leaders were preparing for a whole year for good reason. In April 1556, the army of the boyar P.V. Morozov approached the rebel capital Chalym and overlaid it. As previously Kazan, the fortress was taken as a result of a series of undermines, mining and giant explosions (up to 300 pounds of gunpowder at the same time!). Khan Ali-Akram was killed, and Mamysh-Berdy was captured by cunning, taken to Moscow and executed. The athlete Ahmed (Ahmetek-batyr) who replaced him was also captured and executed.
        11. Having defeated the uprising in the central region of the Kazan Khanate, the Russian government turned against the second area of ​​the uprising - in Udmurtia. This whole area was devastated by the army of P.V. Morozov in May 1556. As usual, all men were killed, women and children were taken prisoner. As a result, Udmurtia, and then all Prikamye (Perm and Bashkir regions) were devastated.
        12. In 1557, a people deprived of leaders, bloodless by the destruction of the male part of the population and the capture of all the working people, driven to despair by the many years of continuous ruin of the country, refused to continue the struggle. The war ended, no peace was concluded. The country was simply annexed to Russia, the Russian administration was introduced in it.
        13. The last Tatars were evicted from Kazan, they were assigned a place in the Kuransheva Sloboda, beyond the Bulak River, and 7000 Russians were brought into the deserted city, which fell into complete decline. That was all that remained of the nearly one hundred thousandth population of the Tatar capital in the 50s of the 50th century. Around Kazan a XNUMX-kilometer strip-ring of deserted, abandoned lands was formed, which in the coming years was distributed by the tsar of the Russian nobility, leading the peasants from Central Russia to inhabit these lands.

        In Kazan itself, new construction began already in 1552, especially intensified in 1556, when the Pskov builders and architect Posnik Yakovlev arrived in Kazan (see Kazan)

        Note: The liquidation of the Kazan Khanate caused deep despondency and indignation among all Muslim states: Turkey, the Crimean and Astrakhan Khanates, as well as the Nogai Horde did not recognize the Russian conquests. However, they were not ready for unity of action and could not organize a joint military campaign against Moscow. On the contrary, due to their internal contradictions, the Moscow government of Ivan IV succeeded without any interruption in continuing the policy of conquests in the Volga region, and the Astrakhan Khanate became the next object of capture.
        1. Passing
          Passing 3 May 2012 18: 44
          0
          Quote: nnnnnnnnn
          Its last inhabitants, the Tatars, were evicted from Kazan, they were assigned a place in the Kuransheva settlement, beyond the Bulak River, and 7000 Russians were brought into the deserted city, which fell into complete decline. That was all that remained of the nearly one hundred thousandth population of the Tatar capital in the 50s of the 50th century. Around Kazan a XNUMX-kilometer strip-ring of deserted, abandoned lands was formed, which in the coming years was distributed by the tsar of the Russian nobility, leading the peasants from Central Russia to inhabit these lands.

          A wonderful review, but towards the end it slipped into frank bias. We turn on the brain, look at the map of the Kazan Khanate - the territory inhabited by the Tatars at the same time constitutes "a 50-kilometer strip-ring of deserted, abandoned lands." Hence, a reasonable question arises, if all Tatars were cut out to the root, then where are 5,5 million Tatars in present-day Russia?
          1. nnnnnnnnn
            nnnnnnnnn 3 May 2012 20: 43
            +2
            [quote = passing] Dear colleague thank you,
            end slid into overt bias
            This is no longer for me; did you see the link? so I do not claim authorship, but the fact that I posted my posts is a different view of history.
          2. Yoshkin Kot
            Yoshkin Kot 4 May 2012 09: 14
            0
            Muslims were allowed to live in Kazan only under Catherine the Second; before that, the 50 milestone
            By the way, Yoshkar-Ola, in the girlhood Tsarevokokshaysk arose at the same time, well, perhaps a little later When Fyodor Ioanovich, a hundred archers were determined to maintain order on the meadow side
  10. iulai
    iulai 3 May 2012 15: 18
    +4
    in Bashkiria, where I live, at the household level, in general, there are no questions about separation and nonsense. it's all from different semi-agents and losers in life! you need to work, earn money and live for your own pleasure.
    1. Yoshkin Kot
      Yoshkin Kot 4 May 2012 09: 13
      0
      in our Mari
  11. Ross
    Ross 3 May 2012 16: 03
    -4
    The Moscow kingdom, however, like the Kazan Khanate, fragments of the same empire - the Great Tartaria.
    1. Green 413-1685
      Green 413-1685 4 May 2012 03: 05
      +3
      Would you have caught a "historian" Ivan 4 (the Terrible), he would have shown you Tartary))
      1. Yoshkin Kot
        Yoshkin Kot 4 May 2012 09: 22
        +2
        Bebiks and other girls have read, smile
  12. malera
    malera 4 May 2012 11: 40
    -3
    Quote: Rodver
    In Russia, the Russian people fraternally absorbed all the indigenous peoples of our country

    That's for sure. Well, think cut out half of Kazan, half of Astrakhan. Well, think of the Caucasus from the guns Yermolov shot. Brotherly, with love.
    1. Sterkoder
      Sterkoder 5 May 2012 04: 34
      +2
      Do not twist!
      It was necessary to shoot, bust, burn, any state is an apparatus of coercion and punishment, especially in the period of formation and development.
      I myself am a Tatar on my father and Bashkirs on my mother. It’s interesting to read the story, but it doesn’t cause indignation.
      It is outrageous that some hotheads in Kazan, the city bastard are intelligentsia, are bawling about sovereignty, the separation of independence. and the blood itself did not see the gunpowder, did not smell, did not wallow in the mud.
      they don’t understand that war is blood, stench and dirt, underdeveloped!
      1. alitet
        alitet 5 May 2012 09: 33
        0
        I’m Russian, but I know perfectly well that Tatar blood flows in my blood, I’m stoob, Sterkoder, brother. This is powerful Russia. Russia is for Russians, the idea is for the sick. It’s necessary to hold on to each other and not what kind of strength Russia will not overcome.
    2. alitet
      alitet 5 May 2012 11: 02
      0
      Zasr ... nets!
  13. alitet
    alitet 5 May 2012 18: 22
    0
    Last comment for malera.
  14. avreli
    avreli 6 May 2012 00: 19
    0
    Ah, yes, Russian Tsar Ivan Vasilievich!
    He was strict towards his own, but he did not respect strangers.
    I don’t know whether to read Samsonov’s text now.
    But the text on the link about the Russian-Kazan war is read literally in the same breath.
    http://www.spsl.nsc.ru/history/descr/kazan2.htm
    Right hello to the Soviet from the Russians.
    Keep it up!