In 1560's, the general situation on the border forced the Moscow sovereign to force a military solution to the conflict with the Kazan Khanate.
Kazan Khanate was a fairly large Muslim state, formed as a result of the collapse of the Golden Horde. It should be noted that the territory inhabited directly by the Kazan Tatars was relatively small, but the main part of the territory of the state was inhabited by other peoples (Mari, Chuvash, Udmurt, Mordva, Moksha, Bashkirs). The main occupations of the inhabitants of the Kazan Khanate were farming and stall cattle breeding, a great role was played by obtaining fur and other trades. Considering the fact that the Volga since ancient times was the largest trading artery, trade also played an important role in the Khanate. A significant role was played by the slave trade, the seizure of slaves was provided by raids on the land of Russia. Part of the slaves were left in the Khanate, some were sold to Asian countries. Raids aimed at capturing slaves were one of the reasons for the conflicts between Moscow and Kazan. It should be noted that the Khanate was an unstable state, where several groups struggled for power, which were guided by external forces. Some were oriented toward Moscow, others toward the Crimea, and others toward the legs. Moscow could not allow Kazan to be under the control of the Crimean Khanate, hostile to Russia, and tried to support pro-Russian forces. In addition, there were considerations of economic and strategic importance - the Russian state needed land on the Volga, control over the Volga trade route and an open road to the East.
Moscow and Kazan fought under the first Kazan Khans - Ulu-Mohammed (Uluge-Mohammed) and his son Mahmud. Moreover, 7 July 1445, in the battle in the vicinity of Suzdal, the Russian army was defeated, and the Grand Duke Vasily II was captured. Basil was forced to pay great tribute to get freedom.
In 1467, Khan Khalil died in Kazan. The throne was taken by his younger brother Ibrahim (1467 — 1479). The Russian government decided to intervene in the internal affairs of the Khanate and support the dynastic rights to the throne of one of the sons of Khan Ulu-Mohammed - Qasim. After the victory of the Kazan Tatars in the battle of Suzdal, Kasim, together with his brother Yakub, left for the Russian state to monitor the observance of the treaty and remained in the Russian service. In 1446, he received the Zvenigorod inheritance, and in 1452, Gorodets Meshchersky (it was renamed Kasimov), which became the capital of a specific princedom. Thus arose the Kasimov kingdom, which existed from 1452 to 1681. The Kasimov kingdom (khanate) became the place of settlement of noble Tatar clans, for one reason or another left home.
Part of the Tatar nobility, led by Prince Abdullah-Muemin (Avdul-Mamon), also supported Kashim’s claim to the Kazan throne. They were unhappy with the new khan and decided to support the rights of his uncle Kasim, as opposed to Ibrahim. Kasimu was offered to return to his native land and take the Kazan throne. This could be done only with the help of Russian troops, and the Grand Duke Ivan III supported this idea.
September 14, 1467 the Russian army went on a campaign. The best governor of the Grand Duke Ivan Vasilievich Striga-Obolensky and the Tver commander Prince Danila Dmitrievich Kholmsky who switched to the Moscow service commanded the troops. Ivan himself was with another part of the army in Vladimir, so that in case of failure it was possible to cover most of the Russian-Kazan border. The campaign was unsuccessful. At the crossing at the mouth of the Sviyaga River, the troops of Kashima and the Russian governor were met by the forces of Ibrahim. Kazan troops managed to prepare for war and closed the road. The governors were forced to stop on the right bank of the Volga and wait for the "ship's army", which was supposed to come to the rescue. But flotilla and did not have time to approach the frost. In late autumn, the campaign had to be curtailed and a retreat started.
Expecting a retaliatory strike, the Grand Duke Ivan III ordered to prepare the border cities for defense - Nizhny Novgorod, Murom, Galich, Kostroma, sending additional forces there. Indeed, in the winter of 1467-1468, the Kazan Tatars made a campaign against Galich and ravaged its surroundings. Most of the population of the region was promptly notified and managed to hide in the city. Galicians together with the best part of the Moscow army, the court of the Grand Duke under the command of Prince Semyon Romanovich Yaroslavsky not only repelled the attack, but in December 1467 - January 1468 made a ski trip to the lands of the Cheremis (which was then called Mari-Mari), who were part of composition of the Kazan Khanate. Russian regiments were from Kazan all in a day of a way.
The fighting went on in other parts of the Russian-Kazan border. Murom and Nizhny Novgorod devastated Tatar villages on the banks of the Volga. Russian forces from Vologda, Ustyug and Kichmengi ravaged the land along Vyatka. At the end of winter, the Tatar army reached the headwaters of the South River and burned the town of Kichmengu. 4-10 April 1468, the Tatars and Cheremis plundered two Kostroma parishes. In May, the Tatars burned out the neighborhood of Murom. In the latter case, the Tatar detachment overtook and destroyed by the forces of Prince Danila Kholmsky.
At the beginning of summer, the “outpost” of Prince Fyodor Semyonovich Ryapolovsky from Zvenichev Bor in the 40 versts from Kazan entered into battle with significant enemy forces, which included the Khan's guards, coming from Nizhny Novgorod. Almost all of the Tatar army was destroyed. In the battle, the “hero” Kolupai was killed, and Prince Khodzhum-Berde (Hozum-Berday) was taken prisoner. At the same time, a small detachment of governor Ivan Dmitrievich Runo (about three hundred fighters) through the Vyatka land raided deep into the Kazan Khanate.
The activity of the Russian troops became an unpleasant surprise for the Kazan Tatars, and they decided to subjugate the Vyatka region to secure the northern borders. At first, the Tatar forces were successful. Tatars captured Vyatka lands, planted their administration in the town of Khlynov. But the conditions of peace themselves were rather mild for the local nobility, the main condition was not to support the Moscow troops. As a result, a small Russian detachment of Governor Ivan Runo was cut off. Despite this, Runo continued to be active in the Kazan rear. A Tatar detachment was sent against the voevod forces. At the meeting, the Russians and Tatars left the nasad (a flat-bottomed, open-deck, single-masted ship) and began to fight on foot in a pedestrian formation. Russian won up. Subsequently, the detachment Runo safely returned home in a circular way.
After the battle, a short pause ensued in Zvenichev Bor’s combat. It ended in the spring of 1469. The Russian command adopted a new plan of war against Kazan - it provided for coordinated actions of two Russian rats, who were to attack in converging directions. On the main Nizhny Novgorod direction (down the Volga to Kazan), the army of Konstantin Aleksandrovich Bezzubtsev was supposed to attack. The preparation of this campaign was not hidden and wore a demonstrative character. Another army was trained in Veliky Ustyug under the command of Prince Daniil Vasilyevich Yaroslavsky, it included Ustyug and Vologda units. This detachment (it numbered up to 1 thousand soldiers) had to make almost 2 thousand kilometer throw on the northern rivers and reach the headwaters of the Kama. Then the detachment was to descend along the stream of the Kama to its mouth, and, being deep in the rear of the enemy, climb up the Volga to Kazan, where Bezzubtsev's army should have come from the south. The hopes placed on this raid were broken because of the impossibility to keep the plan of operations secret. The Tatar governor, who was in Khlynov, promptly informed Ibrahim about the preparation of this campaign, including the number of the Russian detachment. In addition, the Russian command did not yet have experience in planning such an operation, where it was necessary to coordinate the actions of forces that were at great distance from each other.
At this time, Moscow was negotiating with Kazan and, in order to “hurry” the enemy, they decided to send a detachment of volunteers to the raid. Thus, the operations wanted to give character to the raid of the “eager people”, who act on their own. However, the calculations of the Russian command did not take into account the mood of the Russian warriors, which were collected in Nizhny Novgorod. After receiving the news of the permission to conduct hostilities, almost all the collected forces marched. Voevoda Bezzubtsev remained in the city, and Ivan Runo was elected head of the army. Despite the order to destroy only the outskirts of Kazan, the Russian flotilla headed straight for the city and at dawn on 21 in May, Moscow ships reached Kazan. The attack was unexpected. Russian warriors were able to burn down the suburbs of the city, release many prisoners, take significant booty. Fearing the attack of a Tatar army recovering from a sudden strike, the Russian army moved up the Volga and stopped on Korovnich Island. Perhaps the governor, Runo, was waiting for the approach of Prince Daniil Yaroslavsky's detachment, who nevertheless went out on the road, and Vyatchan - they sent an order from the Grand Duke to help the regiments near Kazan. But the agreement on neutrality with Kazan and the real threat of stopping the delivery of bread forced the residents of Vyatka to stay away from the war.
At this time, the Kazan Tatars grew bolder and decided to attack the Russian forces on the island. But the unexpected blow did not work. The captive who fled from Kazan warned Russian commanders about the impending strike. Tatar attack was repulsed. Fleece, fearing new attacks, moved the camp to a new location - on Irykhov Island. Having no strength for a decisive battle, moreover, the supply of provisions was running out, Runo began to withdraw troops to the border. During the retreat, the Russian governors received a false report that peace was concluded. On Sunday, 23 July, 1469, on Zvenichev Island, Russian troops stopped to serve the mass and were attacked by the Tatars at that time. Khan Ibrahim sent in pursuit of a river flotilla and equestrian army. Several times the Russian nasad and ushkui turned the Tatar ships to flight, but each time the Kazan forces were rebuilt under the cover of mounted riflemen and resumed attacks. As a result, the Russian army was able to repel the attack and returned to Nizhny Novgorod without large losses.
The expedition of rati from Ustyug, commanded by Prince Daniel of Yaroslavl, was less successful. In mid-July, his ships were still on Kama. The Tatar command was informed about this raid, therefore it blocked the Volga at the mouth of the Kama by bound ships. Russian forces did not flinch and went for a breakthrough. There was a real boarding battle, in which almost half of Russian delight fell to the death of the brave. An 430 man was lost, including voivode Yaroslavsky, Timofey Plescheev was taken prisoner. The broken through part of the Russian detachment headed by Prince Vasily Ukhtomsky went up the Volga. The detachment passed by Kazan to Nizhny Novgorod.
The pause in the fighting was short. In August, 1469, Ivan III decided to move to Kazan, not only those forces that stood in Nizhny Novgorod, but also their best regiments. At the head of the army was the brother of the Grand Duke Yuri Vasilyevich Dmitrovsky. The troops included the troops of another brother of the Grand Duke - Andrei Vasilyevich. September 1 Russian army was at the walls of Kazan. An attempt by the Tatars to counterattack was repulsed, the city was blocked. The Tatars, frightened by the might of the Russian rati, began peace negotiations. The main demand of the Russian side was the requirement to issue “full in 40 years,” that is, virtually all of the Russian slaves in Kazan. That was the end of the war.
Russian-Kazan war 1477-1478 Establishment of the Russian protectorate
The lull lasted for 8 years. In the fall of 1477, the war began again. Khan Ibrahim received a false report that the Moscow army was defeated by Novgorod and decided to seize the moment. Tatar army violated the contract, entered the Vyatka land, conquered the land, took a big full. The Tatars tried to break through to Ustyug, but could not because of the flood of the rivers.
In the summer of 1478, a maritime raid commanded by Prince S.I. Khripun Ryapolovsky and V.F. Sample Simsky took place on Kazan. At the same time, the lands of the Khanate were ruined by vyatchane and Ustyuzhans. Khan Ibrahim, realizing his mistake, resumed the 1469 agreement of the year.
In 1479, after the death of Khan Ibrahim, his son Ali became the successor (in Russian sources Aligam). His half-brother and rival 10-year-old Mohammed-Emin (Magmet-Amen) became the banner of the Moscow party in Kazan. Mohammed-Emin was transferred to the Russian state, and he became a key figure in the Eastern policy of Ivan III. The presence of a contender for the Kazan throne in Moscow was one of the factors that forced Khan Ali to stay away from the struggle of Moscow against the Great Horde. For its part, Moscow also led a restrained policy, trying not to provoke the Kazan Khanate. But the victory in Ugra in 1480 did not cause an immediate deterioration in Russian-Kazan relations - the best Russian troops were transferred to the north-western border (relations with Livonia were strained). In 1480-1481 there was a Russian-Livonian war.
Having strengthened his position on the north-western frontiers, the grand duke again turned his attention to the east. The idea of conquering the Kazan throne for the Tatar prince Mohammed-Emin was again relevant. In 1482, a big march to Kazan was prepared. They planned to strike a blow from two sides: from the west - on the Volga direction; and from the north - on the Ustyug-Vyatka direction. In Nizhny Novgorod, concentrated artillery, including siege. But the demonstration of power did not go further. Kazan Khan hurried to send an ambassador for negotiations. A new contract was concluded.
In 1484, the Russian army approached Kazan, the Moscow party deposed Ali, and Muhammad-Emin declared Khan. In the winter of 1485-1486, the Eastern Party, enlisting the support of the Nogai, returned Ali to the throne. Mohammed-Emin and younger brother Abdul-Latif fled to Russian territory. Grand Prince Ivan III received them cordially, gave to the city Kashira. In the spring of 1486, the Russian regiments regained power of Mohammed-Emin. But after their departure, Ali's supporters again took up and forced Muhammad-Emin to flee.
A new war was inevitable. The Grand Duke, taking into account the experience of past years, decided to achieve political subordination of the Kazan Khanate to Moscow. Deprived of the throne, but retaining the title of "king" Mohammed-Emin gave Ivan a vassal oath and called him his "father." But the plan could be fully realized only after the final victory over Ali Khan and the accession to the Kazan throne of Mohammed-Emin. In Moscow, began large-scale military preparations.
1487 War of the Year and Further Events
11 April 1487, the army launched a campaign. It was led by the best Moscow governors: princes Daniel Kholmsky, Iosif Andreyevich Dorogobuzhsky, Semyon Ivanovich Khripun-Ryapolovsky, Alexander Vasilyevich Obolensky and Semyon Romanovich Yaroslavsky. On April 24, the “Kazan Tsar” Mohammed-Emin left for the army. The Tatar army attempted to stop the Russian army at the mouth of the Sviyaga River, but it was defeated and retreated to Kazan. 18 May the city was surrounded, and the siege began. Ali-Gaza detachment operated in the rear of the Russian army, but it was soon defeated. July 9 the capital of the Kazan Khanate capitulated. Some opponents of Moscow were executed.
Ali Khan, his brothers, sister, mother and wives were taken captive. Khan and his wives were exiled to Vologda, and his relatives to Beloozero. Other notable captives were settled in the grand-ducal villages. Those prisoners who agreed to give the "company" (oath, oath) about faithful service to the Grand Duke, were released to Kazan. Mohammed-Emin became the head of the Khanate, and Dmitry Vasilyevich Shein became the deputy governor of Moscow.
This victory was of great importance. True, the problem of Kazan did not finally solve, but for many years the Khanate fell into dependence on the Russian state. In principle, the Russian government did not then put forward territorial and special political demands to Kazan. Moscow limited the obligations of the Kazan Tsar not to fight against the Russian state, not to choose a new Khan without the consent of the Grand Duke, to guarantee the security of trade. Ivan exercised supreme power, taking the title of "Prince of Bulgaria."
Mohammed-Emin enjoyed the support and confidence of Moscow until the crisis of 1495-1496. when the Khanate, with the support of part of the Kazan nobility and the leg, was seized by the troops of the Siberian prince Mamuka. Mohammed Emin took refuge in the Russian state. Mamuk ruled for a short time, with his terror he turned against the nobility and soon got out. Moscow put Mohammed-Emin Abdul-Latif (1497 — 1502) on the throne of his younger brother. Abdul-Latif, unlike his elder brother, was raised not in Moscow, but in the Crimea. Therefore, he soon began to pursue an independent policy. In 1502, he was deposed and extradited to Moscow, he was exiled to Beloozero.
In Kazan, Mohammed-Emin was put on the throne again. Initially, he remained loyal to Ivan III. But then he succumbed to the pressure of the nobility and on the eve of the death of the Grand Duke (27 in October 1505) broke off the contract with Moscow. The break in relations was overshadowed by the slaughter of Russian merchants, which the Tatars staged a few months before the death of the Grand Duke. 24 June 1505 was killed and captured by Russian merchants and their people in Kazan. The Yermolinskaya Chronicle reports that only more than 15 thousand people were killed. At the same time, grand dukes' ambassadors, Mikhail Klyapik Eropkin and Ivan Vereshchagin, were arrested.
Inspired by the success of the Tatar and allied Nogai troops, numbering up to 60 thousand people, after long peaceful years, attacked the land of Nizhny Novgorod. In September, the suburb of Nizhny Novgorod was burned. The city, in which there were no troops, could only be defended thanks to the help of Lithuanian prisoners released by 300.
Moscow in April 1506 of the year sent a punitive army led by the younger brother of Grand Duke Vasily III, the special prince Dmitry Ivanovich Uglitsky. The campaign was attended by the troops of the specific Prince Fedor Borisovich Volotsky, as well as part of the grand duke's troops under the leadership of the voivode Fyodor Ivanovich Belsky. Most of the army was on the ships. At the same time, part of the force was sent to block the Kama. 22 May 1506, the Russian army approached Kazan and entered into battle with the enemy army. The Kazan cavalry struck the rear, and the Russian army was broken at the Pogany lake. Russian regiments, having lost many soldiers killed and captured, retreated to the fortified camp. Among the prisoners was the third voivode of the Big Regiment, Dmitry Shein.
Receiving a message about an unsuccessful battle, Vasily urgently sent reinforcements from Murom under the command of Prince Vasily Kholmsky. 25 June, before the arrival of the Kholmsky forces, the Moscow army again entered the battle, and was defeated. All guns were lost. A part of the rati under the command of Dmitry Uglitsky went aboard the ships to Nizhny Novgorod, the other part retreated to Murom.
After that, Mohammed-Emin went to the world. A peace treaty was signed and peace relations were restored. Naturally, there was no talk of complete peace. The Russian government was forced to strengthen the border cities, to place there additional forces. In Nizhny Novgorod, built a stone fortress.